Anderson

Origins and history Anderson is an English and Scottish patronymic surname, meaning 'son of Andrew'. In this form, it is more common in the Lowlands, but it is widespread in Scotland in different forms. In the Highlands, it was rendered as MacAndrew, of medieval Scottish origin. Both names share the same Scottish Gaelic derivation of 'Gilleaindreas' - literally a servant of St. Andrew, Scotland's patron saint. Though it is said there is no exact place of origin, the Kinrara manuscript contains details of a claim that the MacAndrews came to Badenoch from Moidart c.1400. The tales of the vengeance of Iain beg MacAindrea on cattle lifters who raided Badenoch may confirm this. However, there is no disputing the intellectual pedigree that his kinfolk subsequently established. The tradition of scholarly erudition has significant roots in Anderson clan history throughout all the disciplines. This tradition was first established by Alexander Anderson who published works on geometry and algebra in Paris between 1612 and 1619. His cousin, David Anderson of Finshaugh, shared a similar skill in mechanics and mathematics that he applied to removing a large rock that had obstructed the entrance to Aberdeen harbour. This achievement earned him the nickname 'Davie-Do-a'-Things.' The lands of Clan Andrew are in Badenoch. The Clan itself is recorded in the Kinrara manuscript as coming to the lands of Badenoch, in the heart of the Chattan Confederation territory, from Moidart around 1400. Thus Clan Anderson became part of the Chattan Confederation. Clan profile Motto: Spem successus alit (translation, 'Success nourishes hope'), (meaning, 'Stand sure') Crest: An Oak Tree Gaelic Name: Mac Ghille Aindrais Badge: Hand holding a laurel wreath Lands: Badenoch Origin of Name: 'Son of Andrew' Tartan: Mostly blue,it is the only Scottish tartan of all the clans woven with seven colors, all others bearing no more than six colors. Septs Anderson, Andrew, Dingwall, Gillanders, MacAndrew, MacCulloch, MacLulich, MacTaggart, MacTear, MacTier, MacTire, Taggart, Vass, Wass

Anstruther

History Origin of name From the town of Anstruther, which was adopted as a familial name. Origins of the Clan Alexander I of Scotland granted the lands of Anstruther to William de Candela in the early 12th century. There are a number of suggested origins for William but research points to the Normans in Italy. It is known that William I of England sought assistance from William, Count of Candela, who sent his son. It is likely that this son was William de Candela, who received the grant of land from Alexander. William de Candela's son, also William, was a benefactor to the monks of Balmerino Abbey. The site now occupied by the Scottish Fisheries Museum in Anstruther was a gift from William. The next generation of the family, Henry, no longer styled himself , de Candela, being described as 'Henricus de Aynstrother dominus ejusdem' in a charter confirming grants of land to Balmerino Abbey. Henry Anstruther accompanied Lois IX to the crusades and swore fealty to King Edward I of England in 1292 and again in 1296. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars In 1483, Andrew Anstruther of Anstruther confirmed the right to a barony and fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 during the Anglo-Scottish Wars. His second son, David, fought at the Battle of Pavia in 1520 in the service of Francis I of France in the French Scots Regiment. This line ended with the death of the last Baron d'Anstrude in 1928. Andrew's great-great-grandson was chosen as a companion to the young James VI of Scotland, who appointed him Hereditary Grand Carver, a title still held by the head of the family today. In 1595 he became Master of the Household. 17th Century & Civil War His son, William, accompanied James to London following the Union of the Crowns in 1603 where he was made a Knight of the Order of the Bath. The next son Sir Phillip Anstruther led the Clan and fought as Royalists during the civil war and received Charles II at Dreel Castle after his coronation at Scone in 1651. However Phillip Anstruther was later taken prisoner after the Battle of Worcester in 1651. Clan Chief The Chief of Clan Anstruther was Ian Anstruther of Anstruther, from 2002 to his death in 2007. Clan Castles The Chief's seat remains at Balcaskie Castle. Airdrie House and Newark Castle in Fife also belong to the Anstruthers. Sir Ian Anstruthur died 29th July 2007. Clan Profile Crest: Two arms in armour holding a pole-axe with both hands gauntleted Proper Motto: Periissem ni periissem (I would have perished had I not persisted) Clan Anstruther Today Approximate numbers in various countries: Unknown Prominent members: Unknown Ancestral lands: Balcaskie House was acquired by the Anstruther family in 1698 and remains a family residence to this day.

Arbuthnott

History Coat of Arms The Viscount of Arbuthnott, Chief of Clan Arbuthnott Origin of name From the place name Aberbothenoth, which lies on a narrow peninsula on the north side of the river Bervie. On the north east side the land falls steeply down to the burn, once called Buthenot, and on the south side it slopes more gradually down to the river Bervie. 'Aber' means the influx of a small stream into a greater stream. 'Aber' can also mean 'mouth of' as in Aberdeen. 'Both' or 'Bothena' is a baronial residence. 'Nethea' has been described as the stream that descends or is lower than something else in the neighbourhood. Origins of the clan The lands of Arbuthnott are believed to have come into the possession of the Swinton family during the reign of William I of Scotland through the marriage of Hugh, to the daughter of Osbert Olifard (or Oliphant) 'The Crusader'. The first recorded instance of the family acquiring the name Arbuthnott is in 1355 with Philip de Arbuthnott described as 'of that ilk'. 15th century & conflicts Murder of John Melville of Glenbervie Around 1420 Philip's son, Hugh, was implicated in the murder of John Melville of Glenbervie, sheriff of Kincardineshire (The Mearns). Melville was said to have been extremely unpopular with the local lairds due to his strict interpretation and adherence to the law. Albany, regent at the time of James I of Scotland's captivity became tired with complaints against the sheriff and is supposed to have said, 'sorrow gin that sheriff were sodden and supped in broo'. The Lairds of Mathers, Arbuthnott, Pitarrow and Halkerton took this as a request to kill the sheriff. They invited the unsuspecting sheriff on a hunt in the Forest of Garvock where he was ambushed. They reputedly killed him by throwing him into a cauldron of boiling water, each drinking of the broth once he was dead. Arbuthnott was pardoned for his part in the murder and died in 1446. 16th century James Arbuthnott of Arbuthnott had a Crown Charter of the feudal barony of Arbuthnott on January 29, 1507. He had married, by contract dated August 31, 1507, Jean, daughter of Sir John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl, a son of Sir James Stewart, 'The Black Knight of Lorn' by his wife Joan Beaufort, Dowager Queen of Scots. Alexander Arbuthnot, a descendant of a younger son of the main family, was a leading figure in the Church of Scotland and Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1577. In 1583 he was asked by the General Assembly to complain to James VI of Scotland about various 'popish practices' still permitted by the King. His complaints were met with not inconsiderable displeasure from the King and he was placed under house arrest in St Andrews. This seems to have had an ill effect on his health, as he died at the age of 44 in 1583. 17th century & Civil War The equally eventful seventeenth century found the lairds in royal favour. Two Arbuthnotts received knighthoods , and then, in 1641, the fortunes of the clan were elevated when Sir Robert Arbuthnot was made 1st Viscount of Arbuthnott and Baron Inverbervie by Charles I of England. In spite of this favour from Charles I of England, the sympathies of Lord Arbuthnot were with the Covenanters and in 1645 the Royalist troops, under James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose, laid waste to the Arbuthnott estate. Dr John Arbuthnot, though not of the chief family, achieved great status. In 1705, he had the fortune of being at Epsom races when Prince George of Denmark, husband of Anne of Great Britain was taken ill. Dr Arbuthnot was rushed to his side. The Prince recovered and Arbuthnot was appointed a royal physician. Over time he became a confidante to the queen and friends to a great many of the leading figures of his time. Dr Samuel Johnson once remarked that he was 'a man of great comprehension, skilful in his profession, versed in the sciences, acquainted with ancient literature and able to animate his mass of knowledge by a bright and active imagination' Clan profile Arbuthnott tartan. First registered with the Lord Lyon in 1962. It is based on the Black Watch tartan. Clan chief The current chief of Clan Arbuthnott is John Arbuthnott, 16th Viscount of Arbuthnott, Lord Inverbervie and Chief of the Name and Arms of Arbuthnott, KT, CBE, DSC. Clan symbolism Members of Clan Arbuthnott can show their allegiance to the clan by wearing a crest badge which contains the chief's heraldic crest and motto. The chief's crest is A peacock's head couped at the neck Proper, his motto is LAUS DEO (from Latin: 'Praise God']. Clan members may also wear a clan tartan. The Arbuthnott tartan was registered with the Lord Lyon in 1962 and was inspired by the tartan of the Black Watch. Clan Arbuthnott today Approximate numbers in various countries: UK 350; USA 1,150; Canada 220; Australia and New Zealand 190; South Africa 85 (depending on whom one includes) Ancestral lands: Arbuthnott House and surrounding estate of around 3,000 acres (12 km²) remains the seat of the family today.

Armstrong

History The Armstrong name has a mythological origin, in that it is said their heroic progenitor, Fairbairn, saved his king of Scotland in battle, and not from a wild beast as is the case with another Border clan - the Turnbulls. It is said that, dressed in full armour, he lifted the king onto his own horse with one arm after the King's horse had been killed under him in battle. The family crest, an arm clinched, records this act of heroism that was said to have been rewarded with a grant of lands in the Borders region and the famous Armstrong name. The first specific reference locating them in Liddesdale, which would become their family seat, is in 1376. Liddesdale was also the seat of their unquestioned power in the region that allowed them to expand into Annandale and Eskdale to accommodate their growing population. It is reputed that by 1528 they were able to put 3000 horsemen in the field. The Armstrongs' relationship with subsequent Scottish kings was turbulent to say the least. The most notorious event in this uneasy relationship occurred in 1530. John Armstrong, known in history as 'Gilnockie', was persuaded to attend a meeting at Carlingrigg with King James V who, unknown to Gilnockie, had the malicious intent to silence the rebellious Borderers. The ruse succeeded as Gilnockie and fifty followers were captured. The Royal order to hang them was issued and despite several pleas for the King to be lenient in exchange for obedience, it was carried out. Defiant to the last, Gilnockie said these words directly to King James V: 'I am but a fool to seek grace at a graceless face, but had I known you would have taken me this day, I would have lived in the Borders despite King Harry and you both.' His defiance is commemorated and echoed in the soulful popular Border ballad, 'Johnie Armstrong': 'Farewell! my bonny Gilnock Hall
Where on Esk side thou standest stout !
Gif I had lived but seven yeirs mair
I wad a gilt thee round about
John Murdered was at Carlinrigg
And all his gallant companie;
But Scotland's heart was ne'er sae wae
To see sae mony brave men die.' Armstrong tartan In 1587 an act was passed by the Scottish parliament 'for the quieting and keeping in obedience of the inhabitants of the Borders, Highland and Isles ...' That contained a roll of Chieftains and clans that confirms the status of Border families as an important part of clan history, and the Armstrongs as perhaps the most significant Border clan. The clan's authority resided intact at Mangerton in Liddesdale, a succession of Armstrongs retaining the 'Laird of Mangerton' title, until 1610 when Archibald Armstrong was 'put to the horn' as a rebel. After this, the Armstrong lands passed into the hands of the Scotts. The clan is currently represented by the Clan Armstrong Trust in the Scottish border region. No clan chief currently exists. Gilnockie Tower Gilnockie Tower is the home of the Clan Armstrong and houses the Clan Armstrong centre. Gaelic Name MacGhillielàidir (Surname) Clann 'icGhillelàidir (Collective) Motto Motto: Invictus maneo (I remain unvanquished). Tartan This tartan is from the Lowlands and is mentioned in Vestiarium Scoticum (1842) Notable Clan Allies Clan Elliot Clan Nixon Clan Moffat

Arthur

Clan Arthur, (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Artair), is a highland Scottish clan that once held lands on the shores of Loch Awe opposite Inishail. The clan has been described as one of the oldest clans in Argyll. Clan Arthur and Clan Campbell share a common origin, and at one point the MacArthurs challenged the seniority of the leading Campbell family. A branch of MacArthurs from the Isle of Skye were a sept of the MacDonalds of Sleat, and were hereditary pipers for the MacDonalds of the Isles. In late 18th century the chief of the clan died without an heir, leaving the clan leaderless until the late 20th century. In 2002, the first chief of Clan Arthur was recognised in about 230 years. History Clan MacArthur by Robert Ronald McIan, from Logan's Highland Clans (1845). Early history During the reign of Alexander III of Scotland (r.1249-1286), the Clan Campbell made its first appearance, and was dived into two branches Mac Cailinmor and Mac Arthur. The nineteenth century historian William F. Skene wrote that during the reign of Robert I of Scotland (r.1306-1329), the Mac Cailinmor branch (the Campbells) did not possess any land in what is now Argyll, while Mac Arthur, head of the Mac Arthur branch was in possession of extensive territory in the earldom Garmoran, which was the original seat of the Campbells. Skene wrote that 'it is therefore impossible to doubt that Mac Arthur was at this time the head of the clan, and this position he appears to have maintained until the reign of James I.' Arthur Campbell, of the Mac Arthur branch, along with Neil Campbell, of the Mac Cailinmor branch, supported Robert the Bruce and were richly rewarded by the king with the forfeited lands of his opponents. Arthur Campbell was made keeper of Dunstaffnage Castle along with extensive territory in the district of Lorn. Later, during the reign of David II of Scotland, the Mac Cailinmor ever becoming more powerful, since the marriage of Sir Neil Campbell with a sister of Robert I, were resisted from taking control of the clan by the Mac Arthur branch with the obtaining of a charter 'Arthuro Campbell quod nulli subjictur pro terris nisi regi,' by Arthur Campbell. In 1427 James I of Scotland held parliament at Inverness and summoned the Highland chiefs. Iain MacArthur, the chief of the MacArthurs, was one of the unlucky chiefs who were beheaded by the king of Scots. This chief had been described as 'a great prince among his own people and leader of a thousand men'. With the execution of Iain MacArthur, and Alexander, Lord of Garmoran, the MacArthurs lost possession of all their lands with the exception of Strachur and lands of Glenfalloch and Glendochart in Perthshire. From this time, and on, the Mac Cailinmor branch were the head of the clan and the Campbells continued their rise in power. Modern Clan Arthur MacArthur tartan as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. The Vestiarium is the source of many of today's tartans has been proven to be a Victorian hoax. In 1771 Patrick MacArthur, chief of Clan Arthur, died in Jamaica without a male heir. With his death, the official title of Chief of Clan Arthur ceased to exist. In 1986 senior members of Clan Arthur hired a genealogist to trace back through the last chief's family tree to find a living representative with a common ancestor to the chiefs of Clan Arthur. Genealogical research concluded that the chiefly line of the MacArthurs, the MacArthurs of Tirivadich could be traced as far back as 1495, to a John MacArthur of Tirivadich. The MacArthur chiefly line was traced nine generations down from this John MacArthur of Tirivadich, through his eldest grandson: Duncan MacArthur of Tirivadich; and three generations through John MacArthur of Tirivadich's younger grandsons: Niall MacArthur of Querlane and John MacArthur of Drissaig. Research showed that the main line had become extinct, however a living descendant through John MacArthur of Drissaig was found - a Canadian born man named James Edward Moir MacArthur. This man traced his descent from a Margaret MacArthur Moir, who died about 1775. A great nephew of hers, Archibald MacArthur Stewart, recordered Arms in 1775 and traced his descent from John MacArthur of Milton, who died in 1674. The genealogical resarch conducted on behalf of Clan Arthur linked this John MacArthur of Milton back to John MacArthur of Drissaig. In 1991 a derbfine was organised by armigers of the clan. There is was determined that James Edward Moir MacArthur of Milton should petition the Lord Lyon to be appointed Clan Commander of Clan Arthur. Ten years later, James Edward Moir MacArthur of Milton successfully petitioned the Lord Lyon to appointed chief of the clan. In August 2002, the Lord Lyon recognised James Edward Moir MacArthur of that Ilk as the rightful heir to the arms of MacArthur of Tirivadich, and that he was entitled to the chiefship of Clan Arthur. Later in April 2003, he was officially inaugurated by clan members as Chief of Clan Arthur. He was the first official chief of the clan in about 230 years. Upon his death in 2004, he was succeeded as chief by his son, John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk. The current chief of Clan Arthur represents the clan as a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. The MacArthur of Milton Hunting tartan is similar to Campbell tartans, and is consider the oldest MacArthur tartan. Clan symbols The current chief of Clan Arthur is John Alexander MacArthur of that Ilk. The chief bears the undifferenced arms of the name MacArthur, and is the only person legally entitled to these arms under Scots law. The blazon of the chief's armoiral shield is Azure, three antique crowns Or and corresponds to one of the attributed arms of the legendary King Arthur. A modern crest badge, suitable for wear by a member of Clan Arthur contains the chief's heraldic crest and heraldic motto. The chief's crest is two branches of bay in orle, proper. The chief's heraldic motto is FIDE ET OPERA which translates from Latin as 'by fidelity and work' or 'by faith and work'. The chief's slogan is EISD O EISD which translates from Scottish Gaelic to 'Listen!, O Listen!'. Several clan badges have been attributed to Clan Arthur. These include: Wild Myrtle and Fir Club Moss. There are several tartans attributed to the MacArthurs. The most commonly used tartan today was is the MacArthur tartan and was first published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. The Vestiarium was the work of the dubious 'Sobieski Stuarts' and has been proven to be a forgery and a hoax. A group of MacArthurs from the Isle of Skye were hereditary pipers to the MacDonalds, and this tartan shares the same basic form of the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles tartan. Another MacArthur tartan is the MacArthur of Milton Hunting tartan. This tartan is considered the elder of MacArthur tartans and is similar to the Campbell tartan. The source of this tartan is Wilson's '1823′ Sample Book.

Bannerman

Origins of Name The Bannerman name is said to have originated in the privilege of carrying the king's banner in wartime, an honour the Bannermans had from approximately the 11th through the 13th century. As a consequence of this role, the Bannermans held the rank of knights banneret, a title conferred on people of particular military prowess and/or merit. Although it's an unsubstantiated legend, the Bannermans supposedly ceased to be royal standard bearers after Sir Alexander Carron took up the royal standard at the crossing of the Spey, a battle around the time of either King Malcolm III or King Alexander I of Scotland. Origins of the Clan On 21 June 1367, King David II of Scotland granted the lands of Clyntrees, Waterton, and Weltown to Donald Bannerman, the king's doctor. Ellon is located in the northeast of Scotland. Its importance comes from being the first fording point on the river Ythan. In the 4th century B.C., there was a small Pictish settlement near there. By the early Middle Ages, the local Celtic chiefs (Mormaers) held court here for their province of Buchan as did the later feudal Norman lords. The area was well settled and prosperous, giving its nobles of Norman descent, like the Bannermans, a strong powerbase. One requirement of this gift was that the Bannermans were to build a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, where a weekly mass would be held to pray for the soul of the king's father King Robert I of Scotland, also known as Robert the Bruce. The church had a choir and two aisles, one of which was for the Forbes that was built by the Bannermans of Waterton. The family was also granted land west of Aberdeen in 1370 by the Abbott of Kinloss. Three years later in 1373 the Bishop of Aberdeen granted Donald and his son Alexander the lands of Slaty. Conald was married to Mariote de Carduy. Their son Alexander succeeded his father. In 1382, this Alexander became an Alderman of Aberdeen, a position comparable to the later Provosts of that city. Five years later on 4 October 1387, Alexander Bannerman acquired the lands of Elsick in the Barony of Cowie and the Sheriffdome of Kincardine from Sir Alexander Fraser of Philorth. King Robert II confirmed this on 19 October 1387. The chiefs of the Bannerman family have been styled Bannerman of Elsick ever since. Alexander had two sons, his heir Simon, and John, a Burgess in Aberdeen. Simon acted as Bailie for James Douglas of Balvenie in 1420. A Bailie is someone responsible for the administration of justice and of revenue in a district. Douglas, who died in 1443, was the seventh earl of Douglas and the first earl of Avondale. Simon acquired land in Newburgh in 1424. Simon was succeeded by his son John around 1440. John, who died around 1480, was succeeded by his son Simon, who had sasine of half of Tullich probably in right of his mother. Sasine is a feudal term for having possession and title of real property. Tullilch is now owned by the Viscount and Viscountess Scarsdale. For years, Simon carried on a dispute with the Abbot of Arbroath over their Marches. Simon's son Alexander succeeded him around 1501. Alexander, who was born around 1482, married Elizabeth Urquhart, and they had a charter dated 4 October 1490 from the Bishop of St. Andrews for the eastern part of the lands of Balmacassie in Ellon. They were also given sasine by the Earl of Erroll of 'the lands of Ailsick' on 11 October 1498. Alexander, one of the most powerful men in the region, was Sheriff Depute of Aberdeenshire. He was murdered in 1516 by Alexander Hay, Magnus Mowat, and David Lyoun, who were later pardoned. Alexander was succeeded by his son Henry, who died in 1529. He was in turn succeeded by Alexander Bannerman, who was a minor at the time of Henry's death in 1529. It's not clear whether Alexander was Henry's son, but an inquest to determine his age, refers to him as the heir of his grandfather Alexander Bannerman. This Alexander married Margaret Reid. On 20 March 1550, he was one of the commissioners authorized by the Regent and his Council to resist and pursue the Earl of Huntly. They were to be ensured from prosecution for any action they took to carry their duty out. Alexander and Margaret Reid had issue: Patrick, who died young; George, and Elizabeth. Clan Conflicts The above-mentioned Alexander Bannerman took a prominent part in the feuds between the Clan Gordon and the Clan Forbes. As a clan in the northeast of Scotland, the Bannermans aligned themselves with Clan Forbes, and Bannerman is sometimes considered a sept of Forbes. However, Bannermans and Gordons intermarried. For example, Sir Alexander Bannerman of Elsick fought a duel in 1641 with his cousin Sir George Gordon of Haddo, on the Hill of Tillygreig. They fought for first blood, and Bannerman won and they parted. George Gordon's mother and Alexander Bannerman's paternal aunt was Margaret Bannerman. An earlier Bannerman, Elizabeth, the daughter of Alexander Bannerman and Margaret Reid (see above), married a Gordon of Lesmoir in 1580. This Gordon took part in the murder of the Bonnie Earl of Moray and the burning of Donibristle in 1592 and was at the Battle of Glenlivet on 4 October 1594. In addition, loyalties of members of the Gordon clan weren't always clearcut. There were, for instance, Gordons on both sides of the Civil War and both sides of the 1715-1716 and 1745-1746 Jacobite uprisings. Royal Descent Through marriage into other prominent families, such as the Forbes, Maitlands, Gordons, Frasers, Hamiltons, Burnetts of Leys, Setons, Boyds, Arbuthnotts, Douglases, etc., some Bannermans are descended from the Scottish kings. Some are also descended from King James I of Scotland and his English wife, Queen Joan Beaufort, the great granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Through Queen Joan, some Bannermans are descended from other European royalty (France, Spain, Sweden, etc.) besides Scottish and English king, queens, and nobles. Ironically that also means that the blood of two mortal enemies-King Edward I of England, and King Robert the Bruce of Scotland-were mixed. Thus, both rivals are the ancestors of many of descendants with the Bannerman name or lineage. On another point, the families mentioned above were also mostly of Norman, not Celtic, descent. However, through the Scottish kings, there are ties to Irish kings and nobles, both Celtic and Viking, and the Scottish kings themselves were descended from both Norman and Gaelic ancestors. The Bannermans of Elsick As mentioned earlier, Alexander Bannerman (1522-1581) and Margaret Reid had two sons and a daughter Elizabeth (see above under Clan Conflicts). Alexander's heir, George, succeeded him on 21 November 1581. In the early 1600s, he married Elizabeth Johnston, daughter of John Johnston of Caskieben. Their children included Alexander, the heir, John, and Margaret (see above under Clan Conflicts]. This Margaret Bannerman was the grandmother of George Gordon, 1st Earl of Aberdeen, who was also the Chancellor of Scotland. Her son, Sir John Gordon, opposed the Covenanters, and in a mock trial, he was condemned to be executed in Edinburgh on 10 July qqq1644. Margaret Bannerman Gordon's brother, Alexander Bannerman succeeded their father George in 1609. Alexander married Margaret Forbes, daughter of William Forbes of Tolquhoun, who was descended from the 1st Lord Forbes. Alexander and Margaret Forbes had two sons, Alexander and George. Their father's next wife was Marjory, daughter of Sir John Leslie of Wardes. In 1611, Alexander sold Waterton to John Johnston of Caskieben, maybe a relative (perhaps an uncle or grandfather) since his mother had been a Johnston. In 1623, he is listed as a Justice of the Peace. In 1633, he was party to a marriage contract between his eldest son and heir Alexander and Marion Hamilton, daughter of Sir Alexander Hamilton and the granddaughter of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn and his wife Marion Boyd, daughter of Thomas Boyd, 5th Lord Boyd. Alexander Bannerman, Laird of Elsick, was born in 1585 and died between 1633 and 1638. His son and successor Alexander and his wife Marion Hamilton had eight children, four sons and four daughters. The eldest son of this couple, another Alexander (see below), became the first baronet of Nova Scotia in the Bannerman family. George (c. 1636-1691), their second son, was an advocate and Crown Solicitor and married Elizabeth Oliphant. Other children included Robert, who married Margaret Carse and had four sons; John, Mary, who married George Leslie; Margaret, who married Sir Alexander Keith; Elizabeth, who married James Reid; and Jean, who married George Keith. Sir Alexander Bannerman, 1st Baronet of Elsick On 28 December 1682, Alexander Bannerman of Elsick, county Kincardine, was created the 1st baronet of Nova Scotia for support of Charles II of England during the English Civil War and for the heavy casualties he suffered because of this. Sir Alexander Bannerman (born c. 1634 and died 11 April 1711) was married to Margaret Scott, the daughter of Isabel Murray (daughter of Sir John Murray) and Patrick Scott of Thirlestane (also spelled Thirlstone) and sister of Sir Francis Scott. A marriage contract was signed on 15 February 1670. Alexander and Margaret had several children, including Francis, who died unmarried; Sir Patrick Bannerman (see below); and Sir Alexander Bannerman (see below), 2nd baronet. The Jacobite Uprisings and Bannermans in the 18th Century Sir Patrick Bannerman, a burgess of Guild and an Aberdeen merchant, was the fourth son of the first baronet of Elsick and his wife, Margaret Scott of Thirlstone. He was born in 23 February 1678 and was knighted for his support of the deposed Stuart line and for his support of the 1715 Jacobite Rising. According to the Memorials of the Aldermen, Provosts, and Lord Provosts of Aberdeen, bells rang and Aberdeen was illuminated after James VIII was proclaimed king with all due ceremony in late September of 1715. Since Aberdeen was in the hands of the rebels, a meeting was held to elect a new Council. At the meeting, which represented most burgesses of Guild and free craftsmen, 'a Jacobite magistracy was chosen, with Patrick Bannerman as provost.' A provost is a position similar to that of a mayor. One of the Jacobite Council's earliest actions was imposition of a tax of two hundred pounds sterling for furnishing supplies to the army. During December 1715, James Francis Edward Stuart, or The Old Pretender as he came to be known, knighted Patrick Bannerman at a presentation at Dunnottar after Bannerman had congratulated him 'on his arrival in his ancient kingdom of Scotland.' Later Sir Patrick was arrested by the Hanoverian authorities and sentenced to death after the uprising. He escaped and fled to France. In 1714, Patrick Bannerman had married Margaret Maitland, the daughter of Sir Charles Maitland of Pitrichie and Pitsligo and Dame Jane (Jean) Forbes. It is through the Forbes and Maitland families that this branch of the Bannerman family is descended from Scottish and English royalty. Patrick Bannerman and Margaret Maitland (born 1687) had two sons and three daughters, including Alexander (born 13 September 1715), their eldest and the father of the 6th baronet; Charles (born 1719), a Writer to the Signet; Jean (born 1718); Clementina (died 1787); and Margaret (born 1723), the youngest, who married Alexander Milne, an Aberdeen merchant and the owner of Crimonmogate, an estate where several later baronets of Elsick would later reside. Margaret and Alexander Milne had two sons. Charles, Jean, and Clementina died unmarried. Sir Patrick died 4 June 1733 at fifty-five. His widow Margaret died 31 October 1750 at sixty-three. Other Bannermans continued their support of the Jacobite cause during the 1745 rebellion. Both Provost Patrick Bannerman and his brother Alexander, who had become the 2nd baronet in 1711, died before the 1745, but Sir Alexander's son, Sir Alexander Bannerman, the 3rd baronet, was with Charles Edward Stuart, or Bonnie Prince Charlie as he was known, during the Battle of Culloden on 16 April 1746. He fled first north, then ultimately to France, where he died in 1747.In 1756, the 4th baronet, another Sir Alexander Bannerman (the son of the 3rd baronet and his wife Isabella Trotter), was forced to sell the estate of Elsick to the Corporation of Aberdeen against the threat of forfeiture for possible complicity in the Jacobite rebellion. He married Elizabeth Sedgwick, daughter of Marmaduke Sedgwick, in 1764, and died 13 June 1770 in England. Since he had two daughters, the baronetcy fell to his brother, Major Sir Edward Trotter Bannerman of Elsick, 5th Bt., on 13 June 1770. Sir Edward Bannerman became a Major in 1778 in the service of the 36th Regiment of Foot. He died on 1 October 1796 without issue. The 6th baronet, Sir Alexander Bannerman, was the grandson of Provost Sir Patrick Bannerman and the son of Sir Patrick's eldest son Alexander and his wife Margaret Burnett, eldest daughter of Thomas Burnett of Kirkhill and his wife Margaret Turner. He was born on 22 December 1741, and married Mary Gordon, daughter of James Gordon and Mary Buchan, in 1768. He died on 29 December 1813 at age 72. He had been a professor of medicine at King's College. His sisters included Margaret (born 18 February 1738), who died as an infant; Margaret (born 3 November 1744), who died as a toddler, and Anne (born 14 November 1747), who married Alexander Garioch in 1767, and had issue, John and Margaret. His brothers included Mordaunt (born 18 April 1746); Sir Charles Bannerman (born 7 June 1750), an advocate, who married Margaret Wilson; Thomas (22 January 1741), who died as an infant; and Thomas (born 19 May 1743), a merchant who in 1779 married Jane (Jean) Simpson, daughter of George Simpson of Hazelhead and Euphemia Donaldson. On the Gold Coast, James Bannerman (1790-1858) was a rich merchant and a colonial governor. His descendants in modern day Ghana make up a large branch of the Bannerman Clan. Bannermans in the 19th Century The above-mentioned Thomas Bannerman, had a son, Alexander Bannerman, who was the first member of Parliament for Aberdeen after the Reform Bill of 1832 was passed. He served as a member from 1832 until 1847. Born in Aberdeen on 8 October 1788, he was a shipowner, merchant, and banker as well as the dean of faculty at Marischal College in Aberdeen in 1837. Later, he was a commissioner of Greenwich Hospital in 1841. In addition, he was made Governor of Prince Edward Island the same date, 3 February 1851, as the queen knighted him at Buckingham Palace. He was also the governor of the Bahamas (8 May 1854) and of Newfoundland from 9 February 1857 until 1863. He died at Louth Cottage in Chorley on 30 December 1864. Some of his siblings had also lived in other parts of the world. The eldest, Euphemia Bannerman (20 May 1780), married Thomas Cecil Grainger, Esq. of Sussex in 1801 in Aberdeen and moved to Sussex with her husband. Her descendants live in the United States and Australia. Margaret (24 September 1781) married Thomas Best, Esq. of Barbados in 1801, and they moved to the West Indies. Other siblings included Rachel (4 May 1784); George (21 September 1785), who died at eighteen on 27 November 1803; Charles Donaldson (January 1791); Thomas (8 June 1792), who died young; Patrick (8 June 1792), possibly a twin to Thomas, who died as a young man while on a visit to his sister Euphemia Grainger in Sussex; and another Thomas (3 October 1795), who married Jean Hogarth on 22 June 1824 and whose son George became the 10th baronet. The 7th Bt., Sir Alexander Bannerman of Elsick, born on 19 December 1769, succeeded to the title on 29 December 1813. He was the son of the 6th Bt. and grandson of Thomas Bannerman and lived in Kirkhill, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. He married Rachel Irving, daughter of John Irving, 15 November 1800, and died 31 May 1840 at age 70 in Aberdeen. He died without issue and was succeeded by his brother, Sir Charles Bannerman of Elsick, 8th Bt., on 31 May 1840. A manufacturer in Aberdeen, Sir Charles was born on 18 August 1782. He married Anne Bannerman, daughter of Charles Bannerman and Margaret Wilson, on 14 August 1821. He died on 18 June 1851 at age 68. He lived in both Crimmonmogate and Kirkhill. Sir Alexander Bannerman of Elsick, 9th Bt., who succeeded his father Sir Charles Bannerman on 18 June 1851, was born 6 April 1823 in Aberdeen. He was educated at Trinity College at Cambridge University and later served as Vice Lord-Lieutenant of Aberdeenshire. He bought back part of the Elsick estate and lived in Kirkhill. On 25 September 1860, he married Lady Arabella Diana Sackville-West, daughter of George John West, 5th Earl de la Warr and Lady Elizabeth Sackville, Baroness Buckhurst of Buckhurst. He later married Lady Katherine Ashburnham, daughter of Bertram Ashburnham, 4th Earl of Ashburnham and Katherine Charlotte Baillie, on 20 January 1874. His daughter Ethel Clan Chief The current Chief of Clan Bannerman is Sir David Gordon Bannerman of Elsick, 15th Baronet, who was born on 18 August 1935. On 25 June 1960, he married Prudence Mary, the daughter of the Rev. Philip Frank Ardagh-Walter, Vicar Woolton Hill, Hants. He succeeded his brother in 1989. Educated at Gordonstoun, New College Oxford (MA 1959) and UCL (MSc 1999), he served as a second lieutenant QO Cameron Highlanders from 1954 to 1956, was in the Overseas Civil Service in Tanzania from 1960 to 1963, and with MOD 1963-97. He was also chairman of the Gordonstoun Association from 1997 to 1999.He has four daughters:Claire{b.1961},Margot{b.1962},Arabella(b.1965)and Clodagh(b.1975).Claire married Michael O'Neill of the Diplomatic Service in 1992.They have four chidren:Constance(b.1994),Alexander(b.1996),Hector(b.1998)and Milo(b.2001).Arabella has one daughter; Ruby(b.1999).Clodagh has one son; Dylan(b.2006). Notable Bannermans James Bannerman-Fanti Governor of the Gold Coast; the son of a Fanti woman and a Scotsman Clan Crest A demi man in armour holding in his right hand a sword proper Clan Motto Pro Patria ('For my Country') Clan Bannerman Today Approximate numbers in various countries: Unknown Prominent members: Unknown Ancestral lands: Bannerman have no ancestral lands still under clan control. The current chief lives in London

Barclay

Origins of the clan Since the eighteenth century, Barclay historians, noted for their low level in medieval scholarship, have assumed the Scottish family Barclay (de Berchelai) is a branch of one of the two Anglo-Norman families of de Berkeley of Berkeley in Gloucestershire, without any evidence which would link the Scottish and English families. A more plausible theory of the Barclay origin, put forth by the historian G. W. S. Barrow, points to the small village of Berkley in Somerset (in 1086 Berchelei). In 1086 the overlordship of Berkley belonged to Robert Arundel, whose main tenant was a Robert. Arundel's manors included Cary Fitzpaine (in Charlton Mackerell), near Castle Cary. And Cary Fitzpaine seems to have been held by the tenant Robert as well. At the same time as Henry Lovel of Castle Cary first appears in Scotland, there appear the names of Godfrey de Arundel and Robert and Walter de Berkeley. The main line of the Scottish Barclays has been represented by the Barclays of Mathers. The descendants of this line were noted in more modern times for producing field marshals, Quakers and bankers. Barrows also noted that Barclay historians fail to mention that this line had not been a Barclay in the male descent since the end of the twelfth century. Charters from the reign of William the Lion show that the king granted the Barclay estates of Laurencekirk and Fordoun to Humphrey son of Theobald, in right of his wife Agatha. Agatha, herself was a 'de Berkley' and her husband and children adopted her surname. A charter preserves Humphrey's father's surname as 'de Adevil(l)e'. 17th century The Barclay clan always maintained trade links with Scandinavia and the Baltic states through their coastal lands. In 1621, John and Peter Barclay, merchants of Banff, wished to settle in Rostock in Livonia. Sir Patrick Barclay, Baron of Towie signed a letter of safe conduct in their favour, a letter which remains in the hands of the Barclay descendants in Riga to this day. The brothers traded in silk and became burghers of the town. John Barclay had written 'Norway is an abominable nation where many are notorious for their witch craft' in 1631. John Barclay was among many foreign officers who towards the end of the Thirty-year War (in which he seems to have participated), enlisted in Norwegian military service during the so-called Hannibal War, 1643 to 1645 between Denmark-Norway and Sweden. He was engaged as Captain on 9 September 1644. Although foreign officers were discharged after the war, Captain Barclay sought to maintain his military position. It is unknown whether his application was granted. John's grandson, Stephen Barclay de Tolly, believed to have been born in Riga in 1677, also served as a Major in the service of Denmark-Norway. During the seventeenth century another Sir George Barclay was second in command of King James of Scotland's Highland forces and a major branch of the family was established at Urie, near Stonehaven in Kincardineshire. During the Thirty Years' War the First Laird of Urie, David Barclay, was a major in the service of King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. He returned home when civil war broke out, attaining the rank of colonel in a regiment of horse, serving the king. Following his retirement in 1647 he purchased the Urie estate. He was charged with hostility to the government following the Restoration but was released after pressure from his friends. During his time in detention he was converted to the Religious Society of Friends by Laird Swinton, who was also imprisoned. The Second Laird of Urie, Robert Barclay, also a Quaker, published an 'Apologia' in 1675 described as 'Explanation and Vindication of the Principles and Doctrines of the People called Quakers'. It was originally written in Latin but was translated into English, Dutch, German, French and Spanish. Barclay's Apologia was widely influential, although Quakers were persecuted at the time, and he even attained favour at the royal court. He was friends with well-known Quakers, George Fox and William Penn and together created the idea of a city of brotherly love in America, which became Philadelphia. In 1682 Robert was granted 5,000 acres (20 km²) of land in East New Jersey by the proprietors of that state (then province) and bestowed upon him the title of governor, a title which he never took up. Portrait of Barclay de Tolly from the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, by George Dawe. 18th century Robert's second son, David Barclay, became a merchant with not inconsiderable wealth. Through his second wife, he acquired premises in Lombard Street which became the site of Barclays Bank. The strict Quaker principles remained in the family and when David obtained an estate in Jamaica he freed the slaves and taught them trades. He entertained King George III of the United Kingdom at his London home and was excused the requirement to kneel before their monarch due to their Quaker beliefs. He was offered a knighthood, which he refused, and the chance to advance his son at court. He also refused this, explaining that he preferred 'to bring up his sons in honest trade'. Napoleonic wars The direct descendant of the Livonian Barclays was Russian Field Marshall Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, born in 1761. He was made Russian Minister of War in 1810, rising to Commander of the Russian Armies in 1812 fighting against Napoleon Bonaparte. Instead of pursuing a campaign of direct confrontation with the French, he chose a scorched earth policy which starved the French army as it passed through the country towards Moscow. The plan was a resounding success, leading to the French retreat from Moscow in 1812 and their ultimate defeat. The Russian nobility resented the appointment of a foreign commander-in-chief, but his ability was undeniable and the Tsar named him a prince in 1815. George III of the United Kingdom named him a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. His portrait hangs in the Military Gallery in St Petersburg. Clan castles Ardrossan Castle and Balvaird Castle belong to the Barclays. Towie Barclay Castle was formerly owned by the Barclays. Clan profile Barclay tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum (1842). Chief Peter Barclay of Tollie Barclay and of that Ilk (b.1924). Crest Out of a chapeau azure turned ermine a hand holding a dagger, proper. Motto Aut agere aut mori (Latin): Either action or death. Tartan The Barclay tartan was published in 1842 in the Vestiarium Scoticum. The Vestiarium, which has been proven to be a forgery, is the basis of many of todays clan tartans. Dress Barclay Tartan: (yellow and black with white overcheck). Ancient Hunting Tartan: (blue and green with red overcheck). Septs Septs and/or spelling variation of Barclay include: Ardrossan Barckley Barckly Barclaye Barclet Barclye Barcula Barkla Barklaw Barklay Barkley Barkly Barraclough Berckley Berclay Bercley Berclie Berekele Berkeley Tollie Tolley Towie Towy Tullie

Borthwick

Origins of the Clan The origins of the name 'Borthwick' are territorial. The name seems likely to have been assumed from Borthwick Water in Roxburghshire. It is traditionally held that the first of the noble house was Andreas, who accompanied the Saxon Edgar Ætheling and his sister, Saint Margaret of Scotland, to Scotland in 1067. 15th Century Around 1410 Sir William Borthwick obtained a charter confirming his possession of the lands around Borthwick and it was during the 15th Century that the family gained great wealth and influence, becoming Lords of the Parliament of Scotland. The First Lord Borthwick was one of the nobles sent to England as substitute hostages for the ransom of James I of Scotland in 1425. He was responsible for the construction of what is now one of the most impressive fortified dwellings in Scotland. 16th Century The Battle of Flodden Field, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Borthwicks fought on the side of King James IV of Scotland at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and suffered badly in the defeat. William, Lord Borthwick, succeeded his father who fell during the battle and was honoured by being given command of Stirling Castle and charged with the safety of the infant James V of Scotland. John, Lord Borthwick was an opponent of the Reformation of the Church of Scotland and a supporter of Mary of Guise. His adherence to the church, however, did not mean he was in favour with the church hierarchy and in 1547 he was excommunicated for contempt of the Ecclesiastical Court of the See of St Andrews. An officer of the court, William Langlands, was dispatched to deliver the letters of excommunication to the curate of Borthwick. Langlands was seized by Borthwick's men and thrown in the mill dam north of the castle. Later they made him eat the letters, having first soaked them in wine. He was sent back with the warning that any other letters would 'a gang the same gait'. John's son, William, was a close friend and confidant of Mary I of Scotland. Mary took refuge with her husband, James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, but was forced to flee when a force under James Stewart, Earl of Moray approached. She is said to have escaped dressed as a page In 1573, David Borthwick of Lochhill became the king's advocate, and may have been the first to bear the title Lord Advocate, though not the position. The Civil War During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the English Civil War the Borthwicks sided with the Royalists and were besieged following the Battle of Dunbar (1650). Oliver Cromwell offered Lord Borthwick honourable terms for surrender, which he accepted, thereby saving the castle from almost certain destruction. Lord Borthwick was allowed to leave with his family and goods. Thereafter the direct line failed and the title became dormant. 18th Century In 1762 Henry Borthwick of Neathorn was recognised as male heir first Lord by the House of Lords. He assumed the title but died without heirs ten years later. During the 18th Century and 19th Century various branches of the family disputed the line of succession until in 1986, Major John Borthwick of Crookston was recognised by the Lord Lyon, King of Arms as Borthwick of that Ilk, chief of the name and arms of Borthwick. He also became the 23rd Lord Borthwick in the Peerage of Scotland. His son John Hugh Borthwick became the 24th Lord Borthwick three months prior to his death. Clan Castle The seat of Clan Borthwick has always been at Borthwick Castle. Clan Chief Since 1996, John Hugh Borthwick of that Ilk, 24th Lord Borthwick. Clan Profile Crest: A moor's head couped Proper wreathed Argent and Sable. Motto: Qui conducit ('He Who Leads'). Tartan: See an example of the Tartan here: Clan Borthwick Septs Barthwick Bortheik Borthwyke Borthwik Borthwick Borthweke Borthuyke Borthock Borthek Boirthvik Boirthuik Bowick Borthick Clan Borthwick Today Approximate numbers in various countries: Unknown Prominent members: Unknown Ancestral lands: Borthwick Castle, Middleton remains in the hands on the family today. It is now operated as a hotel.

Boswell

Origins of the Clan The Clan Boswell are accepted as of Norman or French origin, Black offers two derivations of the name - either from a vill, or manor, near Yvetot in Normandy, or from Beuzevill near Bolbec. The 'sieur', or Lord de Bosville, is said to have been one of the Norman commanders at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Robert de Boseuille witnessed several charters in the reign of William the Lion and it must be presumed that the Boswells were among the knights who accompanied King David I of Scotland back to Scotland after his stay at the English court. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence Chief Walter de Bosville was taken a prisoner at the Battle of Dunbar (1296) and William de Bosville rendered homage in the same year to King Edward I of England. His son, Richard, later received land from King Robert the Bruce of Scotland near Ardrossan. A younger son of the Borders family is said to have been the first to settle in Fife, marrying Mariota, daughter and co-heiress of Sir William of Lochore. The family acquired the barony of Balmuto, which they held until the early eighteenth century. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century Chief Sir Alexander Boswell of Balmuto led the Clan Boswell at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where he was slain. 17th Century & Civil War Many Boswells fell fighting for the royalist cause at the Battle of Worcester during the civil war in 1651. The Boswell family married into the family of Auchinleck, through one of the daughters of Sir John Auchinleck of that Ilk, and adopted the style 'of Auchinleck'. The Auchinleck family had had a major feud with the Clan Colville in the 15th century. The Boswells acquired the lands of Auchinleck and were to become lawyers of great eminence. Robert Boswell became a High Court judge, assuming the title of 'Lord Balmuto'. 18th Century Alexander Boswell (judge), the 8th Laird of Auchinleck was also elevated to the Bench in 1756, assuming the title, 'Lord Auchinleck'. His son, James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck, was the famous biographer of Dr Samuel Johnson. Sir Alexander Boswell, 1st Baronet, 10th Laird of Auchinleck, the biographer's son, was created a baronet in 1821. Another distinguished Boswell was Robert Boswell, Writer to the Signet, who held the post of Interim Lord Lyon, King of Arms, from 1795 to 1796. Clan Profile Arms: Argent, on a fess Sable three cinquefoils of the First Crest: A falcon Proper, hooded Gules, jessed and belled Or Motto: Vraye foi (True faith)

Boyd

Origins of the clan There are two main theories on the origin of the name. The first asserts that name is descriptive, deriving from the Gaelic 'buidhe', meaning 'fair' or 'blonde'. The 'fair' man in question is said to have been Robert, nephew of Walter Fitzalan, 1st High Steward of Scotland. The fess-chequey (see Heraldry) supports this theory, however, it may be argued that it is unlikely that a Norman noble would adopt a Celtic nickname for their family. The second theory asserts that the original Boyds were vassals of the Norman family, de Morville, from their lands in Largs and Irvine. In Gaelic, 'boid' means 'from Bute'. The earliest occurrence of the name is found in an Inquisition formed by King David I of Scotland into the lands of the bishopric of Glasgow. The Boyds were vassals of the de Morville family, who received lands from King David. Wars of Scottish Independence Robert de Boyd is listed in the Ragman Rolls offering homage to King Edward I of England, however, the family has a strong connections to the Wars of Scottish Independence. Duncan Boyd was executed for supporting independence in 1306 and Sir Robert Boyd was a commander for Robert Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. For his service and valour during battle he was awarded lands confiscated from the Baliols, including Kilmarnock. 15th century The family's fortunes rose and they were raised to the peerage by King James II as 'Lord Boyd of Kilmarnock' in 1454. Lord Boyd was a trusted advisor and following the death of James II he was appointed as one of the Regents to the infant King James III; his brother, Alexander, was made military tutor to the king. Boyd effectively kidnapped the young king and obtained an Act of Parliament appointing him sole governor of the crown and Great Chamberlain. The family also successfully negotiated the king's marriage to Margaret of Denmark, daughter of King Christian I of Denmark in 1469, in the process ending the 'Norwegian annual' fee owed to Denmark for the Western Isles, and receiving Orkney and Shetland (theoretically only as a temporary measure to cover Margaret's dowry). Thus Scotland in 1470 reached its greatest ever territorial extent, when James permanently annexed the islands to the crown. The Boyds' influence of the king was considerable but they were rapidly making enemies, including the young king, as they continued to increase their wealth and titles. Lord Boyd's son, Thomas was made Earl of Arran in 1467 and married the king's sister, Mary. James III eventually grew tired of the Boyds and he summoned Lord Boyd, his son Thomas, and his brother Alexander to appear before the court and parliament to answer charges. Lord Boyd, realising that appearing in Edinburgh meant almost certain death, escaped to England. Alexander, who was sick, was brought before the court and found guilty before he, and his family, were executed in 1469. Thomas was abroad when he heard of the plight of his father and uncle. The king summoned his sister back to Scotland, on the pretence that he may pardon her husband. Mary returned but Thomas remained in Europe. Their marriage was declared void in 1473. 16th century The family was restored in 1536 by Mary, Queen of Scots and Robert, a descendant of the younger son of the first Lord Boyd, was confirmed 'Lord Boyd' along with all the estates of the family. Even during her captivity in England, Lord Boyd remained close and visited many times. 17th century & Civil War During the English Civil War the family supported the cause of Charles I of England and received their reward after the Restoration when Lord Boyd was created Earl of Kilmarnock in 1661. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings During the 1714 Jacobite Rising Lord Boyd supported the British government and commanded a regiment in the service of King George I. His son, Robert Boyd, however, did not share his father's loyalties and fought on the side of Charles Edward Stuart in the 1744 rebellion. He was a member of the Charles's Privy council with the rank of general. He fought, and was captured, at the Battle of Culloden. In August 1745 he was beheaded at Tower Hill and the titles of the Boyd family were forfeit. Boyd's second son, however, retained the lands and succeeded as Earl of Erroll in 1758 through his mother and assumed the name of Hay. 19th century The eighteenth Earl of Erroll was created Baron of Kilmarnock in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1831. In 1941 the twenty-second Earl died in Kenya leaving a daughter who, although entitled to the Scottish earldom of Erroll and the chiefship of the Clan Hay, was unable to succeed the barony of Kilmarnock which, as a United Kingdom title, could only pass to male heirs. Therefore the brother of the twenty-second Earl resumed the name Boyd and succeeded to the barony. Clan castles Dean Castle was seat of the chief of Clan Boyd. Bedlay Castle was owned by the Clan Boyd until 1642 when they sold it to the Clan Robertson. Brodick Castle Callendar House Portencross Castle Slains Castle Law Castle Little Cumbrae Castle Penkill Castle Pitcon Castle Trabboch Castle. Clan profile The Arms of Baron Kilmarnock: Quarterly, 1st Azure a fess chequy Argent and Gules (for Boyd), 2nd Argent three inescutcheons Gules (for Hay), 3rd Argent three gillyflowers Gules within a double tressure flory counter flory Vert (for Livingston), 4th Sable a bend between six billets Or (for Callendar). The crest badge used by members of Clan Boyd contains the heraldic motto: CONFIDO ('I trust'). The blazon of the heraldic crest within the crest badge is A dexter hand erect and pale having the outer fingers bowed inwards. The crest badge is the heraldic property of the chief, though any member of Clan Boyd may where this badge to show their allegiance to the chief and clan. The current chief of Clan Boyd is Alastair Ivor Gilbert Boyd, 7th Baron Kilmarnock. Clan branches Boyd of Merton Boyd of Penkill Boyd of Pitcon Boyd of Trochrig Associated families Air Assloss Auchinloss Ayr Ayrd Bankhead Blair Bod Boddagh Bodha Boid Boit Boite Borland Bowie Boy Boyd Boyde Boydston Boyman Boyte Braland Bribane Brown Buidhe Buie Burn Bute Cassy Chrystal Conn Coon Coonie Corshill Cosh Crawford Crystal Cunningham Cunninghame Dick Faerie Faery Fairlie Fairly Farie Farnly Faul Faulds Fauls Fenwick Foulterton Fullarton Fullerton Fullton Gammell Gemmill George Gorman Gurman Haire Hare Harshaw Langmoore Lines Longmuir Lynn MacCosh MacGillabuidhe MacGiollabuidhe MacLorg MacLurg Moore Muir O'Boyd Parris Pitcon Raeburn Rayburn Reburn Rigg Riggs Ross Speirs Spiers Spires Starret Steen Stein Stiret Tannahill Tannock Templeton Underwood Vasser Woodbourne Woodburn

Boyle

Origins There is little doubt that the de Beauvilles (or de Boyville) came to Britain following the Norman conquest of 1066. They settled in Wales and Cumberland initially, though some of the Welsh line later travelled to Ireland and are the ancestors of the Earls of Cork and Shannon. In 1124 Hugh de Morvile was granted the lands of Cunningham and Largs from King David, part of which was subdivided and gifted to his relatives. The de Boyvilles thus gained the lands of Kelburn. The male line falied in 1196 and the family property passed to the Lords of Galloway. However, in 1234 that male line also falied and the land passed to the Crown. The family aided Alexander III in repelling Viking invaders in 1263 at the Battle of Largs. and the lands of Kelburn were returned to the family. In 1291 Henry de Boyville was keeper of the Castles of Dumfries, Wigton and Kirkcudbright. Wars of Scottish Independence Richard and Robert de Boyvil appear on the Ragman Rolls as barons submitting to Edward I of England. However the Boyles fought at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 in support of Robert I of Scotland. 15th and 16th centuries The Clan Boyle fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn for James III. The family lands were forfeited following the battle of Sauchieburn but were restored by James IV. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Boyles also fought at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 under the regent, the Earl of Arran. The family supported Mary, Queen of Scots and later in the 17th century they supported Charles I. 17th and 18th centuries The Boyles sufferd badly for their allegiances. However, the family began its restoration in 1681 when John Boyle of Kelburn was elected as as Commissioner of Parliament. John's eldest son, David Boyle also became a Commissioner of Parliament and Privy Counsellor. In 1699 David was raised to the Peerage as Lord Boyle of Kelburn, and then in 1703 was created Earl of Glasgow. After the Union he sat as a Scottish Representative peer from 1707 to 1710. He was appointed Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1706 and in 1707 to 1710. He was also Lord Clerk Register prior to 1714. A staunch supporter of the Hanoverian cause, he raised and armed troops at his own expense when the 'Old Pretender' raised the clans against the Crown. John Boyle, 3rd Earl of Glasgow was a military man, wounded at the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745 and again at the Battle of Lauffeld in 1747. He, like the 1st Earl, was appointed Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and held the office for nine consecutive years. 19th century David Boyle, a grandson of the second Earl, was a distinguished solicitor and was appointed Solicitor General for Scotland in 1807. He was raised to the bench, and in 1841 was appointed Lord Justice General. He became a Privy Counsellor in 1820 retiring in 1852 after forty-one years of legal service. George Boyle, 4th Earl, also took up military service, rising to colonel and Lord Lieutenant of Renfrewshire in 1810. His eldest son, John, was a naval officer captured by the French off Gibraltar in 1807. He died, unmarried, in 1818. His brother, James, succeeded as the fifth Earl in 1843. He had also served in the Royal Navy and was also made Lord Lieutenant of Renfrewshire. He died, married but without issue. James was succeeded by his half brother, George Frederick Boyle, which proved to be a disater for the family. George Boyle had been eductaed at Oxford and was passionately interested in art and architecture. He became obsessed by the Pre-Raphalite notions of form and beauty and began a monumental building program, renovating Kelburn and funding churches across Scotland. In 1888 he had bankrupted the estate and the assets were sold, Kelburn was only saved by the purse of his cousin, David, later to become the 7th Earl. David Boyle, succeeded as Earl in 1890 and was Governor of New Zealand from 1892 to 1897. In 1897 he was created Baron Fairlie and was raised to the Peerage of the United Kingdom (the Earldom of Glasgow and all other titles being in the Peerage of Scotland. This was done to ensure him a seat on the House of Lords as, at that time, only a small number of Scottish peers could sit, known as Representative peers. Clan Boyle today The current chief of the clan and 10th Earl of Glasgow was a distinguished naval officer who succeeded his father in 1984. He resides in Kelburn Castle, which has been held by the family since the 13th century. Jason Boyle is a military man fighting for the queens own Scots Guards which was raised by Charles 1. Clan castles Kelburn Castle is the seat of Patrick Boyle, 10th Earl of Glasgow. Rowallan Castle

Brodie

Early Clan History origins of the clan The origins of the Brodie clan are mysterious. Much of the early Brodie records were destroyed when Clan Gordon pillaged and burnt Brodie Castle in 1645. It is known that the Brodies were always about since records began. From this it has been presumed that the Brodies are ancient, probably of Pict ancestry, referred to locally as the ancient Moravienses. The historian Dr. Ian Grimble suggested the Brodies were an important Pictish family and advanced the possibility of a link between the Brodies and the male line of the Pictish Kings. Brodie Castle in 1976 the clan lands The lands of Brodie are between Morayshire and Nairnshire, on the modern border that separates the Scottish Highlands and Moray. In the time of the Picts, this location was at the heart of the Kingdom of Moravia. Early references show that the Brodie lands to be governed by a Toshech, later to become Thane. Part of the Brodie lands were originally Temple Lands, owned by the order of the Knights Templar. It is uncertain if the Brodies took their name from the lands of Brodie, or that the lands were named after the clan. The Brodie Chiefs 
Macbeth
Thane of Dyke
c.1262 
1. Malcolni
c.1285 
2. Michael
c.1311 
3. Joannes
c.1376 
4. Thomas
c.1386 
5. John
c.1410 
6. Ricardus
d.1446 
7. Johne
'the courteous'
c.1466 
8. Alexander
d. about 1491 
9. Johannes
d. about 1511 
10. Alexander
d. about 1540 
11. Thomame
k.1547
at the battle of Pinkie 
12. Alexander
"the rebel"
d.1583 
13. David
1553-1627 
14. David
1586-1632 
15. Alexander
"the good Lord Brodie"
1617-1679 
16. James
1637-1708 
17. George
d.1714 
18. James
d.1720 
19. Alexander
"The Lord Lyon"
1697-1754 
20. Alexander
1741-1759 
21. James
1744-1824 
22. William
1799-1873 
23. Hugh
1840-1889 
24. Ian
1868-1943 
25. Montagu
"Ninian"
1912-2003 
26. Alastair
1943-2003 
27. Alexander
b.1969 
 the first Brodie chief After the Toshechs, whose names are lost, we find a reference to MacBeth, Thane of Dyke in 1262; next, in 1311, a Latin reference to Michael, filius Malconi, Thanus de Brothie et Dyke. It is unclear if Macbeth, Thane of Dyke, is of the same line as Michael. Accordingly, the Brodie Chiefs claim descent from Michael's referred father, Malcome, as First Chief and Thane of Brodie. early clan seat Although Brodie Castle was built in the sixteenth century, the remains an earlier wooden fortress structure can be found nearby, on the Downy Hillock. Brodye tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. meaning of the name Brodie Early references to Brodie were written as Brochy, Brothy, Brothie, Brothu, Brode. Various meanings to the name Brodie have been advanced, but given the Brodies uncertain origin, and the varying ways Brodie has been pronounced/written, these remain but suppositions. Some of the suggestions that have been advanced as to the meaning of the name Brodie are: 'ditch' or 'mire', from the old Irish word broth; 'muddy place', from the Gaelic word brothach; 'a point', 'a spot', or 'level piece of land', from the Gaelic word Brodha; or originated from the Pict name Brude, Bruid or Bridei from King Bridei I of the Picts. 15th and 16th century clan conflicts Johne of Brode of that Ilk, the 7th chief of Clan Brodie, assisted Clan Mackenzie in their victory in 1466 over Clan MacDonald at the Battle of Blar-na-Pairc. He took a distinguished part in the fight and behaved 'to the advantage of his friend and notable loss of his enemy,' his conduct produced a friendship between Clan Mackenzie and Clan Brodie, which continued among their posterity, 'and even yet remains betwixt them, being more sacredly observed than the ties of affinity and consanguinity amongst most others,' and a bond of manrent was entered into between the families. Clan Brodie joined the royal army led by the Earl of Atholl against the rebel son of the Lord of the Isles, Aonghas Óg. However, in 1481 Aonghas Óg defeated them at Lagabraad, killing 517 of the royal army. Thomame Brodye de iodem, the 11th chief, was killed defending against the English invasion at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. In 1550, Alexander 'the rebel' Brodie of that Ilk, the 12th chief, with his clansmen, and the assistance of the Dunbars and Hays, attacked Clan Cumming at Altyre, seeking to slay their chief, Alexander Cumming of Altyre. As a result he was put to the horn as a rebel for not appearing to a charge of waylaying, but was pardoned the year following. In 1562 the said Alexander 'the rebel', joined Clan Gordon and George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly in his rebellion against Mary Queen of Scots. They were defeated at the Battle of Corrichie. Huntley died, Brodie escaped but was denounced a rebel, and his estates declared forfeited. For four years the sentence of outlawry hung over his head, but in 1566, the Queen having forgiven Clan Gordon for their disloyalty, included Alexander Brodie in the royal warrant remitting the sentence against them, and restoring them their possessions. 17th century and civil war Alexander "the good" Lord Brodie of Brodie, the 15th chief, was a covenanter during Wars of the Three Kingdoms. An ardent presbyterian, his faith led him to be responsible for acts of destruction to Elgin Cathedral and its paintings. He was judge in trials of witchcraft, sentencing at least two witches to death. He was commissioner for the apprehension of Jesuits and catholic priests and the plantation of Kirks. He served on the committees: of war for Elgin, Nairn, Forres, and Inverness; of estates; of the protection of religion; and of excise. Lord Brodie was elected Commissary-General to the Army. He went twice to The Hague to seek the return of the exiled King Charles II of Scotland, first in 1649, then, with a lager party in 1650, returned successfully with the King. Oliver Cromwell was eager to enroll Brodie into his regime. Tempted, Lord Brodie resisted Oliver Cromwell's summons to discuss a union of Scotland and England, writing in his diary "Oh Lord he has met with the lion and the bear before, but this is the Goliath; the strongest and greatest temptation is last.". Lord Brodie was the target of an unsuccessful royalist plot for his capture in 1650. He was the author of a diary revealing a complicated, yet devote mind, torn by temptation and doing what he believed to be right. Clan Brodie joined the covenanters in the fight at the Battle of Auldearn against James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. After the defeat of the covenanters against the royalists, Clan Gordon sacked Brodie Castle and besieged Lethen House. The Brodies of Lethen held successfully for twelve weeks. Alexander Brodie of Lethen went south with a contingent of men. He commanded a troop with some credit at the disastrous Battle of Dunbar (1650). 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite rising of 1715, James Brodie of Brodie, the 18th chief, refused to surrender his horse and arms to Lord Huntley. Lord Huntley threatened the 'highest threats of military execution, as that of battering down his house, razing his tenants, burning their corns, and killing their persons.' if Brodie did not comply. Clan Brodie continued to resist, holding fort in the now rebuilt Brodie Castle. Unable to secure enough canon and gunpowder to proceed with an assault, Lord Huntley was forced to abandon his threats. During the second Jacobite rising of 1745, the Brodie chief was Alexander Brodie of that Ilk, 19th chief of Brodie, Lord Lyon King of Arms. Naval Captain David Brodie, of the Brodies of Muiresk branch was master and commander of the Terror and the Merlin (10 guns), later Captain of HMS Canterbury (60 guns), and HMS Strafford (60 guns). He was credited with the capture of 21 French and Spanish cruisers or privateers. . By 1774 the Brodie estate was in financial trouble and sold by judicial sale. James Brodie of Brodie, the 21st Chief, was married to Lady Margaret Duff, daughter of William Duff, 1st Earl of Fife. The Earl of Fife came to the rescue, purchased the estate, returning half to The Brodie. In 1788 Deacon William Brodie was executed. Deacon Brodie was a descendant of the Milton branch of Clan Brodie. 19th Century and India James Brodie of Brodie's younger brother, Alexander, left for India to seek his fortune. He returned from Madras a very rich man and purchased the estates of Thunderton House in Elgin, Arnhall in Kincardineshire, and The Burn. He married a daughter of James Wemyss of Wemyss by Lady Elizabeth Sutherland, daughter of the William Sutherland, 17th Earl of Sutherland and had an only child, a daughter, Elizabeth. Elizabeth Brodie was an heiress, and in 1813 married George Gordon, Marquess of Huntly who became, on his father's death in 1827, The 5th Duke of Gordon. George and Elizabeth did not have any children, and on his death in 1836, the line of the Dukes of Gordon became extinct. Leaving Elizabeth the last Duchess of Gordon. After her husband's death, the Duchess joined the Free Church of Scotland, and was its most prominent benefactor. The Duchess was 'much respected and beloved by the people of Huntly and the surrounding district.' and lived 'a remarkably unaffected, charitable, and Christian life'. James Brodie of Brodie's son, James Brodie, younger of Brodie, went to India and worked for the East India Company. He built a mansion in Madras, on the banks of the river Adyar, and named it Brodie Castle (Madras) . This property still stands and has become the College of Carnatic Music. James (the younger) died in India in a boating accident on the Adyar River in 1801/02. On the death of the Duchess of Gordon in 1864, The Brodies of Brodie became beneficiaries of the Gordon estate; inheriting much of the Gordon moveable property. The Modern Clan Brodie A rare pontifical document was discovered in Brodie Castle in 1972 and is now housed in the British Museum. The document is thought to date as far as 1000AD, and shows evidence of associations with Durham. Macbeth meeting the three witches. The present chief of the clan is Alexander Tristan Duff Brodie of Brodie, 27th Chief of Clan Brodie., and is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs Clan Traditions,Custom and Legend Tradition says a curse was pronounced against the Brodie Chiefs, 'to the effect that no son born within the Castle of Brodie should ever become heir to the property.' The legend of the source of this malediction was one of the early Brodie Chiefs 'who induced an old woman to confess being guilty of witchcraft by offering her a new gown, and then, instead of fulfilling his promise, had her tied to a stake and burnt'. The 'blasted heath' where Macbeth is said to have met the three witches, is located on the lands of Brodie. The event was popularized in Shakespeare's play Macbeth. This location is referred to locally as Macbeth's Hillock. Brodie of Spynie Brodie of Lethen Brodie of Milton Brodie of Idvies Brodie of Mayne Brodie of Rosthorn Callender-Brodie Cap. David Brodie Brodie-Wood Clan Branches Brodies of Brodie , The Thanes and The Chiefs of Brodie Brodies of Spynie Brodies of Asleisk Brodies of Lethen Brodies of Idvies, The Baronet of Idvies Brodies of Boxford , The Baronets of Boxford Brodies of Milton Brodies of Windy Hills Brodies of Maine Brodie-Inneses of Milton Brodie Brodies of Eastbourne Brodies of Fernhill Brodies of Muiresk Brodies of Caithness Clan Profile Clan Brodie Plant Badge: Periwinkle. Clan chief: Alexander Tristan Duff Brodie of Brodie, 27th Chief of Clan Brodie. Clan Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Chief's motto: Unite. Chief's crest: A right hand holding a bunch of arrows all Proper. Clan Plant Badge: Periwinkle.

Broun

Origins of the Name As well as the name being Scottish, Broun or Brown is also common name in Old English charters (as Brun) from an adjective meaning brown or dark red. It also occurs in Old High German as Brunn and is the source of the French surname le Brun. A family of this name were superiors of land in Cumberland shortly after the Norman conquest. In all cases it seems to be a name describing the appearance of the original ancestor. It is also found as an anglicisation of Mac a' Bhriuthainn (pron. 'mac a vroon'), which is usually anglicised as MacBrayne, or a direct translation of MacIlledhuinn. Brouns in Scotland The Brouns of Colstoun, probably the heads of the family but not officially recognised as such by Lyon Court, claim descent from the Royal House of France. They bear on their shield the three fleur-de-lys of the French Monarchy. The Brouns of Colstoun also claim descent from George Broun who in 1543 married Jean Hay second daughter of Lord Yester, ancestor of the Marquess of Tweeddale. The dowry consisted of the 'Colstoun Pear' which was said to have been invested with wondrous powers by the 13th Century wizard and necromancer Hugo de Gifford of Yester. This pear was meant to ensure unfailing prosperity on the family which possessd it. The pear was said to have been as fresh as the day it was picked until in the 17th Century a pregnant descendant, longing for the fruit which was out of season, took a bite of it, whereupon it became as hard as rock. Patrick Broun of Colstoun was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1686, the title to be passed on to his male heirs. On his death he left only a daughter who inherited his possessions while the title went to the Thorndyke branch of the family. Members of a younger branch of Broun of Colstoun settled in Elsinore, Denmark where they became prominent merchants; the name is still found there today. During the Civil War Sir John Brown of Fordell commanded the royalist army at the Battle of Inverkeithing in 1650. Clan profile Arms: Gules, a chevron between three fleur de lis Or Crest: A lion rampant, holding in the dexter paw a fleur de lis Tartans: Clan Broun of Coulston, Clan Brown of Castle Dean, Clan Brown Military Watch, Clan *Brown Dress Watch Mottos: Floreat magestas (Let majesty flourish) Clan Castles Seats of the Clan Broun have included: Bruntsfield House and Carsluith Castle.

Bruce

History The name Bruce comes from the French 'de Brus' or 'de Bruis', what is now Brix between Cherbourg and Valognes in Normandy. The first Robert de Brus in Great Britain accompanied William the Conqueror in 1066 and died, it is believed, around 1094. However, it was his son, also Robert de Brus (known as Robert le Meschin, or 'the Cadet') that first connected the family with Scotland. Now rich with lands in Dorset and Surrey, Robert de Brus marched north as a companion-in-arms to David I of Scotland in his campaign to reclaim his crown in 1124. De Brus was rewarded with the lands of Annandale. In 1138 King David became involved in the civil war in the Kingdom of England between Stephen of Blois and Empress Matilda. De Brus could not support his king and resigned his holdings in Annandale to his second son, Robert, joining the English forces in preparation for the Scottish advance. The Scottish forces were defeated at the Battle of the Standard and de Brus took his own son, now laird of Annandale, prisoner. He was ultimately freed and returned to Scotland, abandoning his father's arms of a red lion on a silver field, assuming the red saltire (the current arms contain both elements). William the Lion confirmed the grant of Annadale made by David. Foundation of the Royal line Main article: Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale The foundation for the Bruce royal claim came in 1219 when Robert Bruce, 4th Lord of Annandale married Isobel of Huntingdon, daughter of David of Scotland, 8th Earl of Huntingdon and niece of William the Lion. The union brought both great wealth, with the addition of lands in both England and Scotland, and the royal connection that the Bruces sought. Their son, Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale, known as 'the competitor' was sometime Tanist to the throne. On the death of Alexander III of Scotland both Bruce and John Balliol claimed succession. Margaret, Alexander's infant granddaughter was named as heir, however, she died in 1290 travelling to Scotland to claim her throne. Soon after the death of young queen Margaret, fearing civil war between the Bruce and Balliol families and their supporters, the Guardians of Scotland asked the kingdom's southern neighbour, Edward I of England to arbitrate among the claimants in order to avoid civil war. Edward I saw this as the opportunity he had long been waiting for to conquer Scotland as he had conquered Wales and rule over all the British Isles. In 1292 Edward chose Balliol who swore allegiance to the English monarch. It was not long, however, before Balliol rebelled against Edward, eventually leading to John's defeat and forced abdication after the Battle of Dunbar in 1296. Ascension to the Throne Main article: Robert I of Scotland With the abdication of John Balliol, Scotland was effectively without a monarch. Robert the Bruce swore allegiance to Edward at Berwick-upon-Tweed but breached this oath when he joined the Scottish revolt the following year. In the summer of 1297 he again swore allegiance to Edward in what is known as the Capitulation of Irvine. Bruce appears to have sided with the Scots during the Battle of Stirling Bridge but when Edward returned, victorious, to England after the Battle of Falkirk, Bruce's lands of Annandale and Carrick were exempted from the lordships and lands which Edward assigned to his followers. Bruce, it seems, was seen as a man whose allegaince might still be won. Bruce and John Comyn (a rival for the throne) succeeded William Wallace as Guardians of Scotland, but their rivalry threatened the stability of the country. A meeting was arranged at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, neutral ground. Bruce stabbed Comyn through the heart, and as a result was excommunicated by Pope Clement V. Robert the Bruce was crowned at Scone, Perthshire in 1306. See:Wars of Scottish Independence Robert's son, David II of Scotland became king on his father's death in 1329. In 1346 under the terms of the Auld Alliance David marched south into England in the interests of France, but was defeated and imprisoned Battle of Neville's Cross on October 17 of that year, and remained in England for eleven years. He died in Edinburgh Castle in 1371 without issue. The line of succession passing to the House of Stewart. After Robert the Bruce Sir Edward Bruce was made commendator of Kinloss Abbey and appointed a judge in 1597. He was appointed a Lord of Parliament with the title of Lord Kinloss in 1602. He accompanied James VI to claim his English throne in 1603 and was subsequently appointed to English judicial office as Master of the Rolls. In 1608 he was granted a barony as Lord Bruce of Kinloss. His younger son, Thomas, 3rd Lord Kinloss, was created first Earl of Elgin in 1633. When the fourth Earl died without issue, the title passed to the descendants of Sir George Bruce of Carnock, who already held the title Earl of Kincardine and in 1747 the Earldoms were united. Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin was a diplomat and ambassador to the Ottoman Empire between 1799 and 1803. He is famous, or infamous, for the removing marble sculptures from the Parthenon in Athens, now commonly referred to as the Elgin Marbles. His son, James, was Governor General of the Province of Canada and Viceroy of India. The current chief, Andrew Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin, is prominent in Scottish affairs and is convener of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Clan Castles Castles that have belonged to the Clan Bruce include: Fyvie Castle Airth Castle Muness Castle Thomaston Castle Culross Palace Clackmannan Tower Fingask Castle Kinross House Lochleven Castle Lochmaben Castle Turnberry Castle Bruce Motto Fuimus (We have been) Origins Norman - de Brus Gaelic name(s) Brùs Branches {{{branches}}} Sept(s) Airth Bruwes Bruss Bruc Bruys Brues Bruce Bruice Bruis Bruze Broce Brois Broiss Brose Broise Brouss Brus Bruse Carlysle Carruthers Crosbie Randolph Stenhouse Arms Or, a saltire and chief gules, on a canton argent, a lion rampant azure, armed and langued of the second Tartan(s) {{{tartans}}} Plant badge {{{plant badge}}} Clan chieftain Andrew Bruce, 11th Earl of Elgin Clan seat(s) Broomhall House

Buchan

Origins of the Clan The Clan names derives from the district of Buchan. This in turn may have taken its name from 'bwch', a word meaning cow in the Brythonic language. The first recorded Buchan was Ricardus de Buchan, clerk of the bishopric of Aberdeen around 1207 and in 1281 William de Buchan is recorded as holding land. Sir Thomas of Boghan of Edinburgh is documented in the Ragman Rolls as rendering homage to Edward I of England in 1296. His seal depicted an eight-rayed figure from which the current crest may have derived. 15th & 16th Centuries It is not certain when the lands of Auchmacoy were gained, but Andrew Buchan of Auchmacwy (now generally considered the first chief of the clan0 was one of the assize appointed to settle the lands of St Peter's Hospital in 1446. The lands of Auchmacoy and Oykthorn were granted by charter to Andrew's eldest son, also Andrew, by James IV of Scotland in 1503 but it seems the land may have been in the family's hands since the beginning of the 14th century. In 1598 the lands were erected into a Barony. 17th Century & Civil War Throughout the 17th century the Barons of Auchmacoy supported the House of Stewart. Thomas, 3rd son of the 8th chief, James Buchan, was a professional soldier who fought in both France and Holland. In 1686 he was commissioned as colonel in the Earl of Mar's regiment by James VII. Ever loyal to his king he joined John Graham of Claverhouse, 'Bonnie Dundee' when the king was deposed in favour of William III of Orange. Following Dundee's death at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689, Thomas Buchan was appointed commander-in-chief of the Jacobite forces in Scotland. In 1690 General Buchan was taken by surprise at the Battle of Cromdale and the rebellion was effectively ended. Buchan was allowed to go into exile on France. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings However General Buchan fought again at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. He died in 1721, still in communication with the exiled royals. Ironically, another line, Buchan of Cairnbulg were descendants of John, younger brother to General Thomas Buchan who served in the army of William of Orange against James II. The Jacobite/Williamite schism was resolved when Thomas Buchan, 12th of Auchmacoy, married Nicola, heiress of Buchan of Cairnbulg. Clan Buchan Today James Buchan, fourteenth of Auchmacoy, was recognised as chief of the name in April 1830 by Lord Lyon, King of Arms. Upon his death the title passed to Louisa, his daughter, who died without issue in 1910. The tittle then passed to her cousin, Sir Norman MacLeod Sinclair, 18th Earl of Caithness. In 1913 he petitioned the Lord Lyon, taking the surname and arms of Buchan of Auchmacoy. His daughter, Lady Olivia Buchan, was the mother of the present Chief. Perhaps the most famous Buchan was John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, author of The Thirty-Nine Steps and Governor General of Canada. Major General Ross Stuart Buchan, AO, was an Australian Soldier. In his career he served as a Major on a tour in Vietnam and went on to become the General Officer Commanding Headquarters Training Command. During his Vietnam tour, a close friend Major Peter Badcoe was killed and subsequently posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. The Sydney morning Herald has a decent article online regarding his career. Buchan Motto Non inferior secutus (Not having followed mean pursuits) Origins Geographic - district of Buchan Branches Buchan of Auchmacoy Sept(s) Basken Baskin Bede Bonnieville Boyne Buck Buckie Bucky Cawsell Chapp Chrystal Clapperton Coscrach Costie Costy Cranach Crannach Cruddon Cruden Crudon Crystal Crystall Fasken Faskin Fitchie Fitchy Gammerie Gammery Hardin Hardman Hardnan Kermack Leisk Mac Crystal MacWhorter Meason Merson Mondie Mondy Mundie Mundy Nible Niblo Ogston Ogstone Ogstoun Prince Ratcliff Ratliff Rattcliff Rattliff Runcie Runcy Shakle Tarves Tarvis Teunion Teunon Tewnion Tinnon Tucks Wadsworth Wadsworther West Whammond Whyman Whymon Willgook Arms (Upon a chapeau Gules furred Ermine) A sun shining upon a sunflower full blown Proper Tartan The 'Ancient' Buchan Tartan Clan chieftain David Buchan of Auchmacoy Clan seat(s) Auchmacoy House near Ellon, Aberdeenshire

Buchanan

Clan Buchanan (Pronounced B-eww-cannon in North America and Buck-annon in Europe and Australia) is an Armigerous Scottish clan whose origins are said to lie in the 1225 grant of lands on the eastern shore of Loch Lomond to clergyman Sir Absalon of Buchanan by the Earl of Lennox. Origins of the Clan Clan Buchanan has occupied the lands surrounding the shores of Loch Lomond since 1225 as a result of a grant by the Earl of Lennox to Sir Absalon of Buchanan in which he is referred to as 'clericus meus', meaning 'my clergyman'. Furthermore, Clan Buchanan can trace its origin back to Anselan O Kyan who was a son of the King of Ulster who landed in Argyll in 1016. For his services against the Danes he received the lands of Buchanan, which lie to the east of Loch Lomond. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Buchanan supported King Robert the Bruce fighting at the Battle of Bannockburn and securing their lands. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts The Sir Alexander Buchanan, Chief of Clan Buchanan led men of the clan in support of the French against the English at the Battle of Baugé in 1421. It is said that Alexander Buchanan came face to face with the Duke of Clarence and, escaping his thrust, pierced the Duke through the left eye, killing him. Sir Alexander Buchanan however was later killed leading the clan against the English at the Battle of Verneuil in 1424. In the 15th century a feud broke out between the Clan Buchanan and the Clan MacLaren resulting in a full scale battle. At first the Buchanans were faring better and drove the MacLarens back. Legend has it that the Chief of MacLarens saw one of his sons cut down and being suddenly seized with battle madness turned and shouted the MacLaren battle cry 'Craig Turic' and whirling his Claymore rushed furiously at the enemy. His clansmen followed him and the Buchanans were cut down like corn. Only two escaped by swimming the River Balvaig but even they were followed. One was cut down at Gartnafuaran and the second was cut down at a place since known by the circumstance as Sron Laine. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Buchanan fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where the chief's elder son Patrick was killed. However Patrick had already married a daughter of the Earl of Argyll and had two sons and daughters. Later the Clan Buchanan fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 where their chief was killed. Clan chiefs from Clan Colquhoun, Clan Hunter, Clan MacFarlane and Clan Farquharson also died. A good clan chief was expected to lead by example and this meant being first into battle. 17th Century & Civil War During the Civil Wars Clan Buchanan supported the Royalist cause of King Charles. Sir George Buchanan commanded the Stirlingshire Regiment and led the clan at the Battle of Dunbar (1650) on the side of the Scottish Covenanters. He later led the clan at the Battle of Inverkeithing but here he was captured. The Buchanans fought on the side of the Covenanters at the Battle of Bothwell Brig in 1679. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings The Clan Buchanan took no part in the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 to 1716 or the 1745 to 1746 uprising. This was probably due to several reasons including their proximity to the land of the more powerful Campbells who fought with the English and a break in the line of the chieftainship of the clan. Clan Castles Castles and seats of the Clan Buchanan have included: Buchanan auld House, Buchanan Castle, Buchanan Monument at Killearn, Craigend Castle, Dunglass Castle (Dunbartonshire), Northbar House, and Wolfshire Manor. Notable Clan Members James Buchanan: Fifteenth President of The United States of America Isaac Buchanan: Canadian businessman, held a seat at the Executive Council of the Canadian Federal government, described as 'The Father of National Policy' Benjamin Buchanan: Financier and industrialist David Buchanan: Australian Politician John Buchanan: Oceanographer Roy Buchanan: Guitarist and blues musician James M. Buchanan: Nobel Prize Winner Buchanan Mottos Clarior hinc honos (Brighter hence the honour) and Audaces Juvo (I help the brave) both are Latin Origins Grant of lands east of Loch Lomond to clergyman Sir Absalon of Buchanan. Gaelic names Macauselan (derived from Anselan O Kyan their founder), Cononach and Buth Chanain (Canon's House) Branches Arnprior, Auchmar, Carbeth, Leny, Spital Septs Colman
Cormack
Cousland
Dewar
Dove
Dow
Dowe
Gibb
Gibbon
Gibson
Gilbert
Gilbertson
Harper
Harperson
Leavy
Lennie
Lenny
MacAldonich
MacAlman
MacAslan
MacAslin
MacAuselan
MacAuslan
MacAusland
MacAuslane
MacAlman
MacAlmont
MacAmmond
MacAsland
MacChruiter
MacColman
MacCormack
MacCubbin
MacCubbing
MacCubin
MacGeorge
MacGibbon
MacGreuisich
MacGubbin
MacInally
MacIndeor
MacIndoe
MacKinlay
MacKinley
MacMaster
MacMaurice
MacMurchie
MacMurchy
MacNeur
MacNuir
MacNuyer
MacQuattie
MacWattie
MacWhirter
Masters
Masterson
McCaslin
Morrice
Morris
Morrison
Murchie
Murchison
Richardson
Risk
Rusk
Ruskin
Spittal
Spittel
Walter
Walters
Wason
Waters
Watson
Watt
Watters
Weir
Yuill
Yool
Yule
Zuill Arms Or, a lion rampant Sable, armed and langued Gules, within a double tressure flory counterflory of the Second Tartans Modern Tartan Ancient Tartan (Old Sett) Plant badge Bilberry Clan chieftain Unoccupied

Burnett

History Origins of the name There is still debate over the origin of the name Burnett. The Saxon Burford family held lands in Bedfordshire prior to 1066. This name derives from the Saxon 'beornheard' meaning 'bear hand' often translated as 'brave warrior'. Alternatively, it has been suggested that the name derives from Burnet, a French name recorded in France prior to William the Conqueror invading England. The de Bernard family first came to Scotland, settling in Roxburghshire, when David I of Scotland returned from England. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence Alexander Burnard was a supporter of Robert the Bruce, and following the Battle of Bannockburn was rewarded with a grant of land in the Forest of Drum. Burnard was presented with an ivory horn in 1323 as a symbol of the barony and title of Forester of the Forest of Drum.
The hornremains on display at Crathes Castle. 15th century Throughout the 15th century the family gained a reputation as a benefactor of the church by granting lands and other gifts. However, the relationship between the family and church was not free from dispute. Burnett and the Laird of Drum disputed a tract of land, so Burnett asked a local priest, Father Ambrose, to act as mediary. When Ambrose refused to do so, Burnett barred the monks from fishing in the local loch. When the monks cursed him for his deed, he decided to drain the loch. Burnett, however, was forced to abandon the project when his son was killed with clearing a large rock and Burnett ultimately reconciled with the church. Bertha de Bernard stayed at Crathes Castle while her father was fighting in France and fell in love with one of her cousins. Unfortunately, the young Burnett was betrothed to a daughter of the Duke of Hamilton, chief of the Clan Hamilton a powerful Scottish family. Lady Agnes Burnett would not allow the marriage to be placed in jeopardy so had James V of Scotland send her son to England. Bertha died soon after. It was suspected that Lady Agnes poisoned Bertha to prevent her from interfering with the family's plans. Bertha's father returned to hear of his daughter's death. He cursed the family and until the 17th century a 'Green Lady' haunted Crathes, heralding death and destruction for the family whenever she appeared. 17th century In the early 17th century the Burnetts of Leys came into control of Muchalls Castle, about 30 kilometers southeast of Crathes. In 1609 Alexander Burnett began the reconstruction of the upper stories of Muchalls, a work completed after his death by his son Thomas. Sir Thomas Burnett, a Baronet of Nova Scotia, although a Covenanter, was related to James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and accompanied him as he rode to Aberdeen in 1639. Thomas's son, the third Baronet, was Commissioner for Kincardineshire in the last Scottish Parliament, vehemently opposing the Act of Union 1707. When Sir Robert Burnett of Leys died without an heir, the Baronetcy passed to Thomas Burnett of Criggie. 18th century James Burnett Lord Monboddo was born in 1714 and was an eminent lawyer, judge and philosopher. He studied law at the University of Edinburgh and in the Netherlands before admission to the Faculty of Advocates in 1737. He became a sheriff in 1764 and a supreme court judge in 1767 with the title 'Lord Monboddo'. He was ridiculed for his belief that man was related to apes and originally had tails, however, he also professed belief in mermaids and satyrs. Robert Burns was frequently a guest at Monboddo's Edinburgh house. American Revolutionary War The family has a great military tradition. The 7th Baronet served in the Royal Scots Fusiliers in the American Revolutionary War, being taken prisoner following the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. 20th century Major-General Sir James Burnett of Leys, the 13th Baronet commanded a brigade during the First World War and was a colonel of the Gordon Highlanders. Mentioned in dispatches 11 times he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order twice, appointed as a companion of the Order of the Bath and the Légion d'honneur by France. In 1952 he gifted Crathes Castle and a portion of the estate to the people of Scotland. There was also at least one Alexander Burnett, of Scottish descent that served as a successful tank commander in Africa during the second world war, he was a brother of 9, some of the other brothers served but unfortunately died. Clan castle The Burnett family of the chiefly line now resides in the House of Crathes, close to Crathes Castle. In the early 17th century the Burnetts acquired Muchalls Castle. Burnett Motto Virescit vulnere virtus (Courage flourishes with a wound) Origins Norman or Saxon, see main history article Gaelic name(s) None Branches Burnett of Leys Burnett of Barns Burnett of Balmain Burnett of Kemnay Burnett of Crimond Burnett of Monboddo Burnett of Craigmyle Sept(s) Burnett Burnet Burnette Bernat Burnat Bernet Burnap Burnard Barnard Barnett Barnette Barnet Bornet Bornat Mac Burnet Arms (Upon a chapeau Gules furred Ermine) A cubit arm, the hand naked, vested Vert doubled Argent pruning a vinetree with a pruning knife Proper Tartan(s) Hunting (brown) and Dress (red) Plant badge A sprig of holly leaves Clan chieftain James Comyn Amherst Burnett of Leys Clan seat(s) Crathes Castle, under the care of the National Trust for Scotland

Cameron

Clan Cameron is a West Highland Scottish clan, with one main branch Lochiel, and numerous cadet branches such as Erracht, Clunes, Glen Nevis, and Fassifern. The Clan Cameron lands are in Lochaber and within their lands is the mountain Ben Nevis which is the highest mountain in the British Isles. Origin of the clan The origins of Clan Cameron are uncertain. There are several theories of the Camerons' origins. A manuscript of the clan says that it is old tradition that the Camerons were originally descended from the son of the royal family of Denmark who assisted the restoration of King Fergus II of Scotland, and that their progenitor was called Cameron from his crooked nose, and that his dependants then adopted the name. However, the chronicler adds, that it is more probable that they are the aborigines of the ancient Scots known as Caledonians. This statement proved that the writer of the history understood neither the meaning of the language he used nor the subject on which he pronounced an opinion. According to John Major, the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation shared a common origin and together followed one chief, but this statement has no foundation or evidence to support it. Allen surnamed MacOrchtry the son of Uchtred is mentioned by tradition as the chief of Camerons during the reign of King Robert II of Scotland and, according to the same source, the Camerons and Chattan Confederation were two rival, hostile tribes, a more likely explanation. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the most important tribes in Lochaber were the Clan Donald, the Chattan Confederation, and the Mael-anfhaidh. Traditionally, the Mael-anfhaidh consisted of three main tribes; the MacMartins of Letterfinlay; the Macgillonies (Mac ghille-anfhaidh); and the MacSorlies of Glennevis (Sliochd Shoirle Ruaidh). The MacMartins are said to have provided the chief of this confederation of tribes. Donald Dubh Cameron, already mentioned, married the daughter of the MacMartin chief and either through this or by his own prowess assumed the leadership or captaincy of the confederation of clans which later formed the Clan Cameron. Some time towards the end of the 14th century, a chief or leader called Donald Dubh, whose surname was Cameron, arose in Lochaber. He must have been a man of importance, ability, and energy, for he had a large following composed of local tribes. Donald Dubh was the first 'authentic' chief or captain of this confederation of tribes which gradually became known as the Clan Cameron, taking the name of their captain as the generic name of the whole, until the clan was first officially recognized by that name in a charter of 1472. Wars of Scottish Independence In the 14th Century, during the Wars of Scottish Independence, Clan Cameron fought for King Robert the Bruce, led by Chief VII John de Cameron against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Later, the clan, led by Chief VIII John De Cameron, fought at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. 14th Century & Clan Conflicts Clan Cameron was involved in many clan battles mostly against Clan MacKintosh with whom they had an extensive feud which lasted over 350 years: Battle of Drumlui, 1337, A dispute between the Clan MacKintosh and Clan Cameron over land at Glenlui and Loch Arkaig. The Camerons were defeated but started a 350 year feud. Battle of Invernahoven, 1370. Fought between the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh, Clan Macpherson and Clan Davidson. Battle of the North Inch, 1396. In the aftermarth of the battle of Invernahoven, the Camerons did not wait long to take their revenge on the MacKintoshes and the Chattan Confederation. The feud between them had become so fierce and bloody that King Robert III was made aware of it. The King brought the two rival chiefs of Clan Cameron and Clan MacKintosh together and decided it would be resolved by the sword. The king ordered part of the river near the city of Perth to be enclosed with a deep ditch in the form of an amphitheatre with seats and benches for the spectators, his majesty himself sitting as the judge on the field. Crowds and combatants appeared. The clans chose thirty of their best warriors each to take part. Four of the MacKintoshes survived the battle but they were all mortally wounded. One Cameron survived and escaped by swimming across the River Tay. The MacKintoshes regained all their lands that had been taken from them. 15th century & clan conflicts Battle of Harlaw, 1411, The Clan Cameron fought as Highlanders at the Battle of Harlaw near Inverurie in Aberdeenshire on 24 July 1411 against an Army of Scottish Lowlanders. The Camerons took the side of Donald, Lord of the Isles, (MacDonald) who was the current Earl of Ross through marriage. Their enemy was the Duke of Albany. Battle of Split Allegiances, 1429, This conflict was between forces led by Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross, 3rd Lord of the Isles and the Royalist army of King James I of Scotland. Battle of Palm Sunday, 1429, Fought between the Clan Cameron against the Clan Mackintosh and the Chattan Confederation. Battle of Inverlochy (1431), The Clan Cameron together with their enemies the Clan MacKintosh fought against the Clan Donald whose chief Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross had been imprisoned by the King. The MacDonalds were then led by Alexander's nephew, Donald Balloch who defeated the army led by the Earl of Mar. Battle of Corpach, 1439, Fought between the Clan Cameron and Clan Maclean. Battle of Craig Cailloch, 1441, Clan MacKintosh, at the instigation of Alexander, Lord of the Isles, began to invade and raid the Cameron lands. A sanguinary conflict took place in this year at Craig Cailloch between Clan Cameron and the MacKintoshes in which MacKintosh's second son, Lachlan 'Badenoch' was wounded and Gillichallum, his brother, killed. In 1472 Alan MacDonald Dubh, 12th Chief of the Clan Cameron was made constable of Strome Castle on behalf of the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh. Raid on Ross 1491, a conflict that took place in 1491 in the Scottish Highlands. It was fought between the Clan Mackenzie against several other clans, including the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh, Clan MacDonald of Clanranald the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh. 16th century & clan conflicts Battle of Achnashellach, 1505, Little is known of this battle which is often described as an obscure skirmish between the Clan Cameron and Clan MacKay. It is said that the MacKays were defeated and William Munro of Foulis, chief of the Clan Munro who assisted the MacKays was killed. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Cameron chief, Ewen Cameron and a portion of his men survived fighting against against the English army at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Battle of the Shirts, 1544, Clan Cameron provided archers who sided with Clan MacDonald at the Battle of Shirts in 1544, against Clan Fraser. Legend has it that only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds survived. The Camerons subsequently carried out successful raids upon the Clan Grant and Clan Fraser lands, which were incredibly rich and fertile to the Lochaber men. Owing to his role in this conflict Ewen Cameorn fell into disfavor with the Earl of Huntly, chief of Clan Gordon and Lieutenant of the North. Chief Ewen Cameron would be executed as a result of this battle and other actions at Elgin in 1547. Battle of Bun Garbhain, 1570, Fought between the Clan Cameron and Clan Mackintosh. Donald Dubh Cameron, XV Chief of Clan Cameron, had died, leaving an infant son, Allan, at the head of the clan. During the battle the chief of MacKintosh is believed to have been killed by Donald 'Taillear Dubh na Tuaighe' Cameron, (son of the XIV Chief of Clan Cameron), with a fearsome Lochaber axe. Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, XVI Chief of Clan Cameron, Allen Cameron led the clan at this battle on the side of the Earl of Huntly, Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and others. They defeated their enemy; the Earl of Argyll whose forces consisted of the Clan Campbell, Clan Forbes, Atholl and the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh. The Camerons pursued their enimies with great eagerness who were soundly defeated. 17th century & Civil War During the Civil War at the Battle of Inverlochy 1645, Clan Cameron fought on the side of the Royalist Scots and Irish led by Clan MacDonald who defeated the Scottish Covenanters of Clan Campbell. Standoff at the Fords of Arkaig, 1665, the Clan Chiefs of Clan MacKintosh and Clan Cameron were ordered by the Privy Court to end the dispute over the lands near Loch Arkaig once and for all. While MacKintosh was declared to have the legal right Cameron was declared to be the owner. Cameron was ordered to pay MacKintosh a large sum of money for the land but MacKintosh refused this. Soon after Clan MacKintosh and the Chattan Confederation assembled an army of 1500 men. Camerons had raised a force of approximately 1000 men who took up a defensive stance at Achnacarry. Camerons' biographer records that there were 900 men armed with guns and broadswords and a further 300 men armed with bows. It seemed the battle to end all battles between these two ancient adversaries was about to commence. However just as Clan Cameron commenced their attack the powerful Clan Campbell and Chief appeared on the scene. John Campbell, Chief of Campbells brought with him 300 men and declared that he would fight against whichever side initiated the impending battle. The Cameron Chief Ewen soon withdraw all his troops. As a result one of the bloodiest feuds in Scottish history came to an end after 360 years. On September 20th 1665 a contract was signed by both Chiefs of Cameron and MacKintosh with Cameron agreeing to buy the lands from MacKintosh. Then at a place called Clunes around 24 men from each side met face to face and shook hands for the first time in generations. Here they exchanged swords as a token of reconciliation and drank together. Battle of Mulroy, 1668, Clan Cameron and Clan MacKintosh were at peace and Cameron Chief Sir Ewen was responsible for keeping the peace between his men and their former enemies. However when the Chief Sir Ewen Cameron was away in London a feud broke out between Clan MacDonald and their enemies Clan MacKintosh and Clan MacKenzie. As the Cameron Chief was away he was not able to hold back his clan and the combined forces of Cameron and MacDonald defeated the MacKintoshes and MacKenzies. The Clan Cameron fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie July 1689 , the Battle of Dunkeld August 1689 and the Battle of Cromdale May 1690. 18th century & Jacobite uprisings Cameron Coat of Arms. The Clan Cameron fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715 during the initial early Jacobite uprisings.. They later fought fought at the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719. Their chief John Cameron of Lochiel, after hiding for a time in the Highlands, made his way back to exile in France. The Clan Cameron fought on the side of the Jacobites against the British Army at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) and on the frontline at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. After the Battle of Culloden the chief, Donald Cameron, also known as 'Gentle Locheil', took refuge in France, where he died in October 1748. 19th & 20th centuries Napoleonic Wars During the Napoleonic Wars Donald Cameron the 23rd chief fought with distinction at the Battle of Waterloo as part of the Grenadier Guards in 1815. He retired in 1832. Later that same year he married Lady Vere, daughter of the Honourable George Vere Hobart and sister of the 6th Earl of Buckinghamshire. Lady Vere was descended from the Camerons of Glenderrary. World War One During World War I the XXV Chief of Clan Cameron raised four additional battalions of the Cameron Highlanders and in 1934 he was created a Knight of the Thistle, a title his son, the famed Sir Donald Hamish Cameron was also awarded in 1973. World War Two Notably, the Cameron Highlanders were the last battalions that wore the kilt in battle, due to the purposeful delaying of orders by commanding officers in the battalions (no one wanted to give up the kilt) and a surprise attack by the Germans (successfully repelled)for this they earned the nick-name of 'ladies from hell' (even though they were all men) Clan Cameron today The current Chief, Donald Angus Cameron of Lochiel, XXVII Chief of Clan Cameron has issued the call for an International Gatheringof Clan Cameron, to take place from July 30 - August 2, 2009, at Achnacarry. The Clan Cameron Association, founded in 1889, maintains international branches in Scotland, Australia, New Zealand and North America. They may be reached via their website Castles of Clan Cameron Tor Castle: Ewen Cameron, XIII Chief of Camerons, built 'Tor Castle' in the early 15th century. It was torn down by his great, great, great grandson Sir Ewen 'Dubh' Cameron of Lochiel, XVII Chief of Camerons. Achnacarry Castle: Chief Sir Ewen wanted a more 'convenient house' and built Achnacarry Castle circa 1655. New Achnacarry: In 1802, Donald Cameron, XXII Chief built a new mansion house at Achnacarry after repaying a huge fine to the British Government to regain the estates of ancestors. The house remains, near the line of trees that Lochiel (the Gentle) was planting on the day that he heard of the landing of Bonnie Prince Charlie. There is a small museum nearby. Clan profile Clan Cameron tartan, as published in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum, published in 1845. Clan crest: (old): A dexter arm embowed in armor, the hand grasping a sword, all proper, encircled by a belt and buckle. (current): A sheaf of five arrows, proper, tied with a band, gules, encircled by a belt and buckle. Clan motto: (old): Mo Righ's Mo Dhuchaich (translation from Gaelic: For King and Country). (current): Aonaibh Ri Chéile (translation from Gaelic: Let Us Unite). Clan tartans Basic Clan Cameron. Cameron of Lochiel. Cameron of Erracht. Hunting Cameron (of Lochiel). Clan septs Septs lived within the ruling clan's territory. They would pay Tax to the ruling Chief normally in the form of food such as crops and livestock and not necessarily in the form of money. Some septs would sometimes fight alongside the ruling clan during battle while other septs may just have been normal Scottish families who worked on the land. Clark Clarke Clarkson Cleary Clerk Dowie Gibbon Gilbertson Kennedy Leary Lokcick Lonbie Lonie MacAldowie MacAlonie MacChlerich MacChlery MacClair MacClerie MacGillery MacGillonie MacIldowie MacKail MacKell MacLear MacLeary MacLerie MacMartin MacOnie MacOstrich MacOurlic MacPhail MacSorley MacUlric MacUlrig MacVail MacWalrick Martin Paul Sorley Sorlie Taylor Chiefs of Clan Cameron The following is an incomplete list of the chiefs of Clan Cameron of Lochiel, the senior chiefs of Clan Cameron. No. Name Year became chief Details VII John de Cameron Said to have led the clan at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. VIII John Ochtery Cameron Said to have led the clan at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. IX Allan MacOchtery Cameron Son of VIII. Led the clan at the Battle of Drumlui in 1337. While he was chief, the Clan Cameron and Clan Chattan feud began. X Ewen MacAllan Cameron Son of IX; died without issue. XI Donald Dubh Cameron Son of IX. Rose up in support of MacDonald, Lord of the Isles at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. XII Alan Allan MacIldny Cameron Son of XI. Constable of Strome Castle, 1472, for MacDonald of Lochalsh. XIII Ewen Cameron of Lochiel Son of XII. Confirmed lands of Lochiel from King James IV in 1495. Led the clan during the raid on Ross 1491, Battle of Achnashellach 1505, Battle of Flodden Field 1513 and Battle of Shirts 1544. Beheaded for treason at Stirling in 1547. His sons did not ascend to Chief. XIV Ewen 'Beag' Cameron of Lochiel 1547 Also known as Ewen M'Conill M'Ewen. Grandson of XII. Descendents of Beag's illegitimate issue became the clan's Taylor sept. XV Donald Dubh MacDonald MacEwen Cameron 1553 Also known as Donald Dow M'Connel M'Ewen. Younger brother of XIV. Fought at the The Battle of Corrichie in support of Mary, Queen of Scots. XVI Allan Cameron of Lochiel 1569 Son of XV's dead younger brother. Led the clan at the Battle of Glenlivet in 1594. Observed the Battle of Inverlochy, aged 83. XVII Sir Ewen Cameron of Lochiel 1647 Son of XVI's dead first son. Was away in London when his clan fought at the Battle of Mulroy in 1668. XVIII John MacEwen Cameron of Lochiel 1719 Son of XVII. Fought at the Battle of Glenshiel and wounded at the Battle of Culloden. XIX Donald Cameron of Lochiel 1747 Another son of XVII. Also known as 'the gentle Lochiel'. XX John Cameron of Lochiel 1748 Son of XIX. Died unmarried, in exile in Flanders. His younger son was Dr Archibald Cameron of Locheil, executed in 1753 for treason. XXI Charles Cameron of Lochiel 1762 Another son of XIX. XXII Donald Cameron of Lochiel 1776 Son of XXI. XXIII Donald Cameron of Lochiel 1832 Son of XXII. MP. Fought with distinction at the Battle of Waterloo. Retired from the army upon his father's death in 1832. XXIV Donald Cameron, 24th Lochiel 1858 Son of XXIII. XXV Donald Cameron, 25th Lochiel 1905 Son of XXIV. Officer in the Grenadier Guards, was severely wounded at the Battle of Belmont in 1902. XXVI Colonel Sir Donald Hamish Cameron of Lochiel 1951 Son of XXV. Died 2004. XXVII Donald Angus Cameron of Lochiel 2004 Son of XXVI. The current chief of Clan Cameron.

Campbell of Cawdor

Clan Campbell of Cawdor is a highland Scottish clan. While the clan is recognised by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs, the clan does not have a clan chief recognised by the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Also, because the clan does not have a clan chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms it is considered an armigerous clan. In 1510, Muriel, daughter of John, 7th Thane of Calder (or Cawdor), married Sir John Campbell, third son of the 2nd Earl of Argyll. From 1524 to 1546, Sir John Campbell of Cawdor lived at Cawdor Castle, until his death. After Muriel's death in 1573, the Thanedom was resigned in favour of her grandson, John Campbell. In the 17th century, Sir John Campbell of Cawdor sold Croy and disposed of Ferintosh to Lord Lovat, in order to buy the Isle of Islay. Islay was held by the Campbells of Cawdor from 1612-1726 when it was bought by Daniel Campbell of Shawfield. Sir John Campbell, 8th of Cawdor, married Mary, eldest daughter of Lewis Pryce. Campbell of Cawdor died in 1777 and was succeeded by his son, Pryce Campbell of Cawdor, who was a MP for Cromarty and Nairn. His son, John, was made Lord Cawdor of Castlemartin, in 1797. On his death in 1821, he was succeeded by his son, John Fredrick Campbell, 1st Earl of Cawdor. From the 1st Earl of Cawdor descend the Earls of Cawdor. Â Â The Campbell of Cawdor tartan. The tartan is one of several tartans officially authorised by the current chief of Clan Campbell. A modern clan member's crest badge contains the heraldic motto: BE MINDFUL. The Campbell of Cawdor tartan is very similar to other 'Campbell' tartans. This tartan did not originally have a name, until it was called an 'Argyle' tartan in 1789. It wasn't until W. and A. Smith's book was published, in 1850, that was this tartan actually named 'Campbell of Cawdor'. The Campbell of Cawdor tartan is one of only four tartans officially authorised by the current chief of Clan Campbell, Torquhil Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll. Frank Adam, in his The Clans, Septs & Regiments of the Scottish Highlands, listed several septs for Clan Campbell of Cawdor. These were: Caddell and Calder. Adam also wrote that the Campbells of Cawdor were described as 'de Cadella'.

Campbell

Origins of the clan The origins of Clan Campbell are uncertain. The earliest attested Campbell is Gilleasbaig of Menstrie (floruit 1260s), father of Cailean Mór, from whom the chiefs of the clan are thought to have taken their style MacCailean Mór. The byname kambel is recorded at this time. Fanciful reconstructions derive it from the French de Campo Bello, but the likely source is the caimbeul, an Early Modern Irish or Gaelic by name meaning wry mouth, crooked mouth or twisted mouth. Regarding the earlier ancestors of Clan Campbell, there is good evidence that the Campbells themselves traced their descent from an earlier kindred known as the Mac Duibne, or perhaps the Uí Duibne. It has been suggested that the family's early landholdings, around Menstrie, and in Cowal, were related to the partition of the Mormaerdom of Mentieth in 1213, and that Gilleasbuig may have been a kinsman of Mormaer Muireadhach Mór. The lands around Loch Awe, which would later form the core of their possessions, were not held at an early date. The name begins to be established in Argyll at the end of the 13th century, as followers of the Earl of Lennox, with Campbells owning lands in Kintyre and the famous warrior Cailean Mór (Great Colin) knighted (1280) and established at Loch Awe. Cailean Mór's older brother established at Strachur forming the oldest branch of Clan Campbell, see Campbell of Strachur. Between 1200 and 1500 the Campbells emergerd as one of the most powerful families in Gaelic speaking Scotland, dominant in Argyll and capable of wielding a wider influence and authority in the Hebrides and western Highlands. Wars of Scottish Independence The family of Colin Campbell went on to become firm supporters of King Robert the Bruce and benefited from his successes with grants of lands, titles and good marriages. They fought for the Bruce against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. During the 14th century the Clan Campbell rapidly expanded its lands and power. This is partly explained by the loyalty of Sir Niall Campbell (Niall mac Caile), (d.1315), to the cause of Robert I of Scotland (the Bruce) - a loyalty which was rewarded with marriage to Bruce's sister Mary. The family was closely associated with the Bruces and Stewarts in the time of Cailean Mór and his son Sir Niall mac Cailein. Cailean Mór was killed in battle against the Clan MacDougall, enemies of Bruce and Stewart, and Sir Niall was a staunch ally of King Robert Bruce. Cailean Mór's mother Affrica of Carrick was probably the first cousin of King Robert's mother, Marjorie, Countess of Carrick. 15th century & royal relations Descendants of Sir Duncan Campbell, 1st Lord Campbell (Donnchadh) and his wife Lady Marjorie Stewart would be descendants of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland and Robert II Stewart, King of Scotland. Lady Marjorie Stewart, b. 1390 was the daughter of King Robert II's son, Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany. This would make all descendants of Sir Dunchan Campbell and Lady Marjorie Stewart descendants of Robert I Bruce and most of the early Kings of Scotland. The first Lord Campbell was created in 1445. It was from the 15th century that the Campbells came to take an increasingly prominent role. The personal reign of James I of Scotland, saw that king launch a geat political assault on the Albany Stewarts and their allies in the west, however Duncan Campbell, 1st lord Campbell (Donnchadh), escaped the fate of his Albany kinsmen who were all either executed or exiled. Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll (Cailean) was en-nobled as the Earl of Argyll in 1457 and later became Baron of Lorn and was also granted lands in Knapdale, signs that the Argylls were one of the major forces in Scotland. In 1493 after the forfeiture of the MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, the Campbell lords may well have viewed themselves as natural successors to the Clan Donald in terms of leadership of the Gaels of the Hebrides and western Highlands. The Campbell lordship thus remained one of the most significant bastions of Gaelic learning and culture in late medieval and early modern Scotland. 16th century & clan conflicts Scottish clan map. Battle of Flodden Field, 1513, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century the Clan Campbell, led by Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll fought on the side of King James IV of Scotland against an English Army. Many of the powerful Earls of Scotland participated in this battle which is sometimes referred to as the Charge of the Earls. Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, 1547, Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Campbell was among the Scottish forces who fought the English at Pinkie on 10 September 1547. Due to the large number of Scottish lives lost at this battle the 10th of September is remembered today in Scotland as Black Saturday. Battle of Langside 1568, The chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, commanded the forces who fought for Mary, Queen of Scots against the forces of the Regent Moray, who were commanded by William Kirkcaldy of Grange. In 1567, a conflict took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Arthur. Duncan MacArthur and his son of the Loch Awe MacArthur family, became the victims of their own success when jealousy of their power drove neighbours to drown them in Loch Awe during a skirmish with the Clan Campbell. In the archives of Inveraray Castle a charter dated 1567 confirms that a pardon was granted to the Campbells of Inverawe for the 'drowning of Clan Arthur'. It is believed that the MacArthurs trying to defend themselves were driven into the loch. Centuries later in the 1970s an ancient sword was unearthed on the shore of the loch. Battle of Glenlivet, 1594, Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll's forces of Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh fought against the Earl of Huntly who was supported by the Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and the Clan Cameron. 17th century & Civil War During the Civil War, the Clan Campbell fought as Covenanters. In 1644, the Clan Irvine, who were staunch royalist supporters, found themselves surrounded by Covenanter clans. The Irvine's Drum Castle was sacked on May 2, 1644 by the Clan Campbell. A chair with Drum symbols, now in the Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, is believed to have been taken from Drum Castle either in 1644 by the Campbells or in 1640 when a previous raid was carried out by General Robert Monro. Battle of Inverlochy (1645), The Scottish Argyll Covenanter forces of Clan Campbell led by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the Royalist forces of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose mainly made up from Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean and other MacDonald allies from Ireland. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645 James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to Castle Campbell but was unable to beat the Clan Campbell defenders and failed to take the castle. In 1646, the Clan Campbell, neighbours of the Clan Lamont, had steadily encroached the Lamont's lands. After the Battle of Inverlochy in 1645, the Clan Lamont took the opportunity to lay waste to the Campbell's territory. The following year, the powerful Clan Campbell army invaded the Clan Lamont taking their Castles Toward and Ascog. Sir James Lamont surrendered after accepting fair terms for his people, but the Campbells then slaughtered over two hundred of Lamont's men, women and children. Elsewhere, one tree was said to have carried thirty five bodies from its branches, and another thirty six men were buried alive. The two Lamont castles were decimated and Sir James Lamont was thrown into a dungeon for five years. This event became known as the Dunoon Massacre. In 1647, the Argyll government troops of Clan Campbell, led by Stuart A Campbell, attacked and laid siege to Duart Castle of the Clan MacLean, but they were defeated and driven off by the Royalist troops of the Clan MacLean. Battle of Stirling (1648), The forces of Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll were defeated by the forces of Sir George Munro, 3rd of Obsdale who supported the Earl of Lanerick. Among Argyll's dead was William Campbell of Glenfalloch and Sir Colin Campbell of Ardkinglas killed in action. Battle of Altimarlech, 1678, A battle took place between the Clan Campbell and Clan Sinclair. Legend has it that so many Sinclairs were killed that the Campbells were able to cross the river without getting their feet wet. Clearly, however, the Sinclairs had influence in high places as a few years later, in 1681, they regained the earldom by an order of Parliament. In 1678 Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll, son of the Marquess of Argyll, successfully invaded the Clan MacLean lands on the Isle of Mull and garrisons Duart Castle. Later in 1691 Duart Castle was surrendered by the Clan MacLean to the chief of Clan Campbell, Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll. In 1692, 78 unarmed MacDonalds were murdered in the Massacre of Glencoe when a government initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the MacDonalds at the hands of the soldiers, led by Captain Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, after enjoying their hospitality for over a week was a major affront of Scottish Law and Highland tradition. The majority of soldiers were not Campbells, but a roll call from a few months before included six Campbells in addition to Cpt. Robt. Campbell: Corporal Achibald Campbell, Private Archibald Campbell (elder), Private Donald Campbell (younger), Private Archibald Campbell (younger), Private James Campbell, Private Donald Campbell (elder), and Private Duncan Campbell. Retrieved from: Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings The Black Watch tartan, also known as the Government sett, or the Campbell tartan. The tartan was used, and is in current use, by several military units throughout the Commonwealth. 1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising On 23 October 1715, chief John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll having learned that a detachment of rebels was passing by Castle Campbell, towards Dunfermline, sent out a body of cavalry, which came up with the party, and defeated it, taking a number of gentlemen prisoners, with the damage of one dragoon wounded in the cheek, and one horse slightly hurt. A month later the British government forces of Clan Campbell fought and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. However there were in fact a small number Campbells who took the side of the Jacobites led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of Glencoe 22 years earlier. The two young men 'buried the hatchet' and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Sheriffmuir. However the British government forces led by the Argyll Campbells defeated the Jacobites. The Black Watch In 1725 six Independent Black Watch companies were formed. Three from Clan Campbell, one from Clan Fraser, one from Clan Munro and one from Clan Grant. These companies were known by the name Reicudan Dhu, or Black Watch. Taking advantage of the partisan nature and warrior instincts of the highlanders, these men were authorised to wear the kilt and to bear arms, thus it was not difficult to find recruits. The regiment was then officially known as the 42nd Regiment of Foot. 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Clan Campbell continued their support for the British Government. They fought against the rebel Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where government forces were defeated. However shortly afterwards the Clan Campbell held out during the Siege of Fort William. The Jacobites could not defeat the Campbell defenders who had been well supplied. Eventually the Campbells sent out their own force from Fort William who defeated the besieging Jacobites and captured their siege cannons. Soon afterwards men of the Clan Campbell who formed part of Loudon's Highlanders Regiment helped to finally defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Campbell's castles Inveraray Castle, seat of the Duke of Argyll, Chief of Clan Campbell. Inveraray Castle in Argyll is the current seat of the Chief of Clan Campbell. The castle became the centre of the Clan when they abandoned Castle Campbell during the Civil War of the 17th century. Other Campbell lands were scattered across Angus, Ayrshire (Loudoun), Clackmannan (Argyll), Nairnshire (Cawdor) Perthshire, Seahouses (Northumberland). Castle Campbell or Castle Gloom was the seat of the chief of Clan Campbell until 1654 when they moved to Inveraray Castle. Kilchurn Castle was also owned by the Clan Campbell family. Edinample Castle was built in the late 16th century. Carnasserie Castle has belonged to the Clan Campbell since the 16th century. Saddell Castle was owned by the Campbells from the late 17th century onwards. Finlarig Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 17th century. Taymouth Castle built by the Campbells of Breadalbane in the 19th century. Clan profile Origin of the name: Cam Beul (Gaelic for 'Crooked mouth') (Surname) Other Gaelic names: Cambeulach (Singular) &O Duibne (Collective) Motto: Ne Obliviscaris (Latin for 'Forget Not') Slogan: 'Cruachan!' (from the mountain north of Loch Awe, overlooking the bulk of the Campbell lands in Argyll) Pipe music: 'Baile Inneraora' (The Campbells Are Coming) Plant badge: Bog Myrtle Tartans The Campbell tartan as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum. It is also known as the Campbell of Argyll, or Campbell of Lochawe. In the late eighteenth century this tartan was in use by the Duke of Argyll. The tartan is the Black Watch tartan with additional white and yellow stripes. Later Dukes sought to exclude the white and yellow stripes, which they claimed were only used to distinguish Chiefs. Clan Campbell has several recognized tartans: Campbell: More commonly known as the Black Watch tartan or the Government Sett. The Black Watch, first raised in 1725, was the first Highland Regiment in the British Army. All Campbell tartans are based upon the Black Watch tartan, as are many clan tartans. The tartan was used, and is in current use, by several military units throughout the Commonwealth. Campbell of Breadalbane: This tartan may be worn by Campbells of the Breadalbane, or Glenorchy branches. Campbell of Cawdor: This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Cawdor branch. Campbell of Loudoun: This tartan may be worn by members of the Campbell of Loudoun branch. Chief The current clan chief is Torquhil Ian Campbell, 13th Duke of Argyll. The chief's Gaelic title is 'MacCailein Mor' meaning the son of Colin Mor Campbell ('Colin the Great'). Branches Clan Campbell of Argyll Clan Campbell of Breadalbane Clan Campbell of Loudoun Clan Campbell of Cawdor Clan Campbell of Strachur Septs of Clan Campbell Arthur, MacArtair, MacArthur, MacCarter. Bannatyne, Ballantyne. Burnes, Burness, Burnett, Burns. Caddell, Cadell, Calder, Cattell. Connochie, Conochie, MacConachie, MacConchie, MacConnechy, MacConochie. Denoon, Denune. Gibbon, Gibson, MacGibbon, MacGubbin. Harres, Harris, Hawes, Haws, Hawson. Hastings. Isaac, Isaacs, Kissack, Kissock, MacIsaac, MacKessack, MacKessock, MacKissock. Iverson, Macever, Macgure, MacIver, MacIvor, Macure, Orr, Ure. Kellar, Keller, Maceller, MacKellar. Lorne. Louden, Loudon, Loudoun, Lowden, Lowdon. MacColm, MacColmbe, MacLaws, MacLehose, MacTause, MacTavish, MacThomas, Taweson, Tawesson, Thomas, Thomason, Thompson, Thomson. MacDermid, MacDermott, MacDiarmid. MacElvie, MacKelvie. MacGlasrich. MacKerlie. MacNichol. MacNocaird. MacOran. Macowen. MacPhedran, MacPhederain, Paterson. MacPhun. Moore, Muir. Ochiltree. Pinkerton. Torrie, Torry.

Carmichael

Origins of the Clan The name Carmichael originally comes from lands in Lanarkshire which were granted to Sir James Douglas of Clan Douglas in 1321 and by his nephew to Sir John Carmichael between 1374 and 1384.d The name is also used to anglicise MacIlleMhicheil Anglo-Scottish border conflicts The Carmichaels were strong supporters of the Clan Douglas during their struggles for ascendancy, and were with them, fighting the English at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 when the Scots defeated Henry 'Hotspur', Earl of Northumberland. 15th Century The Carmichaels were part of the Scottish Army sent to aid the French against English invasion, and at the Battle of Beauge in 1421 which was part of the Hundred Years' War. Tradition relates, Sir John Carmichael unseated the English commander, Clarence, in so doing broke his spear. This event, according to tradition, gained the Carmichaels their crest of a broken spear. 16th Century Katherine, daughter of Carmichael of Meadowflat, became a mistress of James V of Scotland and bore him a son who thus became half-brother to the ill-fated Mary Queen of Scots. In 1546 Peter Carmichael of Balmedie was one of the murderers of the infamous Cardinal Beaton, and for his crime was sent to the 'galleys' where he shared penance with John Knox, 'father' of Protestantism in Scotland. 17th Century and Civil War Carmichaels were on both sides during Wars of the Three Kingdoms and English Civil War. Lord Carmichael stood on the side of King Charles I but two of his sons fought for the parliamentarians while the other two were Royalists. The brothers were reunited tragically at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644, where one of the royalist sons, John Carmichael was killed fighting against his own elder brothers, one of whom commanded the Clydesdale Regiment. In 1647 Sir James Carmichael became Lord Carmichael and his son became Earl of Hyndford in 1701. The principal family became allied to the Clan Anstruther by the marriage of Lady Margaret, daughter of the 2nd Earl, to Sir John Anstruther whose descendants inherited the Carmichael lands on the death of the 6th Earl of Hyndford in 1817. This family then took the name Carmichael - Anstruther which they continued until the succession of the present chief who resumed the family name in 1980. Clan Chief The last direct male descendant of the senior branch of the family was Andrew Carmichael. He was the sixth Earl of Hyndford, 7th Lord Carmichael, 18th Baron and 23rd Chief of the Clan Carmichael who died unmarried in 1817. The estate then passed to a direct descendant in the female line of the senior branch, while the chiefship passed to a direct male descendant of the Balmedie branch. In 1980, Richard Carmichael was a 32 year old aspiring accountant residing in New Zealand. Upon the death of his cousin Sir Windham Carmichael-Anstruther, the 25th Baron of Carmichael, he learned of his inheritance of the Barony of Carmichael. The previous (29th) Chief, Evelyn George Carmichael of the Balmedie line, had died in 1959 so that the chiefship had become dormant. He had three daughters and Richard petitioned the Court of the Lord Lyon with the support of the eldest daughter, Hermione Colville, and was officially recognized in 1981 as both the 30th Chief of the Name and Arms, and the 26th Baron of Carmichael, by virtue of his being descended through the female line of James, second Earl of Hyndford and third Lord Carmichael. Thus, Richard reunited the Barony and the chiefship which had been separated since Andrew's death in 1817. Clan Castles Castles belonging to the Carmichaels included Maudslie castle, Eastend, Carmichael house, Crawford Castle and Fenton Tower. Cadet Families Cadet families included those of Meadowflat in Lanarkshire and Balmedie in Fife. Many Carmichaels in Galloway became MacMichaels', and in Argyll some MacMichaels became 'Carmichaels', and it is this latter race only who are allied with the Appin Stewarts.

Carnegie

History Origins of the Clan The Carnegies took their name from the area around Carmyllie, Angus. The family who adopted this name however, were originally known under an earlier adopted placename of Balinhard which is also in Angus. The Balinhards can be found in records from 1230. In 1358 John of Balinhard was granted the lands and barony of Carnegie by Walter de Maule. He became John the 1st of Carnegie and lived until 1370. John Carnegie of that Ilk was his successor and a direct family line ran from him until 1530. It was in 1409 that Duthac of Carnegie acquired part of the lands of Kinnaird and an important Carnegie line developed in this area. 16th Century & Anglo Scottish Wars In the 16th century during the Anglo Scottish Wars with England the Clan Chief John Carnegie of Kinnaird led the clan against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where he was slain. The son of John Carnegie was called Robert who fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 where he was captured and taken prisoner. When Robert was released he was knighted and made Scotland's ambassador to France in 1556. Robert was also the first of the Carnegies to claim that his ancestors were the cup bearers to the Kings of Scotland. This royal office is remembered in the family arms which bear an ancient cup. 17th Century & Civil War In 1616 Sir David Carnegie, 8th of Kinnaird, was made Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird. In 1633 he was created Earl of Southesk. The second Earl James was imprisoned by Oliver Cromwell for his Royalist beliefs. He was known as the 'Black Earl' because he reputedly learned magic at Padau. James Carnegie, second Earl of Southesk, succeeded his father in 1658, although he was nearly killed in a duel with the Master of Gray in London in 1660. The younger son of the third Earl was not so fortunate in his duelling career and was killed in Paris in 1681 by William, son of the Duchess of Lauderdale. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings Descending from a younger son of the 1st Earl of Southesk was Sir James Carnegie of Pittarrow, the distinguished soldier. In 1663 this line was created Baronets of Nova Scotia. During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715, Lord Southesk and Glengarry worked closely in the Jacobite Army. Clan Tartan The Carnegie tartan, based on the Glengarry tartan, was adopted in these times. Clan Seat The family seat today is at Kinnaird Castle, Brechin in Angus.

Cathcart

Origins of the Clan As well as being a surname Cathcart is a Scottish town just south of Glasgow. There is some speculation as to the origin of the name Cathcart. Some believe it is ancient Celtic meaning, 'Fort on the River Cart', as that river flows right past the ancient castle. Others believe it means, 'The straight or confined part of the Cart River'. Be that as it may, the name is ancient, but originally spelled Kerkert or Kethkert, probably because of pronunciation. The Peerage refers to the Clan Cathcart. The first known mention of the Kethcarts, is a man named Rainaldus de Kethcart, who witnessed a charter by Walter Fitzalan to the Church of Kethcart for the monastery of Paisley in 1178. Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Cathcart land, south of Glasgow. Notable Cathcarts include Sir Alan Cathcart, who was a companion of King Robert I when he mounted the Scottish throne in 1307, and was engaged on his side at the Battle of Loudoun Hill that same year, when the Scots defeated the English. The Peerage quotes an old poem about the bravery of Sir Alan who accompanied King Robert the Bruce and his good humour. The following year, he was made one of Edward Bruce's party of 50 horsemen who attacked and dispersed 1,500 cavalry under John de St. John in Galloway. The peerage quotes on old poem about Sir Alan's bravery and good humor. Another notable was the first Lord Cathcart, dignified with the honour in 1447 by King James II of Scotland. 16th century and Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars Alan Cathcart the son of the second Lord Cathcart was killed with his two half brothers Robert and John when the Clan Cathcart fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. The third Lord Cathcart led the clan at against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh where he was killed in 1547. Alan Cathcart the fourth Lord Cathcart led the clan at the Battle of Langside in 1568 on the side of the James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray against the army of Mary Queen of Scots. During the 16th Century Killochan Castle was built by John Cathcart in 1586. 18th century & Jacobite uprisings The eighth Lord Cathcart, Charles Cathcart had a distinguished military career rising to the rank of colonel. When the first Jacobite Uprising broke out in 1715 he commanded troops in support of the British government at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. When the second Jacobite Uprising broke out in 1745 the Charles Cathcart, 9th Lord Cathcart commanded troops in support of the British government at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 where he was shot in the face and wounded. He commaanded the Royal Scots 1st Regiment of Foot which today is called The Royal Scots. Napoleonic Wars William Cathcart, the tenth Lord Cathcart accompanied his father to Russia. When he returned to Scotland he took up legal studies and was called to the Bar in 1776. When he succeeded his fathers title he gave up legal studies and returned to the army. He rose to the rank of lieutenant general and was commander in chief of the forces in Ireland. He was also created a Knight of the Thistle. During the Napoleonic Wars in 1807 as Napoleon's troops were about to take control of Denmark, Lord Cathcart with Admrial Gambier successfully besieged Copenhagen and captured the Danish fleet of over 60 vessels together with naval stores and munitions. He was rewarded with the titles Viscount Cathcart and Baron of Greenock. In june 1814 he was made Earl Cathcart. The second Earl Cathcart also had a distinguished military career and served throughout the Peninsular War, fighting at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. He was also the commander of the British Army in Scotland and governor of Edinburgh Castle from 1837 to 1842. Castle Cathcart Castle was the seat of the Earl Cathcart, chief of Clan Cathcart.

Charteris

Origins of the Name Chartres, the French city famed for its cathedral, is claimed as the origin of this name. William, a son of the Lord of Chartres, is said to have come to England with the Norman Conquest, and his son or grandson came north to Scotland with the retinue of David I. One of the earliest references to the name is found in a charter to the Abbey of Kelso around 1174, where the name appears in its Latin version, de Carnoto. Origins of the Clan One of the earliest references to the name Chateris is found in a charter to the Abbey of Kelso around 1174, where the name appears in its Latin version, de Carnoto. In 1266 a charter of confirmation provides evidence of four generations: Robert de Carnoto, knight, is said to be the son of Thomas, who was himself son of Thomas, son of Walther. Sir Thomas de Charteris was appointed Lord High Chancellor of Scotland by Alexander III of Scotland in 1280, the first person to hold this office who was not also a clergyman. Wars of Scottish Independence Andrew de Charteris rendered homage to Edward I of England in the Ragman Rolls of 1296, but soon took up arms to fight for Scotland's independence, for which later his estates were forfeited to Balliol, the English-sponsored King of Scots. During the Wars of Scottish Independence his son, William, was an adherent of King Robert Bruce and was with him when John Comyn was slain at Dumfries in 1306. Sir Thomas Charteris was appointed Lord High Chancellor by David II of Scotland. 16th Century & Clan Conflicts Feud with Clan Kilpatrick 1526, A feud appears to have developed between the Charterises and the Clan Kilpatrick of Kirkmichael. In Pitcairn's Criminal Trials of Scotland it is recorded that in March 1526 John Charteris of Amisfield, his brother and his two sons were charged with the murder of Roger Kilpatrick, son of Sir Alexander Kilpatrick of Kirkmichael. Dual with Sir James Douglas of Clan Douglas 1530, A more noble dispute occurred in 1530, when Sir Robert Charteris, the eighth Laird, fought a duel with Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig from Clan Douglas in what was said to have been one of the last great chivalric contests. It was fought with all the observance of a medieval tournament with heralds and the king himself watching from the castle walls. The joust was apparently fought with such fury that Charteris' sword was broken and the king had to send his men-at-arms to part the combatants. Battle with the Clan Ruthven 1544, In 1544 the Ruthvens who held considerable sway over Perth from their nearby Castle of Huntingtower, often disputed the authority of the Charterises, which led to a bitter and bloody feud. In 1544 Patrick, Lord Ruthven, was elected Provost of Perth, but at the instigation of Cardinal Beaton, who suspected Ruthven of Protestant sympathies, he was deprived of the office, and John Charteris of Kinfauns was appointed in his stead. The city declined to acknowledge Charteris, and barred the gates against him. Charteris, along with Lord Gray and Clan Leslie, gathered their forces and attacked the town. They were repulsed by the Ruthvens who were assisted by their neighbours the Clan Moncreiffe, and Charteris was forced to flee. The Ruthvens remained Provosts of Perth until William Ruthven, Earl of Gowrie, was executed in 1584. In 1552 John Charteris had been killed by the earl's heir in the High Street in Edinburgh. 17th Century & Civil War The Clan Charteris led by John Charteris of Amsfield initially supported the Covenanters however they refused to take up arms against King Charles I, for this John Charteris was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle for two years. When he was released he joined the Royalist James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose where the clan fought at the Battle of Philiphaugh in 1645. John's brother Alexander Charteris also followed Montrose and was captured and executed in Edinburgh Castle in 1650. Alexander met his end at the hands of 'the maiden' Scotland's own guillotine. This gruesome device is still on display in Edinburgh's Museum of Antiquities. Branches of the Clan Another branch of the Charteris family which long disputed the chiefship with their Dumfriesshire cousins were the Charterises of Kinfauns in Perthshire. They are said to have received the lands of Kinfauns as a reward for supporting the cause of Robert the Bruce against the English.

Chattan

Origin of name The origin of the name Chattan is disputed. There are three main theories The name derives from the Catti, a tribe of Gauls, driven out by the advancing Romans. The name is taken from Cait, an ancient name for the present counties of Caithness and Sutherland. The clan derives its name from Gillchattan Mor, baillie of Ardchattan, follower of St Cattan. This is the most widely accepted theory. Clan Chattan Until the early 14th century the Clan Chattan was a seperate Scottish clan with its own chieftencey, until Angus Mackintosh, 6th chief of Clan Mackintosh married Eva, the daughter of Gilpatric Dougal Dall, the 6th chief of Clan Chattan. Thus Angus Mackintosh became 6th chief of Clan Mackintosh and 7th chief of the Clan Chattan. The two clans united to form the Chattan Confederation, headed by the chief of Clan Mackintosh. Chiefs of Clan Chattan The following is a list of the traditional chiefs of the Clan Chattan before uniting with the Clan Mackintosh to form the Chattan Confederation: No. Name 6 Dougal or Gilpatric, daughter married 6th chief of Clan Mackintosh. 5 Gillicattan 4 Muirach 3 Gillicattan 2 Diarmid 1 Gillcarten Mor, first known chief of Clan Chattan. Chattan Confederation History The Chattan Confederation formed when the Clan Chattan and Clan Mackintosh united under the Mackintosh chief. See chiefs of Clan Mackintosh. During the War of Independence with England, the clan sided with Robert I of Scotland, most likely due to the fact that MacKintosh's enemy, John Comyn had declared for Edward Balliol. In reward for his fealty, MacKintosh was awarded the Comyn lands of Benchar in Badenoch in 1319. It was after this event that the Chattan Confederation grew in size and influence to 17 tribes. During the 1745 Jacobite Rising, Angus, the chief of Clan MacKintosh was a captain in the Black Watch. Although traditionally the Clan supported the House of Stewart they had not declared for the Young Pretender. Angus's wife, Anne, of Farquharson, successfully rallied the Chattan Confederation to the Jacobite cause. Following the defeat at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 the clan was severely diminished in strength and influence. In 1747 the Clan Chattan Association was established as a way to stimulate interest in the clan history. The Association floundered and a second Association was founded in 1893, but again died out around 1900. The third Association was founded in 1933 in London and continues to this day. In 1942, the Lyon court separated the leadership of Clan MacKintosh and Clan Chattan. The leadership of Clan Chattan passed to the Mackintosh of Torcastle line. Clan Chattan Association The activities of the Clan are now carried on by the Clan Chattan Association. The first Clan Chattan Association was established in 1727 with the aim of watching and defending the interests of the clan 'against all who would seek the injury of any of its subscribers'. It might be seen as an unsuccessful attempt to recast the clan in modern form. The development of clan societies, as we now know them, aimed to provide friendly social intercourse between those linked by a common name and to stimulate interest in the knowledge and understanding of their clan's history. The writings of Sir Walter Scott romanticised the Highlands and led to the revival of interest in the affairs, culture and economic wellbeing of its people. The fashion for 'all things Highland' was at its peak once Queen Victoria fell in love with the land and acquired the estate of Balmoral. In that era, many clan societies and associations emerged, among them the second Clan Chattan Association which was founded in Glasgow in 1893. Support for the Association was strong and the meetings, lectures and dances were described as 'a brilliant success'. Despite a growing membership, the Association waned and died around the turn of the century. Even so the clan historians of the period had produced several works of merit which are still of value today. There was little concerted activity until, in the summer of 1933, a few enthusiastic clansfolk in London founded the third Clan Chattan Association. It has flourished to the present day and now has a world-wide membership although it remains firmly based in Scotland. The Association is sustained by a group of active office bearers. It continues to organise successful activities such as the annual events which take place at Moy Hall in conjunction with the Highland Field Sports Fair towards the beginning of August. Although scattered throughout the world, members are kept informed of these and other events through the annual journal of the Clan Chattan Association. The cover of the journal features a cat 'salient proper on a wreath' - of red whortleberry and a scroll with the motto 'Touch not the cat bot a glove'. The Association's journal seeks to promote a knowledge of Clan Chattan - its past, present and future. Clans of the Clan Chattan Association The clans that currently make up the Clan Chattan Association are as follows: Clan Davidson Clan Farquharson Clan MacBain Clan MacGillivray Clan Macintyre of Badenoch Clan Mackintosh Clan MacLean of Dochgarroch Clan MacPhail Clan Macpherson Clan MacQueen Clan MacThomas Clan Shaw Clan chief and the Council of Clan Chattan Chief of Clan Chattan In 1942 the leadership of Clan Chattan was passed from the Mackintosh of Mackintosh line, to the Mackintosh of Torcastle line. The current chief, MacKintosh of Torcastle, resides in Zimbabwe. The Council of Clan Chattan There is currently a council of eight chiefs, representing the major clans of the Chattan.. John Mackintosh of Mackintosh (President). Captain A.A.C. Farquharson of Invercauld. Honourable Sir Wm. McPherson of Cluny. John Shaw of Tordarroch. James McBain of McBain. Alister Davidson of Davidston. Andrew McThomas of Finegand. The Very Reverend Allan MacLean of Dochgarroch. Clan profile Plant badge: Red Whortleberry lat. vaccinium vitis-idaea Crest badge: A cat salient, proper. Clan chief's motto: Touch not the catt bot a glove. 'Bot' may mean 'without' or 'ungloved', either being a warning to those who would harm the clan. Tartan The individual Clans of the Chattan Confederation had their own. There is a Clan Chattan tartan, formerly known as Mackintosh Chief, recognised by Lord Lyon in 1938.

Chisholm

Origins of the Clan The early Scottish Chisholms were not to be found in the Highlands, but owned land near the English border. In 1296, in the Ragman Rolls, John de Chesolm (Chesehelm) was described as 'of the county of Berwick' and Richard de Chesolm (Chesehelm) as 'of the county of Roxburgh', while in 1335 Alexander de Chesholme was called 'Lord of Chesholme in Roxburgh and Paxtoun in Berwickshire.' In Scottish Gaelic, the name is rendered 'Sìosal' or Sìosalach'. Wars of Scottish Independence Robert Chisholm fought against the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, was taken prisoner with King David II and probably not released until eleven years later when his royal master returned to Scotland. In 1359 Robert Chisholm succeeded his grandfather as Constable of Urquhart Castle, and later became Sheriff of Inverness and Justiciar of the North. This Robert was the last Chisholm to hold lands in both the North and South of Scotland. He divided his estates among his younger children. Clan Conflicts Battle of John o' Groats; Hugh Freskin Sutherland is said to have strengthened the family's royal favor by ridding the north of a ferocious band of robbers lead by Harold Chisholm. Among the crimes, a number of Sutherland churchmen were tortured by nailing horseshoes to their feet and making them dance to entertain the followers before putting them savagely to death. On hearing of this outrage, King William the Lion ordered Hugh of Sutherland to pursue Chisolm to the death and a great fight ensued near John o' Groats. All of the robbers were either killed or captured. Harold Chisolm and the other leaders were given a punishment to fit the crime, horse shoeing and hanging. The rest were gelded to prevent any offspring from men who were so detestable. This seems to have been a frequent punishment of the time. In 1198 an entire sept of the Clan Sinclair were castrated for the killing of the Bishop of Caithness. The Chisholms became well known for cattle raiding. In 1498 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and others carried off 56 oxen, 60 cows, 300 sheep, 80 swine and 15 horses belonging to Hugh Rose of the Clan Rose. Later in 1513 Wiland Chisholm of Comar and Sir Alexander MacDonald of Glengarry were with Sir Donald MacDonald of Lochalsh on his return from the Battle of Flodden Field when he decided to invade the Clan Urquhart. Some sources say that Macdonald occupied Urquhart Castle for three years despite the efforts of Clan Grant to dislodge them. Civil War In 1647, Alexander Chisholm was appointed to the committee which arranged the defence of Inverness on behalf of the Covenanters against the Royalists. In 1653 the Chisholms stole cattle from the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser, they were however captured and brought to court where they were ordered to return all they had stolen and pay the Chief Munro of Foulis and Chief of Clan Fraser £1000 interest each. After the Stuart restoration in 1660, Alexander followed his father as a Justice of the Peace, and in 1674 was appointed Sheriff Depute for Inverness. Once again his duties brought him up against the MacDonalds, for in 1679 he was ordered to lead a thousand men of the county to quell a disturbance created by some members of the clan, and in 1681 he was given a commission of fire and sword against them. Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite uprisings the Chisholms sided with their old enemies the Clan MacDonald in support of the Jacobites against the British Government. The Clan Chisholm took part in the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Another portion of the Clan was on the Government side at Culloden. After the battle, the officer leading the Government Chisholms was declared The Chisholm, the head of the Clan. Clan Chief The present Chief is Andrew Francis Hamish Chisholm of Chisholm, Thirty-third Chief of Clan Chisholm. Clan Castle The seat of the Clan Chisholm was at Erchless Castle, which was sold in 1937.

Cochrane

Origins of the Name The name Cochrane is believed to originate from the lands of Coueran, Cochrane near Paisley in Renfrewshire.It is also believed that some people of the name MacEacherns changed their name to Cochrane when they came to the Scottish Lowlands to conceal their identity. Another theory is that after fighting so ferociously in a battle, an early family member was praised by his leader as 'brave fellow'. In the Gaelic they spoke he would have pronounced him 'coch ran'. Another Gaelic manipulation of the words 'battle cry' or 'the roar of battle' leads to Cochrane. The first recorded Cochrane in Scotland was Waldeve de Cochrane who witnessed a charter in favour of the 5th Earl of Menteith in 1262. 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries In 1456 Robert Cochrane of Cochrane resigned the lands of Cochrane to his successor Allen Cochrane who received a charter from King James II of Scotland. Edward Cochrane was accused but cleared of having anything to do with the detention of King James III of Scotland at Edinburgh Castle in 1482. In 1592 the Clan MacKintosh sacked Auchindoun Castle which belonged to the Clan Cochrane. Sir William Cochrane was created 1st Earl of Dundonald in 1669. After the death of the 7th Earl, the descendants of Sir William's second son became the Earls. Napoleonic Wars The Cochranes are known to have played an important role during the Napoleonic Wars. Most notably Thomas Cochrane (1775-1860) the 10th Earl of Dundonald who joined the Royal Navy at the age of 18. He was known as Lord Cochrane, he became famous when he captured a Spanish Frigate whose crew out numberd his six to one, with 32 heavy guns. He followed this by defending Trinidad Castle against the French in 1808. Clan Castles Castles that have belonged to the Cochranes have included: Auchindoun Castle, Johnstone Castle.

Colquhoun

Origins of the Clan In the thirteenth century Maol Domhnaich, Earl of Lennox granted the lands of Colquhoun, located in Dunbartonshire, to Humphry de Kilpatrick. Humphry's son, Ingelram de Colquhoun, who lived in the reign of Alexander III, was the first person recorded as taking Colquhoun as a surname. Around 1368, Luss, on Loch Lomond, was acquired by Sir Robert Colquhoun through marriage. From then on the chiefship has been described as of Colquhoun and Luss. His grandson Iain Colquhoun of Luss married Margaret, the daughter of the Earl of Lennox. When James I returned from English imprisonment a few years later in 1424, one of the people he took his vengeance upon was the unsupportive Lennox. Lennox's position was devastated, and Iain of Luss took advantage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox. By 1427 he was Sheriff of Dumbarton and by 1439 he was dead, like his King, killed by those he had treated so badly. By way of compensation, James II made Luss a free barony for Colquhoun's grandson Sir Iain. It remained this way until the 1745 Jacobite rising. 15th to 16th Centuries In 1424 the Clan Lennox was decimated and Iain Colqhoun of Luss took advantage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox. Sir John Colquhoun of Luss was appointed governor of Dumbarton Castle during the minority of King James II of Scotland, and was murdered in 1439 during a raid at Inchmurrin. He was succeeded by his son, also Sir John, who rose to be Comptroller of the Royal Household, and extended considerably the family estates. In 1457 he received a charter incorporating all his lands into the free barony of Luss. The forests of Rossdhu and Glenmachome together with the lands of Kilmardinny, followed a year later. In 1474 he was part of the embassy to King Edward IV of England, seeking to negotiate a marriage between the infant James IV and Edward's daughter, Cecilia. He fought at the siege of Dunbar Castle, held by rebels against the king, where he was killed by a canonball. The Clan Colquhoun were among the clans who fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547, where the Colquhoun chief was killed. Clan chiefs from Clan Hunter, Clan Macfarlane, Clan Munro and Clan Farquharson also died at this battle. A good clan chief was expected to lead by example; this meant being first into battle at the head of the clan. For this reason many clan chiefs died during battle. Because of the awful number of Scottish lives lost at the Battle of Pinkie the 10th of September is known in Scotland as 'Black Saturday'. 17th Century The Battle of Glen Fruin saw Luss invaded by the Clan Gregor in 1603 and the defeat of five hundred Colquhoun men, three hundred of whom were on horseback, by four hundred MacGregor men. Over two hundred of the Colquhoun men were lost when the MacGregors, who had split into two parties, attacked from front and rear and forced the horsemen onto the soft ground of the Moss of Auchingaich. It meant the proscription of the Clan Gregor. It wasn't until the eighteenth century that the enmity between the clans was interred when, at Glen Fruin on the site of the massacre, the chiefs of the Clan Gregor and Colquhoun met and shook hands. The 11th Laird of Luss, Sir John Colquhoun, became a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1625. Seven years later, however, he vanished along with Lady Catherine Graham, his wife's sister. He was accused of using witchcraft and sorcery to woo her and never returned to clear his name. 18th Century Sir Humphrey Colquhoun, fifth Baronet, represented Dunbartonshire in the last Scottish Parliament in 1703, and strongly opposed the Treaty of Union. On 30 March 1704, having no male heir, he resigned his baronetcy to the Crown and obtained a new patent, allowing the title to pass on his death to the male issue of his daughter's husband, James Grant of Pluscardine. When Pluscardine's elder brother died, he succeeded to the substantial estates of his father and once more assumed the name of Grant. He was ancestor of the Earls of Seafield and the Barons Strathspey, on whom the baronetcy devolved. Sir James Grant Colquhoun, fourth son of James Grant and Ann Colquhoun, succeeded to the Colquhoun estates, and built the grand mansion of Rossdhu which was until recently the seat of the chiefs. Clan Colquhoun today Sir Ivar Colquhoun, 30th Laird of Luss and 32nd Chief of Colquhoun succeeded as chief of the clan in 1948. He was the longest serving chief of the clan having served as chief for almost 60 years until his death in 2008. Upon his death he was succeeded by his surviving son Malcolm. Clan profile Clan chief: Sir Malcolm Rory Colquhoun of Luss, 9th Baronet of Luss Clan septs The Clan Colquhoun Society of the United Kingdom considers the following names as septs of Clan Colquhoun. However several of the names are claimed by other clans, including Clan Gregor - traditional enemy of Clan Colquhoun. Cowan, Ingram, Kilpatrick, King, Kirkpatrick, Laing, McCowan, McMain, McManus, McLintock and McOwan.

Colville

Origins of the Clan The name Colville is believed to be of ancient Norman origin. It is believed to be derived from the town of Colleville -Sur-Mur in Normandy, France. The word 'Col' meaning dark and swarthy and the word 'Ville' meaning Village or 'Castle on the Hill'. Colville might also have come from the French word 'Col' meaning 'neck' or 'pass' and Colville would then be simply the 'village in the pass'. The first Colville found in Scotland was William De Colville. He is noted as receiving the Baronies of Ochiltree and Oxnam. He also received baronies in Oxnam and Heton in Roxburghshire together with other lands in Ayrshire. William de Colville also received the barony of Kinnaird in Stirlingshire. In 1174, Phillip De Colville was sent to Scotland as a hostage for the release of William the Lion. He apparently took up residence in Scotland and established the two noble lineage's of Culross and Ochiltree. (This is hardly right as William was a captive of the English and they would scarcely send a hostage to Scotland in these circumstances) Thomas Colville le Scot of Dalmellington & Carsphairn and sometime Sherrif of Dumfries was an important member of William's court as can be seen by the good number of William's charters to which he was a witness (along with many other notables of that time). He was obviously given the oversight of the valley of the Ken the most westerly valley leading into South West Scotland. This may also have been a land route between Galloway and Carrick (only recently separated from the southern part). Thomas was arrested for treason late in William's reign but was allowed to ransom himself and died some years later in relative obscurity. Interestingly the nickname 'le Scot' seemed reserved at that period of history for the descendents of David of Huntingdon eg: John le Scot and Isabella le Scot. Whether or not it has any such significance for Thomas Colville le Scot is not known and worthy of further research. Noteworthy other Colville's of that time (and later) did not bear the appellation 'le Scot'. A theory is that this particular 'Colville' was known as 'le Scot' because of his Scots ancestry and to distinguish him from the 'other' Colville family with Norman ancestry. An alternative origin of the name Colville in Scotland can be to associate it with the lost vil of Colwella or Colewell - one of the 12 vills granted to the church by King Oswy and mentioned in the History of St Cuthbert. It is also mentioned as Colewell in 1328 as the name of a place in West Newton (Northumberland County History xi 152). In the Ragman's Roll Thomas Colville le Scot is recorded as Thomas de Coleuill and in charters of William the Lion he and Phillip de Colville have their names spelled similarly. This 'fenchification' of their surname might just as much be the result of the then language of the court than demonstrating a Norman French origin. The location of Colewell is not that far distant from Oxnam and Heton not to be associated with these places. There is every chance that the original bearers of the surname were English speaking and a good possibility that the Scots family of Caldwell may have been an offshoot that chose a more Anglian variant of the common source. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts In 1405 on the 20th August Sir John De Colville and his wife Alice D'Arcy from Arncliff, Dale, England were beheaded at Durham. For what reason is not known. For many years the two families of Colville and Auchinleck had been on good terms. Both families built castles on opposite sides of the River Lugar. In 1449 during the reign of King James II of Scotland the two families of Colville and Auchinleck had been on friendly enough terms that a rope was passed between the two castles over the river. Communications were often sent back and forth on the rope by means of a ring to which a message was attached. Often fights occurred between the families on the messages sent back and forth on the rope. This came to a climax when Sir Richard Colville killed John Auchinleck. It is believed that Auchinleck sent Colville a wrapped parcel containing the bones of a sheep head. The Colvilles saw this as an insult and the family friendships were over. From now on it was nothing but war between the two families. The Laird of Auchinleck at this time was at this time going to pay a visit to his powerful ally, Lord William Douglas of the powerful House of Douglas. When Colville learned of this he sent his son Richard Colville to carry out his act of revenge. Sir Richard Colville and his clan waited for them, at a quiet part of a road and ambushed Auchinleck and his followers. Auchinleck was there killed. The Earl of Douglas did not wait for judge and jury and took matters into his own hands and flew to avenge his friend. The Earl of Douglas at the head of his Douglas troops attacked the Colvilles, besieging their castle, where many were killed. Douglas leveled Colville's Ochiltree Castle to the ground and put Colville and his men to the sword. Douglas dragged the captured Colville Knight of Ochiltree back to Cumnock. The group was about to cross a stream when as legend has it Sir Richard Colville remarked that a witch had foreseen that he would die at this very spot. Douglas fulfilled the prophecy by putting Colville to death on the spot. However Douglas to would later suffer for his acts as he was stabbed to death by the King himself at Stirling Castle. After this the Clan Colville decided to rebuild in a new area. They chose a stretch of land that filled the angle between where the River Lugar and River Burnock meet. In 1498, Hugh Campbell of Loudon from Clan Campbell, Sheriff of Ayrshire also had a family feud with the Colville's of Ochiltree. The Campbell's had the advantage over the Colvilles due to the backup of his law officials. Sir William Colville appealed to the Royal Authority, to grant he and his tenants exemption from the jurisdiction of the Campbell sheriff. 16th Century Anglo-Scottish Wars & Clan Conflicts The feud that started between the Clan Colville and the House of Douglas went on for many years and in the end in 1502 Robert and Henry Douglas were ordered to labour, occupy and restore the lands of Farnesyde and Hardane, because of the oppression against Sir William Colville, and for the theft of oxen from Sir William Colville. Plus this wasn't the last they saw of punishment. In the same year John and William Douglas were convicted of oppression and convocation of the lieges upon Sir William Colville, basically murdering Colville. Along with their conviction was George Haliburton for the part of slaughter of Sir William Colville of Ochiltree. In 1513 during the Anglo-Scottish Wars Robert Colville the successor of William Colville was respected as a man of high character and was honoured of his sovereign. He was the stewart of Queen Margaret and master to the household of King James IV of Scotland. He led the clan at the Battle of Flodden Field against the English where he was slain with the King. In 1530, Sir James Colville transferred the barony of Ochiltree to Sir James Hamilton of Finnart and years later it was passed to Andrew Stewart, Lord Evandale. 17th Century & Civil War Sir James Colville, third of Easter Wemyss, was a distinguished soldier who fought in France for Henry, Prince of Navarre, later King Henry IV. He returned to Scotland in 1582 along with Francis Stewart, Earl of Bothwell, loaded down with commendations from his French patrons. In 1604 he was raised to the peerage with the title of 'Lord Colville of Culross', which title the chiefs still bear. The second Lord Colville, who had succeeded to his grandfather's title in 1620, died without issue in 1640. His cousin was heir to the title but did not assume it, and it remained dormant until 1723. In 1675 after the Civil War the Clan Montgomery who were crippled by debts after supporting the Royalists against Oliver Cromwell sold the Lordship and Manor of Newtown to Captain Robert Colville for £10,640. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings The Clan Colville with the majority of Scotland supported the British Government during Jacobite Uprisings. In 1744, Robert Colville, under the influence of his mistress, sold Newtownards to Alexander Stewart for the sum of £42,000. In 1746, Honorable Charles Colville fought at the Battle of Culloden, commanding the British 21st Regiment of Foot which was made from Scottish soldiers and is today the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He obtained the rank of lieutenant general before his death in 1775. Its worth noting as well that a Colville named Alexander served in the Royal Navy, becoming a captain in 1744. He was promoted to the rank of commodore and given command of the Northumberland. He held the rank of Vice Admiral for a decade. The Clan today Today, Lord Colville, Viscount Colville of Culross a member of the House of Lords, is currently the Clan Chieftain. The title is held by this family and Lord Colville (the 13th Lord Colville of Culross) gained the title in 1945.

Cranstoun

History Origins of the clan The name Cranstoun comes from the Barony of Cranstoun in Midlothian. The family owned lands in the counties of Edinburgh and Roxburgh. The first known person of the Cranstoun family was Elfric de Cranstoun who was a witness to a charter by William the Lion in Holyrood in about 1170. Around that time he also appears in a deed between Robert de Quincy and the Abbot of Newbattle. 16th century The Cranstouns of that Ilk prospered until they became mixed up in the unstable political situation of 1592. Thomas and John Cranston were amongst those accused of treason for assisting the Earl of Bothwell in his attack on the palace of Holyrood House. The Croanstoun family are known to have lived up to their motto ''thou shalt want before I want' as they are known to have often taken part in the boarder clan raids of England. 17th century & Civil War The Clan Cranstoun took the side of the Royalists during the Civil War. The clan was led by chief, third Lord Cranston at the Battle of Worcester in 1651 where he was captured. He launguished in the Tower of London. All of his estates were forfeited apart from a small amount that were left for his family and children. Napoleonic Wars James, eighth Lord Cranstoun, was a distinguished officer in the Royal Navy who commanded HMS Bellerophon in a squadron of only seven ships which was attacked on 17 June 1795 by a French fleet three times larger. After a running battle which lasted more than twelve hours, the French were completely defeated, and eight ships of the line were destroyed. Lord Cranstoun was later appointed Governor of Grenada, but before he could set foot upon the island, he died, it is believed of lead poisoning, in 1796. The peerage became extinct in 1813.

Crawford

Clan Crawford is an ancient lowland House recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, which is the heraldic authority of Scotland, as an armigerous clan. More properly a 'House' as most of the lowland families were titled, Clan Crawford is considered armigerous because Crawfords are matriculated with the Lyon Court as armigers.The clan is without a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The last internally recognized chief was Hugh Ronald George Craufurd, who sold his land (Auchenames, Crosbie and other estates) and moved to Canada in 1904. He died in Calgary in 1942, leaving no male heirs. The House of Crawford considers all those surnamed Crawford as descended from a common ancestor. The name Crawford or Craufurd is derived from the Barony of Crawford in Lanarkshire. The most complete history of the House of Crawford was written by the historian George Crawfurd in the early 1600s. In line with George Crawfurd account, the House acknowledges as its progenitor the Anglo-Danish chief Thorlongus (Thor the tall) who is most closely identified with the Merse in Southern Scotland, a marshy area west of Berwick and north of the River Tweed. Thorlongus also held lands in Northumbria. He fled to Scotland in the winter of 1068-9 when William the Conqueror ravaged Northumbria. Thorlongus served under Malcom Cadmore during the Dano-Scottish war with William the Conqueror. He was granted lands in Ednam by King Edgar around 1107. Thorlongus is known in documents located in Durham Cathedral Archives as the Overlord of Crawford. Thorlongus' grandson Galfridus de Craufurd is the first to assume the surname. The claims of a Reginald, supposedly a son of the Earl of Richmond, to be a Norman knight brought to Scotland by David I of Scotland as progenitor of the Crawfords is untenable, since the Durham Cathedral documents date from the early 12th century, during the reign of King Edgar and clearly name Thorlongus as Overlord of Crawford. Furthermore, Reginald was born after Gregan, his reputed grandson. Gregan is the knight who saved King David I's life from the attack of a stag in 1127AD that led to the grateful monarch founding Holyrood Abbey. Reginald de Craufurd as son of Galfridus lived at an earlier time, being born around 1075-80AD. Galfridus de Craufurd divided the Barony of Crawford between his two sons, Hugh and Reginald, Hugh receiving the Barony and the portion given to Reginald became known as Crawfordjohn after Reginald's son John. John de Craufurd witnessed a charter of Abbott Arnold to Theobald Flamaticus for Douglas Water (date). Johannes de Crawford, great-great-grandson of Galfridus de Craufurd, through his eldest son Hugh (d. 1248), had two daughters - the youngest who married William Lindsay, ancestor of the Earls of Crawford. The eldest daughter Margaret married Archibald Douglas, progenitor of the Earls of Douglas. A later Reginald de Crawford, of the Crawfordjohn line, married James de Loudon's daughter and heir, Margaret. In 1196, during the reigin of William I of Scotland, Sir Reginald Crawford was appointed Sheriff of Ayr. He was succeeded by his son, Hugh Crawford of Loudon, Sheriff of Ayr. From Sir Reginald of Loudoun descends the main branch of the Crawfords, named 'of Auchinames.' This branch of the clan received lands from Robert I of Scotland in 1320. From a younger son of the Sheriff descend the Crawfords of Craufurdland. This man's claim to the property was confirmed by Robert III of Scotland in 1391. The third branch of Crawfords are the Crawfords of Kilbirnie, who claim descent from Sir John of Crawfordjohn. The Crawfords of Kilbirnie acquired the Kilbirnie estates in 1499. Another important marriage of the Crawfords was that of Sir Reginald Crawford's sister Margaret and Sir Alan Wallace of Ellerslie. In 1781 a baronetcy was conferred to this branch of the clan. Clan Crawford is does not have a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because of this the clan is considered an armigerous clan, and is not recognised under Scots Law. The clan is not currently represented at the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Peter Houison Craufurd of Craufurdland petitioned the Lyon Court in October, 2007 for Chiefship of this name. The petition is currently docketed for review by the newly appointed Lord Lyon. The modern crest badge of a member of Clan Crawford contains the crest: a stag's head erased Gules, between the attires a cross crosslet fitchée Sable. Encircling the crest on the crest badge is a strap and buckle engraved with the motto: TUTUM TE ROBORE REDDAM (from Latin: 'I will give you safety by strength').

Crighton

Clan History The lands of Kreitton formed one of the earliest baronies around Edinburgh and are mentioned in charters of the early 12th century. Early Crichtons Thurstan de Cechtune was a witness to the foundation of the Holyrood Abbey by King David I of Scotland in 1128. Thomas de Crichton swore fealty to King Edward I of England in the Ragman Roll of 1296. Thomas had three sons each of whom extended the family holdings. His second son William Crichton married Isabel de Ross who was heiress to the barony of Sanquhar in Dumfrieshire. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts A descendant of his Robert de Crichton of Sanquhar was sheriff of Dumfries in 1464 and coroner of Nithsdale from 1468 to 1469. His eldest son Robert Crichton was created a peer with Lord Crichton of Sanquhar by King James III of Scotland in 1487. Another descendant of Thomas de Crichton was Sir William Crichton who was also the Chancellor of Scotland during the minority of King James II of Scotland. Following the death of his rival the William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas, Sir William Crichton organised the infamous Black Dinner at Edinburgh Castle which he was also governor of at the time. The young King James was in residence and the new Earl of Douglas and his brother were invited to dine at the royal banquet. After dinner the two Douglases were dragged out to Castle Hill and executed. The Douglases then laid siege to Edinburgh Castle. Crichton perceiving the danger surrendered the castle to the King and was raised to the title of Lord Crichton. The 2nd Lord Crichton obtained through marriage the barony Frendraught in Banffshire. The third Lord Crichton joined the Duke of Albany in his rebellion against his royal Brother King James III of Scotland which culminated in the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. 16th Century & Clan Conflicts In 1571 Clan Crichton took the side of Clan Forbes in their long feud against Clan Gordon. By 1571 the feud had got to the point where other clans began taking sides. Other opponents of the Gordons such as Clan Keith and Clan Fraser also joined forces with Clan Forbes. However the Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton who had their own feuds with the Forbeses joined forces with Clan Gordon. The feud culminated in two full scale battles in 1571; The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. 1582, Perhaps the most celebrated Chrichton was James who lived within the reign of both Queen Mary and King James VI. He was also a superb equestrian, a feared swordsman and accomplished in all social graces. It is claimed that 50 doctors put questions to him of mind bending complexity which he answered with ease and the next day he attended a public joust and became champion of the field. At a carnival in 1582 Crichton was set upon by a gang of masked bandits who discovered that his reputation was not vanity. He promptly killed 5 of his attackers and turned to dispatch the 6th on discovering that his opponent was none other than his young pupil, Vincenzo, he dropped his guard and Vincenzo stabbed him in the heart. 17th Century & Civil War During the Civil War Clan Crichton supported the Royalist James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose. The Clan Cricton fought at the Battle of Invercarron. It is said that Chief Frendraught Chrichton gave his horse to Montrose during a battle at Invercarron so he could evade capture. Crichton was taken prisoner but, considering the fate of Montrose was probably fortunate that he died of his wounds before he met a similar end. Clan Castles Crichton Castle was the seat of the chief of Clan Crichton from the late 14th to 15th century. Sanquhar Castle was built by the Crichtons in the 13th century. Blackness Castle was built by the Crichtons in 1445. Clan Crichton Today Another James Crichton was raised to the peerage of Scotland as Viscount Fredraught in 1642, it is from him that the present chiefly line is descended today. Their home is now at the Castle Monziie near Crieff.

Cumming or Comyn

History Origin of the name The origin of the surname Comyn and Cumming (in relation to this clan) is disputed. It is thought that the name may be derived from the a Celtic personal name derived from the element cam (meaning 'bent' or 'crooked'. These names were relatively frequent in Norfolk, Lincolnshire, and Yorkshire in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, possibly due to the influx of Breton immigrants following the Norman Conquest of England. Another theory is that the name is derived from a place name Comines near Lille, France.In reality, some evidence may be found by means of the techniques developed by Mrs B Platts, Scottish Hazard, Vol 1, 1985, Vol II, 1990 and A. Hardie-Stoffeln, The Rise of Flemish Families in Scotland (available on Google) based upon an analysis of heraldry, namely, the armorial bearings. The armorial bearings of John Comyn, assassinated by Robert Bruce in 1306 as based upon an official seal which exists in the collection of the Lord Lyon of Scotland, and currently used by the chief of the Cumming clan, appear to be derived from the arms of the Campdevene family who were Counts of St Pol in the 11 century. The county of St Pol included at that time the contemporary town of Comines within its boundaries. More particularly, the arms of John Comyn are identical with those used by Hugues Campdeveine, Seigneur de Beauval in the 12 century which was within the boundaries of the county of St Pol ( located now in the Somme, in France). This exact coincidence of the current arms of the head of the Cumming family based upon those used by the Competitor, John Comyn in the 13-14 century with those of the Hugues, Seigneur de Beauval, (3 clumps of golden barley on a background of blue azur) appear to constitute in both cases a differentiation of the original arms of the Campdevene (Champ d'avoine - field of barley, in contemporary French ) family, Counts of St Pol, namely, one clump of gold barley on a background of blue azur. (easily visible in Armorials and on documents available through a Google search - under the campdevene family - counts of St Pol: arms and Hugues, Seigneur de Beauval). More generally, this analysis of the armorial bearings of the current Clan Chief, the Competitor for the John Comyn, Hugues, Seigneur de Beauval and the Counts of St Pol corresponds with the more general hypothesis of Platts and Hardie-Stoffeln: that is, origins of some of the leading families in Scotland during the period following the Norman conquest in England were Flemish and not either Celtic or Norman. Finally, at present, there is no genetic evidence to sustain the claim that the original Comyns or Cumming family and their descendants were primarily Celtic. In Scottish Gaelic, the name is rendered 'Cuimeanach' or 'Cuimein'. Origin of the clan This clan is believed to descend from Robert of Comyn, a companion of William the Conqueror who accompanied him in his conquest of England. Shortly after his participation in the Battle of Hastings, Robert was made Earl of Northumberland, and, when David I came to Scotland to claim his throne, Richard Comyn, the grandson of Robert, was among the Norman knights that followed him. Richard Comyn quickly gained land and influence in Scotland through an advantageous marriage to the granddaughter of the former Scottish king Donald III, Hextilda of Tynedale. Richard's descendants continued the Comyns' rise to power through marriage, and, at the close of the thirteenth century, the Comyns were the most powerful clan in Scotland, members of which were holding (or had held) at one time thirteen Scottish earldoms, including those of Buchan, Menteith, and Angus, and several lordships, including the Lordship of Badenoch. The Lords of Badenoch represented the chief line of the clan and ruled their vast lands from their impregnable island stronghold of Lochindorb Castle. John 'the Black' Comyn After the death of the last descendant of the royal line of David I, the clan chief John 'the Black' Comyn was one of six competitors for the crown of Scotland due to his connection to King Donald III. A Comyn ally, John Balliol, was chosen as king, and Balliol's sister was soon married to the Black Comyn. John 'the Red' Comyn The Wars of Scottish Independence This marriage produced a son, John 'the Red' Comyn, and, upon the exile of the Balliols by Edward I of England, the Red Comyn was left as the most powerful man in Scotland and the legitimate royal successor, having a double claim through the male and female lines. During the Wars of Scottish Independence John the Red acted as co-leader of the Scottish forces with his rival Robert the Bruce after the death of William Wallace and achieved some notable successes against the English, including at the Battle of Roslin. However, Robert the Bruce, desiring to secure his claim to the throne, murdered the Red Comyn at a meeting at a church in Dumfries in 1306. This led to a bitter civil war between the Bruce's faction and the Comyns and their allies that eventually resulted in the Comyns' power being completely broken at the Battle of Inverurie in 1308. 14th Century and clan conflicts The taking of Castle Grant, 14th century; Originally a Comyn Clan stronghold, Clan Grant traditions tell us that the castle was taken from the Comyns by a combined force of the Grants and MacGregors. The Grants and MacGregors stormed the castle and in the process slew the Comyn Chief - and kept the Chief's skull as a trophy of this victory. The skull of the Comyn was taken as a macabre trophy and was kept in Castle Grant and became an heirloom of the Clan. (In the late Lord Strathspey's book on the Clan, he mentions that the top of the cranium was hinged, and that he saw documents kept in it.) Clan tradition predicts grave things if the skull ever leaves the hands of the family - prophesying that the Clan would lose all of its lands in Strathspey. 15th and 16th centuries and clan conflicts At the beginning of the fifteenth century, Clan Cumming had been reduced to simply another Highland clan, although the Cummings, as the name is now often spelled, continued to play a significant part in the history and culture of the Badenoch, Strathspey, and Aberdeenshire regions of Scotland. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Cummings carried on significant, and bloody, feuds with Clan Macpherson, Clan Shaw, and Clan Brodie over lands in Nairnshire. In 1550 Alexander Brodie, chief of Clan Brodie and 100 others were denounced as rebels for attacking the Cummings of Altyre. The Clan Cumming were victorious when they participated in the Battle of Glenlivet in 1594 in support of the Earl of Huntly whose forces consisted of 2000 Highlanders from Clan Gordon, Clan Cumming, Clan Cameron and others. Their enemy was the Earl of Argyll whose forces consisted of 10000 Highlanders from Clan Campbell, Clan Murray of Atholl, Clan Forbes, the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh and others. Huntly's forces were victorious. During the late sixteenth and throughout the seventeenth century, members of the clan were known for their musical talents and served as the hereditary pipers and fiddlers to the Laird of Grant of Clan Grant. Clan profile Motto: Courage Slogan: 'An Cuimeanach! An Cuimeanach!' Pipe Music: 'Willie Cumming's Rant' Proverb: 'Chad's bhios maide anns a' choill cha bhi foill an Cuimeanach.' ('So long as there is a stick in the wood, there will be no treachery in a Cumming.') Animal Symbol: Lion Plant Badge: Cumin plant Gaelic names Cuimean (Surname) Cuimeanach (Singular) Na Cuimeanaich (Collective) Na Cuimeanaich Clach na Cearc (Cummings of the Hen Stone) Clann a'Ghaill (Children of the Lowlander) Clan chiefs and seat After the death of John 'the Red' Comyn, the chieftainship fell on the Cummings of Altyre, and it is retained by this family to the present. The current Chief is Sir Alastair Cumming, Bart. The clan seat is at Altyre, Moray, Scotland. Tartans There are several tartans associated with the surname Comyn/Cumming. Tartan Notes MacAulay or Comyn/Cumming: This tartan was first published by James Logan as a MacAulay tartan, it was illustrated in Logan and R. R. McIan's joint work The Clans of the Scottish Highlands in 1845. An almost identical tartan, listed as a Cymyne (Comyn) tartan, appeared in the 1842 work, Vestiarium Scoticum, by the infamous 'Sobieski Stuarts'. By the 1850 work of W & K Smith it is listed as the Comyn/Cumming tartan. The Smith's had claimed the tartan had the sanction of the head family of Cumming. Scottish Tartans World Register #1157 Comyn: This tartan was first published in 1842, in the Vestiarium Scoticum. The Vestiarium was composed and illustrated by the 'Sobieski Stuarts'. Arms Three garbs Or (Comyn). The Comyns of Buchan; gules three garbs Or. The Comyns of Badenoch; azure three garbs Or. The Comyns of Kilbride and, now, Ireland; Quarterly, 1st & 4th, azure three garbs Or; 2nd & 3rd gules a semilion with the Irish arp. The Cummings of Altyre, Quarterly, 1st & 4th, three garbs Or (Cumming); 2nd & 3rd, Argent, three bends Sable, each charged with as many roses of the field (Penrose); overall, in an escutcheon Argent, is placed the Arms, Crest, Motto and Supporters of Gordon of Gordonston Branches Cumming of Altyre Cumming of Culter Cumming of Inverallochy Cumming of Logie Cumming of Regulas Septs of Clan Cumming Bad(d)enoch Buchan Boghan Chaney(ay) Chesney Cheyne(y) Common(s) Comyn(s) Cowman(s) Cummin(s) Cummings Farquharson MacCheine MacCheyne(y) MacChesnie MacCummin(s) MacCumming(s) MacNiven(s) MacSkimman(on) Niven(son) Nivison Russell Skimman(on) Settlements Several towns and settlements in Scotland are associated with Clan Cumming. Cardow, Moray, Scotland Cummingstown, Moray, Scotland Cumminstown, Aberdeen, Scotland Ellon, Aberdeen, Scotland Kingussie, Inverness, Scotland Peterculter, Aberdeen, Scotland Rosehearty, Aberdeen, Scotland Turriff, Aberdeen, Scotland Castles Clan Cumming was one of the leading castle-building families of Scottish history and are associated with many castles in Scotland, England, Ireland and Spain. Albiz Tower, Albiz, Spain Balvenie Castle, Moray, Scotland Bedrule Castle, Roxburgh, Scotland Blair Castle, Perth, Scotland Cadzow Castle, Lanark, Scotland Castle Grant, Inverness, Scotland Castle Roy, Inverness, Scotland Comyn's Castle, Strathclyde, Scotland Dalswinton Castle, Dumfries, Scotland Delgatie Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Drum Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Dumphail Castle, Moray, Scotland Dundarg Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Ellon Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Inchtalla Castel, Perth, Scotland Inverallochy Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Inverlochy Castle, Lochaber, Scotland Kinedar Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Kirkintilloch Castle, Strathclyde, Scotland Lochindorb Castle, Inverness, Scotland Loch-an-Eilein Castle, Inverness, Scotland Machan Castle, Lanark, Scotland Mains Castle, Strathclyde, Scotland Northallerton Castle, Northumberland, England Pittulie Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Rait Castle, Nairn, Scotland Ruthven Barracks, Inverness, Scotland Slains Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland Swords Castle, Dublin, Ireland Urquhart Castle, Inverness, Scotland Religious sites Clan Cumming is associated with several religious sites in Scotland. Altyre Kirk, Moray, Scotland Cumbernauld Chapel, Lanark, Scotland Deer Abbey, Aberdeen, Scotland Glasgow Cathedral, Strathclyde, Scotland Inchmahome Priory, Perth, Scotland Allied clans Clan Buchan Clan Gordon Clan Grant Clan Lamont Clan MacDougall Clan MacDowall Clan Macnab Clan Macnaghten Clan Sutherland Rival clans Clan Brodie Clan Bruce Chattan Confederation Clan MacKintosh Clan Macpherson Clan Shaw

Cunningham

History Origins of the clan Traditionally, in 1059, King Malcolm rewarded Malcolm, son of Friskin with the Thanedom of Cunninghame. The first known Cunningham was Warnebald Cunningham and then his son Robertus Cunningham. Warnebald was granted the lands of Cunninghame by Hugh de Morville in around 1115. Robertus received the lands of Cunningham between the years 1160 and 1180. The Clan Cunningham was well settled in their lands and the parish of Kilmaurs by the late 13th century. The Clan Cunningham fought for King Alexander III of Scotland at the Battle of Largs in 1263. As a result, for this service Hervy de Cunningham, the son of the Laird of Cunningham received a charter from King Alexander III of Scotland confirming all of their lands. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Cunningham supported King Robert the Bruce of Scotland. Although their name previously appears on the Ragman Roll in 1296 where they swear allegiance to King Edward I of England. As a reward for supporting King Robert the Bruce of Scotland the Clan Cunningham were given the lands of Lamburgton to add to their existing lands. Later during the 14th century Sir William Cunningham of Kilmaurs was one of the Scottish noblemen who were offered to the English as a substitute for the captured King David II of Scotland His son William married Margaret, the elder daughter and co-heiress of Sir Robert Denniston and through her acquired substantial lands, including Finlaystone in Refrewshire and Glencairn in Dumfriesshire. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts In 1421 Henry Cunningham the third son of William Cunningham led the Cunninghams at the Battle of Beauge. Sir Williams grandson Alexander Cunningham was made Lord Kilmaurs in 1462 and later the first Earl of Glencairn. During the revolt against King James III of Scotland Alexander brought a substantial force to support the King and defeated the rebels at the Battle of Blackness. In 1488 the Clan Montgomery burned down the Clan Cunningham's Kerelaw Castle. Also in 1488 chief Alexander Cunningham, 1st Earl of Glencairn was killed leading the clan in support of King James III of Scotland at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Soon after King James IV of Scotland revoked all titles given out by his father over the last twenty years. Alexander Cunningham's son Robert Cunningham was stripped of his title as 2nd Earl of Glencairn. 16th Century & Clan Conflicts Symbol for the Clan Cunningham motto: 'Over Fork Over'. A representation of an ancient shakefork (pitchfork) made from a tree limb with forked branches. During the 16th century the long running feud continued between the Clan Montgomery and the Clan Cunningham. Eglington House was burned down and the Montomery chief, 4th Earl of Eglington was killed by the Cunninghams. The government of King James VI of Scotland eventually managed to get the rival chiefs to shake hands. In 1526 Cuthbert the 3rd Earl of Glencairn was wounded in a failed attempt to rescue King James V of Scotland from the Clan Douglas at the Battle of Linlithgow. In 1542 William Cunningham, 3rd Earl of Glencairn led the clan against the English at the Battle of Solway Moss where he was captured. He was released for a ransom of £1000. The fifth Earl of Glecairn also called Alexander Cunningham was a Protestant reformer. He was also a patron of the reformer John Knox. In 1556 John Knox performed the first Protestant Reformed Communion service on Easter Sunday under a Yew tree at Finlaystone for the 5th Earl. In 1568 Alexander Cunningham the 5th Earl of Glencairn led the clan at the Battle of Langside near Glasgow. The Clan Cunningham fought against Mary Queen of Scots at the Battle of Carberry Hill where she was defeated. The Chief of the Clan Cunningham was one of the commanders at this battle. Alexander Cunningham is also reported to have ordered the destruction of the Chapel Royal at Holyrood. 17th Century & Civil War In 1643 Chief William Cunningham led the clan at the Battle of Kilayth to rescue the King from Oliver Cromwell but he was defeated. During the Civil War, the Clan Cunningham supported King Charles II. Chief William Cunningham, 9th Earl of Glencairn, commanded the Royalist rising from 1653 to 1654 and raised a force of over 5000 in 1653 to oppose General Monck, who was the governor of Scotland. In August of the same year, William Cunningham went to Lochearn in Perthshire where he met with some of the Chiefs of the Highland clans. With a body of men he then took possession of Elgin in 1654. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Cunningham supported the British government. The Cunninghams fought at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 where Captain Cunningham commanded the British artillery which fired Grapeshot at the advancing Jacobites. Castles Clan Cunningham castles include: Finlaystone Castle was the ancestral seat of the Clan Cunningham Chief, Earl of Glencairn between 1401 and 1863. Château de Cherveux in France was built in 1470 by Robert de Conyngham during the Auld Alliance after he served as the Captain of the King's Bodyguard for both French Kings Charles VII and Louis XI. Owned by François and Marie-Thérèse Redien, it is open to the public with rooms and meals available. Kerelaw Castle was owned by the Clan Cunningham from the 15th century. Auchenharvie Castle owned by the Cunninghams from at least the 17th century. Dumbarton Castle was where four Cunninghams served as governors from as early as the 16th century. Inside is a coat of arms displaying the governors that served in the castle, spanning eight centuries from 1264 to 1996. The first three Cunningham coat of arms displayed are: 1571; John Cunningham the 6th Drumquhassil, 1692; John Cunningham the 11th Earl of Glencairn and 1714; Colonel William Cunningham the 12th earl of Glencairn. There was also a fourth Cunningham governor in the in the 20th century: 1995; Sir Angus Cunninghame Graham the 16th of Gartmore. Corsehill Castle, Stewarton. Cunninghamhead Castle. Robertland Castle, Stewarton. Aiket Castle, Dunlop. Thorntoun Castle, Springside. Lainshaw Castle, Stewarton. Clonbeith Castle, Auchentiber. Montgreenan Castle, Auchentiber. Glengarnock Castle is a ruined keep, located on the River Garnock about 2 miles north of Kilbirnie.

Darroch

Origins of the Name The name darroch is said to derive from the Gaelic word 'Macdara' which meant 'son of oak'. The Darrochs settled around Stirling. and appear to derive their name from Darroch near Falkirk, where there once may have been an Oak grove. 15th to 17th century John Darroch was baille of Stirling in 1406. John Darach de Cruce is mentioned in 1445 and may be the same person as John Darraugh who was the commissioner to Parliament for the burgh of Stirling in 1450. Mariote Darrauch was nurse of Lady Margaret the second daughter of King James II of Scotland in 1462. Marion Darroch of Stirling protested in 1471 that she had not given consent to the alienation of an annual rent due to her. Jacobus Darroch was a notary public who appears as a witness to a charter relating to the lands of the Stirlings of Keir around 1477. Although the Darrochs were notable in and around Stirling they were most numerous on the Isle of Islay and the Isle of Jura where they were part of the powerful Clan Donald or MacDonald who were ruled by MacDonald Lord of the Isles. In 1623 the Clan Darroch appears on a bond acknowledging Sir Donald MacDonald, first Baronet of Sleat as their overlord and protector. 18th century In the later half of the 18th century Duncan Darroch returned to Scotland after making a fortune in the West Indies. He acquired the Barony of Gourock from the Stewarts of Castlemilk in 1784. He was also granted arms by the Court of the Lord Lyon and designated Chief of McIireich. 19th century and later His son, who was also called Duncan and was 2nd Baron of Gourock rose to the rank of Lieutenant General in the Glengarry Fencibles Regiment His son who was also called Duncan became 3rd Baron of Gourock and also married the daughter of a wealthy merchant who was the Laird of Fairlie in Ayrshire. Long after the Scottish clans were over the northern estates in Torriden Ross-shire were acquired by the fourth Baron of Gourock in 1873. The clan was united by marriage to the Clan Mackintosh when Margaret Darroch of Gourock married the Chief of Clan Mackintosh; Rear Admiral Lachlan Mackintosh. She later published a well respected history of the Mackintosh clan. The sixth Baron of Gourock, also Duncan, followed a military career serving in the British regiment of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. He served in both World Wars. He was also a member of the Royal Company of Archers. His son Duncan also served in the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and is the present Clan Darroch Chief.

Davidson

History When the power of the Comyns began to wane in Badenoch, Donald Dubh of Invernahaven, Chief of Davidsons, having married the daughter of Angus, 6th of MacKintosh, sought the protection of William, 7th of MacKintosh, before 1350, and Clan Davidson became associated with the Chattan Confederation. In the 18th century we find important families like the Davidsons of Cantray and the Davidsons of Tulloch. The latter family came into possession of the lands and castle of Tulloch, near Dingwall, in 1762, when Henry Davidson purchased the estate from his cousin Kenneth Bayne. Clan wars The Battle of Invernahoven 1370 or 1387. The Clan Cameron numbering approximately 400 men were returning home with the booty they had acquired after a raid at Badenoch. They were overtaken at Invernahavon by a body of Clan Chattan Confederation led by Lachlan, Laird of Macintosh. The Clan Chattan forces consisted of the MacKintoshes, Davidsons and Macphersons. As a result of a disagreement as to whether the Davidsons or Macphersons would occupy the right wing which was the post of honour, the Macphersons withdrew in disgust from the army. The combined numbers of the Clan Chattan confederation had outnumbered the Camerons but with the loss of the Macphersons the Camerons now had a greater number. The battle resulted in a defeat for the Clan Chattan Confederation (Mackintosh and Davidson). It is said that an ally of Cameron known as Charles MacGilony led the clan into battle and is believed to have changed the outcome of the day with his uncanny ability as an archer. At this point, possibly the next morning the Macphersons changed their minds and decided to rejoin the Chattan confederation attacking the Camerons with such vigor that they changed the victory into defeat, and put the Camerons 'to flight' towards Drumouchter, skirting the end of Loch Ericht, and then westwards in the direction of the River Treig. The MacKintoshes later claimed that the Macphersons were coaxed into the battle by a man from clan Mackintosh who turned up at Macphersons camp pretending to be from Clan Cameron and calling the Macphersons cowards. The Macphersons then attacked the Camerons camp making a dreadful slaughter of them, even killing the Cameron's uncanny archer Charles MacGilony at a place now called Charles's Valley, or in Gailic Coire Thearlaich. The Clan Davidson were led by Chief Sir Robert Davidson at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411 where he was slain. Jacobite uprisings During the 1715 and 1745 Jacobite Uprisings, Many members of the Clan Chattan Confederation supported the House of Stewart and rallied the Chattan Confederation to the Jacobite cause, of which many Davidson's took part. Notable members of the Clan Chattan Confederation including many Davidson's were convicted and transported to the North American colonies. American Revolutionary War Many of these Jacobite convicts upon gaining their freedom settled in the Piedmont Mountains of North Carolina and raised families, leading the English by the time of the American Revolution to declare the area a Hornet's Nest of rebels. Notable amongst the many Davidson's fighting the American Revolutionary War was Brigadier General William Lee Davidson (1746-1781), a North Carolina militia general during the American Revolutionary War who was killed in action at the battle of Cowan's Ford. Clan profile Clan crest: A stag's head erased, proper - a stag on a silver field, one foot lifted, with an argent, silver arrow through the neck. The stag usually is natural colored with gold horns. Clan motto is 'Sapienter si sincere', translated as 'Wisely if sincerely'. Clan badge: Red whortleberry. Clan pipe music: Tulloch Castle. Clan Seat Until Duncan Davidson VI of Tulloch died in 1917 the seat of the chief of Clan Davidson was at Tulloch Castle. This was originally the seat of the Clan MacBain but the Davidsons took over the castle after they claimed the lands. Clan Chiefs Alister Davidson of Davidston, New Zealand, 1998- Duncan Davidson of Davidston, New Zealand, 1997-1997 1917-1997 Vacant and disputed. Duncan VI of Tulloch, Deceased 1917. Clan Septs Davis, Davey, Davie, Davison, Dawson, Day, Dea, Dean, Deason, Dow, Kay, Key(s), MacDade, MacDaibhidh, MacDaid, McDavis, and MacDavid, are the family names, or septs, traditionally associated with the Clan Davidson.

Dewar

History Dewars were also recorded as Septs of Clan Menzies and Clan MacNab. Origins of the Clan The infamous Ragman Rolls includes the record of the first known people by the name Dewar where Thomas and Piers de Deware both having swore fealty to King Edward I of England. The name is an anglicisation of 'Deòrach' which originally means 'pilgrim'. Nowadays it is rendered 'Mac an Deòir' in Scottish Gaelic. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Dewar are known to have supported King Robert the Bruce. The Clan Dewar were carriers of and custodians of the Staff of St Fillan. St Fillan was a Celtic saint who died in 777 AD. This famous relic was carried by the Dewars at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Despite changing hands over the centuries the relic has been tracked down and is now in the Museum of Antiques in Edinburgh. 15th Century Later in 1497 a charter of lands was granted to William Dewar. There were also mentions of Dewars in Stirling around 1483. From this branch rose the Dewar of Cambuskenneth line. 18th Century In 1710 John Dewar the son of Patrick Dewar of Cambuskenneth was fined £50 for causing 'blood and riot'. William Dewar of this line sold his lands in Dewar and moved to Carrington. It is from this family line that the present Chief descends. The Dewars were commercially successful and purchased the Barony and estate of Vogrie in 1719. David Dewar of Vogrie was Postmaster General of Leith and Endinburgh. 19th Century The Vorgrie estates were extremely fruitful and a flourishing coal mine was sited there in the mid 19th century as well as Scotland's first gun powder mill. The Mansion house of Vogrie was built by Alexander, sixth Laird, although the estate has shrunk from 2,000 to around 250 acres the house still stands and the estates are now open to the public as Vogrie Country Park 20th Century The name Dewar is synonymous with whisky and this was due in no small part by the efforts of John Dewar. Born in 1856 he transformed the business and the industry and was created Baron Forteviot of Dupplin In 1917. Clan Chief The father of the present chief of Clan Dewar, Lt Col. Kenneth Malcolm Joseph Dewar of that Ilk & Vogrie, was recognised by the Lord Lyon in 1990 thus allowing the Clan to be recognised as an official Scottish clan with chief rather than an Armigerous clan without a chief. The present chief is Michael Kenneth O'Malley Dewar Of That Ilk And Vogrie. Dewar of that Ilk - Or a chief Azure Clan Septs Dewar Deware Dewe Dew Dure Due Dewyer Dewer McIndeor McJarrow

Douglas

Clan Douglas, also referred to as the House of Douglas, is an ancient family from the Scottish Lowlands taking its name from Douglas, South Lanarkshire, and thence spreading through the Scottish Borderland, Angus, Lothian and beyond. The clan does not currently have a chief, therefore it is considered an Armigerous clan. Clan crest of Clan Douglas The Douglases were once the most powerful family in Scotland. The chiefs held the titles of the Earl of Douglas, and following their forfeiture the chieftancy devolved upon the Earl of Angus (see also: Duke of Hamilton). The 4th Earl of Morton held the chieftaincy during the 16th century, the Earldom of Morton was then a subsidiary title of the 8th Earl of Angus after the 4th Earl's forfeiture and death in 1581. The family's original seat was Douglas Castle in Lanarkshire, but they spread to many properties throughout Southern and North-Eastern Scotland. Origins of the clan Seal of William Douglas the Hardy From Gaelic dubhghlais meaning 'black water'. In Gaelic, dubh means black, and glas means grey. These are the main shades used in the Douglas tartan. The name is territorial, deriving from the lands around the Douglas Water in South Lanarkshire. The Douglas family records, in the extent to which they survive and/or might be accurate, list the following ancestors: Sholto Dhu Glas c. 770 Aoidh or Hugh Dhu Glas c. ? Aoidh Dhu Glas of Caledonia c. ? Gilmour Dhu Glas, who fought Charlemagne in Gaul c. 810 Eachunn or Hector Dhu Glas c. 844 <uncertain> Gillesburg Dhu Glas c. 944 <uncertain> Freskin de Strabroch Dhu Glas c. 1135 William Douglas (created Lord Douglas by Norman rule, the first use of the modern spelling) c. 1161 Two of the greatest of the Flemish families to immigrate to Scotland were Murray and Douglas. The founder of Murray was a Fleming named Freskin, who was granted land in West Lothian and Moray by David I of Scotland. Although they were first recorded in the 1170s, the Douglas family names consisted of Arkenbald and Freskin, and were undoubtedly related to the Murrays, and to be of Flemish origin. Though the Flemish origin of the Douglases is not undisputed, it is often claimed that he was descended from a Flemish knight who was granted lands on the Douglas Water by the Abbot of Kelso, who held the barony and lordship of Holydean. However this is disputed, it has been claimed that the lands which were granted to this knight were not the lands which the Douglas family came from. The undisputed ancestor of the modern lineage is William of Douglas, whose name appears as a witness to charters between 1175 and 1211 around Lanarkshire, including a charter by the Bishop of Glasgow to the monks of Kelso. There is also record of his son, Sir John de Douglas, and his grandson Sir William de Douglas, believed to have been the third head of the family, was the father of two sons who fought at the Battle of Largs in 1263 where the Norwegians were defeated by the Scots. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Sir William Douglas 'The Hardy', Lord of Douglas was governor of Berwick-upon-Tweed when the town and Berwick Castle were besieged by the forces of Edward I of England. Douglas was captured and was released only after he had agreed to accept the claim of the English king to be overlord of Scotland. He subsequently joined William Wallace in fighting for Scottish independence, but was captured and taken to England, where he died in 1298, a prisoner in the Tower of London. The Good Sir James (or 'Black Douglas') William the Hardy's son, James Douglas, 'The Good Sir James', was the first to take the epithet 'Black'. Douglas was set to share in Bruce's early misfortunes, being present at the defeats at Methven and Dalrigh. But for both men these setbacks were to provide a valuable lesson in tactics: limitations in both resources and equipment meant that the Scots would always be a disadvantage in conventional Medieval warfare. By the time the war was renewed in the spring of 1307 they had learnt the value of guerrilla warfare - known at the time as 'secret war' - using fast moving, lightly equipped and agile forces to maximum effect against an enemy often locked in to static defensive positions. His actions for most of 1307 and early 1308 were local rather than national in nature, confined for the most part to his native Douglasdale. Nevertheless, he was soon to create a formidable reputation for himself as a soldier and a tactician. While Bruce was campaigning in the north against his domestic enemies, Douglas used the cover of Selkirk Forest to mount highly effective mobile attacks against the enemy. He also showed himself to be utterly ruthless, particularly in his relentless attacks on the English garrison in his own Douglas Castle, the most famous of which quickly passed into popular history. Barbour dates this incident to Palm Sunday 1307, which fell on 19 March. This would seem to be far too early, as Bruce and his small army were not yet properly established in south-west Scotland, suggesting Palm Sunday 1308 - 17 April - as a more accurate date. With the help of a local farmer, a former vassal of his father, Douglas and his small troop were hidden until the morning of Palm Sunday, when the garrison left the battlements to attend the local church. Gathering local support he entered the church and the war-cry 'Douglas!' 'Douglas!' went up for the first time. Some of the English soldiers were killed and others taken prisoner. The prisoners were taken to the castle, now largely empty. All the stores were piled together in the cellar; the wine casks burst open and the wood used for fuel. The prisoners were then beheaded and placed on top of the pile, which was set alight. Before departing the wells were poisoned with salt and the carcases of dead horses. The local people soon gave the whole gruesome episode the name of the 'Douglas Larder.' As an example of frightfulness in war it was meant to leave a lasting impression, not least upon the men who came to replace their dead colleagues. Further attacks followed by a man now known to the English as 'The Black Douglas', a sinister and murderous force 'mair fell than wes ony devill in hell.' It would seem in this that Douglas was an early practitioner of psychological warfare - as well as guerrilla warfare - in his knowledge that fear alone could do much of the work of a successful commander. In the years before 1314 the English presence in Scotland was reduced to a few significant strongholds. There were both strengths and weaknesses in this. The Scots had no heavy equipment or the means of attacking castles by conventional means. However, this inevitably produced a degree of complacency in garrisons provisioned enough to withstand a blockade. In dealing with this problem the Scots responded in the manner of foxes; and among the more cunning of their exploits was Douglas' capture of the powerful fortress at Roxburgh. His tactic, though simple, was brilliantly effective. On the night of 19/20 February 1314 - Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday - several dark shapes were seen beneath the battlements and mistakenly assumed to be cattle. Douglas had ordered his men to cover themselves with their cloaks and crawl towards the castle on their hands and knees. With most of the garrison celebrating just prior to the fast of Lent, scaling hooks with rope ladders attached were thrown up the walls. Taken by complete surprise the defenders were overwhelmed in a short space of time. Roxburgh Castle, among the best in the land, was slighted in accordance with Bruce's policy of denying strongpoints to the enemy. Douglas was knighted on the field and fought at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Crusader Robert the Bruce had requested that Douglas, latterly his most esteemed companion in arms, should carry his heart to the Holy Land, as atonement for the murder of John Comyn. Douglas and his knights had been invited to join the forces of Alfonso XI of Castile, Edward of England's cousin by Queen Isabella, mother of King Edward III of England to fight a Crusade against the Moors in 1330 at the Castle of the Stars at Teba. Douglas was killed as he led a cavalry charge against the enemy while outnumbered and cut off from the main Christian force; Alfonso kept his army back from the attack; likely in some arrangement with his cousin Edward who could never beat the Douglas in combat. The casket containing the heart of the Bruce was recovered and returned to Scotland, to be interred at Melrose Abbey. Douglas' bones were boiled and returned to Scotland; his embalmed heart was recently recovered in the Douglas vaults at the Kirk of St Bride but his bones are not in the stone vault lying under his effigy; they have yet to be located. 'The Black Douglas' James was called 'The Black Douglas' by the English for his dark deeds in English eyes, becoming the Bogeyman of a Northern English lullaby 'Hush ye, hush ye, little pet ye. Hush ye, hush ye, do not fret ye. The Black Douglas shall not get ye.' There are also unbsubstantiated theories that this was because of his colouring and complexion, this is tenuous, Douglas only appears in English record as 'The Black', in Scots' chronicles he is almost always referred to as 'The Guid' or 'The Good'. Later Douglas Lords took the moniker of their revered forebear in the same way that they attached Bruce's Heart to their Coat of Arms, to strike fear into the hearts of their enemies and exhibit the prowess of their race. Sir Archibald Douglas, Guardian of the Realm The Scottish army that fought and lost the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 was led by James' youngest brother who had been elected Regent of Scotland in late March of 1333. Sir Archibald Douglas has been badly treated by some historians; frequently misidentifying this Douglas warrior as the Tyneman or loser when the moniker was intended for a later less fortunate but equally warlike Archibald. He was mentioned in Barbour's The Brus for his great victory during the Weardale Campaign; leading the Scottish army further south into County Durham he devastated the lands and took much booty from Darlington and other nearby towns and villages. He was elected by the Estates to the position of Regent when his cousin Andrew de Moray, then Regent of Scotland, was captured and taken to Durham to surrender to King Edward III of England. The earls and barons of the kingdom recognized his prowess as a warrior; leading the successful rout at Annan earlier in the year; bringing fire and sword to Cumbria to chase Edward and his vassals further south and out of Scotland. He had brought the Scottish army to Tweedsmouth; relieving the garrison at Berwick Castle with Sir William Keith and others; all in response to a treat of peace initiated by the constantly wavering Earl of March; then proceeded south burning his way through Northumbria as his brother James would have done; finally arriving at the mighty fortress of Bamburgh Castle where Edward's queen Phillipa was secretly hiding from the Scots. He was found there laying siege to that castle when the representations of Sir William Keith and the Earl of March appeared to the Regent; they announced the sad tidings that the Governor of Berwick and the Garrison Commander had both entered into a second treaty; with express covenants to surrender the castle and the town of Berwick on Tweed should the Regent not return by St. Margaret's Day and either relieve the garrison in full view of the English and only during the daylight hours or risk battle with Edward's army. The Regent reluctantly raised the siege at Bamburgh and returned to Duns Law where he called a muster; likely at the demand of the estates as it was well known Sir Archibald was of the party of Brus and would not break his solemn word to never again engage the English in battle when he could burn the countryside instead. On the Eve of St. Margaret, Sir Archibald of Douglas was mortally wounded at the foot of Halidon Hill; taken prisoner and held until he died; reportedly one hour after his nephew William, Lord Douglas passed from his wounds; the son and heir to James, Lord Douglas, Chief of the Douglas Clan. At nearby Bondington stood Halyston, St. Leonard's; a Cistercian nunnery and hospital where the Regent likely spent his last hours. Archeologists found lead shot at Bondington and records indicate that the English brought with them a large artillery train. During earlier encounters with Edward III in 1326-1327 the English had used gunpowder as a weapon against the Scots. It appears that they may have perfected the weaponry with the amount of devastation that was caused to both the Scottish army on the field and to nunnery which was destroyed and burned. Later Edward awarded the nuns some payments for the damages sustained to their buildings during the fight and dedicated an altar to St. Margaret there after the battle. The inheritance Sir James Douglas' natural son William fined for his lands in 1332 but likely was underage and died at Battle of Halidon Hill with his uncle, Sir Archibald Douglas. James' younger brother, Hugh the Dull, a Canon serving the See of Glasgow and held a Prebendary at Roxburgh became Lord Douglas in 1342; Hugh of Douglas resigned his title to his nephew, the youngest surviving son of the Regent Archibald, William Lord of Douglas who was to become the first Earl. The First Earl's legitimate son James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas succeeded him, and started the line of the Black Douglases; his illegitimate son by the Countess of Angus, George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus was the progenitor of the Red Douglases. The prestige of the family was greatly increased when James Douglas's great nephew, James Douglas, 2nd Earl of Douglas married a Stewart princess. In 1388 at the Battle of Otterburn he was instrumental to the Scots' victory, but was killed during the fighting. Leaving no legitimate heir, his titles passed to the illegitimate son of his great uncle. In the late 14th century Bothwell Castle which belonged to the Clan Murray was taken by the Earls of Douglas (the Black Douglases) of the Clan Douglas who began a project to restore and expand the castle, and by 1424 they had constructed the Great Hall and adjacent chapel with towers at the north east and south east corners and curtain walls connecting to the Donjon, enclosing the courtyard. 15th Century Conflicts Defence of Edinburgh Castle 1400, Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas did much to consolidate the family's power and influence. He successfully defended Edinburgh Castle against Henry IV of England in 1400 but died the following year. His son, Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, married the daughter of Robert III of Scotland. The fourth Earl fought against King Henry IV of England at the Battle of Shrewsbury in 1403, where he was taken prisoner. He became a general in Joan of Arc's army and continued the fight against the English. He was rewarded for his efforts with the Duchy of Touraine. In 1406, with the death of the king, the 4th Earl of Douglas became one of the council of regents to rule Scotland during the childhood of James I of Scotland. In 1412 the 4th Earl had visited Paris, when he entered into a personal alliance with John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, and in 1423 he commanded a contingent of 10,000 Scots sent to the aid of Charles VII of France against the English. He was made lieutenant-general in the French army, and received the title Duke of Touraine, with remainder to his heirs-male, on 19 April 1424. The newly created French duke was defeated and slain at Battle of Verneuil on 17 August 1424, along with his second son, James, and son-in-law John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan. Murder of the Douglases The Douglases became so powerful that by the early fifteenth century they were seen as a threat to the stability of the nation. In 1440 the young William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas and his brother were invited to dine with the ten year-old King James II of Scotland. The dinner was organised by Sir William Crichton of Clan Crichton. Known as the Black Dinner', a black bull's head, the symbol of death, was brought in. After the dinner the Douglases were dragged out to Castle Hill, given a mock trial and beheaded. The Douglases then laid siege to Edinburgh Castle. Crichton perceiving the danger surrendered the castle to the King and was raised to the title of Lord Crichton. It is still unclear exactly who else was ultimately responsible, though it is thought Crichton, Livingstone and Buchan as likely candidates. In 1448 Hugh Douglas, Earl of Ormond held command along with John Wallace of Clan Wallace when he led a Scottish force to victory against an English army at the Battle of Sark in 1448. Huntly Castle 1449, The king gave the Earl of Atholl's confiscated lands of Strathbogie to Clan Gordon. The castle there became known as Huntly, a reminder of the Gordons' Berwickshire lands. Sir Alexander Gordon was created Earl of Huntly in 1449. At this time the king was at enmity with the powerful Clan Douglas. The Gordons stood on the king's side, and with their men involved in the south of the country. The Earl of Moray was a relation and ally of the Douglases. He and the Douglases took the opportunity to sack the Gordon lands, setting Huntly Castle ablaze. However the Gordons returned and quickly destroyed their enemies. Although the castle was burned to the ground, a grander castle was built in its place. The Douglases had a long feud with Clan Colville. Sir Richard Colville had killed the Laird of Auchinleck who was an ally of the Douglases. To avenge this murder the Douglases attacked the Colvilles in their castle, where many were killed. The Douglases levelled the Colville's castle and put their men to the sword. The head of the House, William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas personally executed Richard Colville. The strength of the Douglases made it impossible for James II of Scotland to rule freely. After fruitless feuding with the Douglases the King invited William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas to Stirling Castle in 1452 under the promise of safe conduct, but then the King accused the Earl of conspiracy in his dealings with the Yorkists in England and through a pact made between Douglas, the Earl of Crawford and the Lord of the Isles. Upon Douglas' refusal to repudiate the pact and reaffirm his loyalty to James II, the King drew his dagger and stabbed Douglas in the throat. The story goes that the King's Captain of the Guard then finished off the Earl with a pole axe. The body was thrown from the window into a garden below, where it was later given burial. A stained glass window bearing the Douglas Arms now overlooks 'Douglas Garden', the spot where the Earl is said to have fallen. In 1455 the supporters of James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas were defeated at the Battle of Arkinholm bringing an end to the Black Douglases. After the battle an act of parliament gave the Earl of Angus the lordship of Douglas with the original possessions of his ancestors in Douglasdale. The 9th earl was later defeated by the forces of King James III of Scotland at the Battle of Lochmaben Fair in 1484. 16th Century Conflicts A dispute occurred in 1530, when Sir Robert Charteris, the 8th Laird and chief of Clan Charteris fought a duel with Sir James Douglas of Drumlanrig in what was said to have been one of the last great chivalric contests. It was fought with all the observance of a medieval tournament with heralds and the king himself watching from the castle walls. The joust was apparently fought with such fury that Charteris' sword was broken and the king had to send his men-at-arms to part the combatants. His grandson, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, similarly held the post of Lord Chancellor and became guardian of James V by marrying his widowed mother, Margaret Tudor, with whom he had a daughter, Margaret Douglas, mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1545, Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, led his forces to victory at the Battle of Ancrum Moor where they defeated the English army during the Anglo-Scottish Wars. James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, nephew of the 6th Earl of Angus, was a bitter enemy of Mary, Queen of Scots. He was one of the murderers of the queen's secretary David Rizzio and was heavily implicated in the murder of her second husband Lord Darnley. As regent, he was brutal in crushing factions still loyal to Mary, however, he was accused of complicity in the murder of Darnley and was executed in 1581. 17th century & the Civil War During the Civil War, William Douglas, the 11th Earl of Angus, a Catholic, was a supporter of Charles I of Scotland. In 1633, he was created Marquess of Douglas. Following the Battle of Kilsyth in 1645, he joined James Graham, the 1st Marquess of Montrose, and was present when Royalist forces fought Covenanter cavalry at the Battle of Philiphaugh where he barely escaped with his life. Following Cromwell's victory, he was able to make peace and was fined £1,000. The Douglas Earls were raised to the level of Marquess in 1633. In 1660, William Douglas, the brother of the second Marquess of Douglas became, through marriage, the Duke of Hamilton. Eventually, the titles of Marquess of Douglas, Earl of Angus, and several others devolved to the Dukes of Hamilton and the heir of that house is always styled 'Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale'. The Douglas and Hamilton lines became Douglas-Hamilton and, under Scots law, are barred from inheriting the title of chief of Clan Douglas due to the hyphenated surname. This similarly applies to the Douglas-Home family who joined their surnames in the eighteenth century. In 1689, many Douglases formed part of the Cameronian regiment (Earl of Angus's regiment) who, although greatly outnumbered, managed to defeat a larger Jacobite force at the Battle of Dunkeld. The Douglases were victorious under the command of Captain George Munro of Auchinbowie. 18th century & the Jacobite risings Later in the 18th century, during the Jacobite Uprisings, the Clan Douglas continued their support for the British government. In 1703 the Douglas Marquess title was raised to that of a Duke, however, in the 17th century, leadership of the family passed to the Douglases of Drumlanrig, in Dumfrieshire who also descended from the Black Douglases. The Douglases of Drumlanrig had become Earls of Queensbury in 1633, Marquesses in 1682 and Dukes in 1684. The manouvers of James Douglas, the second Duke of Queensbury, contributed to the Union of 1707. 19th century The family began a slow decline in the 19th century. Whilst retaining their titles and lands, their political power began to ebb as the British parliamentary democracy and an ever rising commercial middle class sidelined the aristocracy in general. Unhelpfully, the men of the family were increasingly plagued by mental illness and an increasing rate of suicide, plus they had a nasty tendency to keep suing people for perceived slights or being sued for libel (all of which was very costly). However, the women of the family such as Lady Florence Douglas played an important part in the women's suffrage movement. The family also splintered with various branches emigrating to Australia and Canada where they have prospered. Of those who stayed in Britain, including the Marquessship, they tended to stay in London townhouses away from their seats in Scotland and tended to attend Oxford or St. Andrews for their university education. The last major public mention of the head of the Douglas clan was the infamous incident involving Lord Alfred Douglas and the noted 19th century playwright Oscar Wilde when his father, John Sholto Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, did everything in his power to end their relations after his first son had committed suicide after a homosexual affair with the British Prime Minister, Lord Rosebery. This led to an infamous libel trial which many attribute to the premature end of Oscar Wilde. 20th century The recession of the 1870's greatly damaged the Douglas family estates - indeed, the 9th Marquess had to sell his seat of Kinmount in Dumfriesshire. For a while, they married daughters of rich industrialists to prop up the family finances but the 1929 depression saw the end of Douglas family seats in Scotland with the 1931 sale of Grangemuir, just north of Pittenweem in Fife. Grangemuir is now a ruin and a caravan park. The descendents of that final seat, taken by William Robert Keith Douglas, are buried in the Douglas family graveyard in Dunino, just south of St. Andrews. The family papers are additionally lodged in the special collections of St. Andrews University Library. Interestingly, many of the Douglases spontaneously & individually converted to Roman Catholicism during the 20th century. By the 1950's, the Douglas family was completely broke and had to take jobs which have mostly been in teaching or academia. The current head of the Douglas family, David Harrington Angus Douglas, 12th Marquess of Queensberry, was Professor of Ceramics at the Royal College of Art in London. Douglas castles Douglass tartan, as published in 1842 in the Vestiarium Scoticum. Whether the Douglasses wore tartan in the sixteenth century, as the Vestiarium asserts, can be questioned. Aberdour Castle, Fife, held by the Earls of Morton (partially preserved). Balvenie Castle, Moray, held by James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas (ruined). Berwick Castle, Northumberland. Governed by William 'le Hardi'.(ruined, now forms part of Berwick-upon-Tweed train station) Bothwell Castle, South Lanarkshire (ruins). Bowhill House, Selkirkshire. Home of the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry (preserved). Dalkeith Castle, Mid-Lothian. (heavily converted) Douglas Castle in South Lanarkshire (now only minimal ruins remain). Drumlanrig Castle, Dumfries and Galloway. 17th century mansion house of the Dukes of Buccleuch and Queensberry (preserved). Duffus Castle, Moray Grangemuir House, Fife Hermitage Castle, Roxburghshire, 13th century Douglas stronghold (restored ruin). Hume Castle, Berwickshire. ancient links with Douglas, home of Sir Alexander Douglas. Kilspindie Castle, East Lothian. Home to the Douglases of Kilspindie, (scant ruins) Lennoxlove House, East Lothian. Home of the Duke of Hamilton, (also the Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale, Earl of Angus etc.) (preserved). Leven Castle, Kinross. First home of the Earl of Morton (ruins). Lochindorb Castle, Strathspey Morton Castle, Nithsdale, Dumfries and Galloway. ruined former home of the Douglas Earls of Morton. Newark Castle, Selkirkshire Ormond Castle, Black Isle Roxburgh Castle, captured by Sir James Douglas. Sandilands Castle, Fife (ruins). Strathaven Castle, South Lanarkshire Tantallon Castle, East Lothian. Stronghold of the Red Douglases (partially ruined). Threave Castle, Dumfries and Galloway (ruins). Timpendean Tower, Roxburghshire (ruins). Clan profile Patron Saint: St. Bride Motto: Jamais arrière (Never behind) Crest: A salamander Vert encircled with flames of fire Proper Clan septs Agnew Alexander Blackwood Blackett Blalock Breckinridge Brown Brownlee Cavin Cavers Dickey Dickle Dick Drysdale Foster Glenn Glendinning Glenndinning Henry Inglis Kidston Kilgore Kirkland Kirk Kilpatrick Lockerbie Lockerby Lockery Lochrie MacGuffey McKittrick Morton Sandlin Sandiland Soule Sterrett Symington Young Popular culture In the Highlander novel Scotland the Brave, James Douglas is a fictional Scot born into Clan Douglas and died his First Death in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden.

Drummond

Origins of the Clan Clan traditions credit the founder of the clan as Maurice of Hungary, a Hungarian prince descended from Arpad, who is said to have accompanied Edgar Ætheling, heir to the English throne, and his sister Saint Margaret of Scotland, when they sailed there in 1066. This disregards accepted history that Edgar and Margaret were brought to England in 1057 by their father, Edward the Exile: Edward died immediately, and his children lived at court with their mother Agatha; Edgar, about thirteen in 1066, was elected king after the battle of Hastings and the death of Harold, but together with the rest of the English government surrendered to William of Normandy at Berkhamsted two months later (December 16th 1066). He first sailed to Scotland, accompanied by his mother Agatha and sisters Margaret and Christian, several years after 1066. In turn Maurice was the son of György, who, according to Europaeische Stammtafeln, went to Scotland in 1055 and became ancestor of the Drummond family. E.S. cites a 1959 work published in Warsaw as the source for this. It has long been asserted that the Drummond family was founded by a Hungarian who returned to Britain with Edward Ætheling, so this may be true. György was an illegitimate son of Andrew I of Hungary. The clan's first recorded chief to take the name was Malcolm Beg, whose son, also called Malcolm, fought at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. After the battle the clan was given lands in Perthshire by King Robert I. Two of his grandsons, Gilbert and John de Drumund, swore fealty to Edward I. Malcolm's great-granddaughter, Annabella became the mother of King James I of Scotland in 1394. Sir Malcolm, the eldest great-grandson of the aforementioned Malcolm, obtained the clan home, Stobhall Castle, from his aunt Queen Margaret Drummond, King David II's wife. He was murdered by Highland marauders in 1403. His brother John's great-grandson, also John, became a Lord of Parliament and the first Lord Drummond. One year of his life was spent in confinement within Blackness Castle after he assaulted the Lord Lyon, King of Arms. He had a daughter, Margaret, said to have been secretly married to King James IV, who died by means of a meal, along with two of her sisters. Although some say it was murder, others claim it was simple food poisoning. Wars of Scottish Independence In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Drummond fought against the English at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296 and the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 in support of King Robert the Bruce. Malcolm Beg's son, The third Malcolm of Drummond fought at Bannockburn. He is credited with the deployment of caltropes, iron spikes, which when thrown onto the ground , always have one spike uppermost to injure horses and de-seat cavalry. This was done prior to the battle.( Caltropes were used by the SOE during WW11 for cavalry and motor-vehicle disablement ). In 1357, Annabella Drummond married, John, High Steward of Scotland, and later married King Robert III of Scotland. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts Chief Sir Malcolm Drummond married Isabel Douglas the Countess of Mar. He obtained the lands of Stobhall from his aunt Queen Margaret who had first obtained it from King David II of Scotland. Sir Malcolm was murdered in 1403 by a band of Highland marauders, said to have been the Clan Stewart of Appin led by Alexander Stewart, the son of the Wolf of Badenoch. Malcolm was succeeded by his brother John, whose great-grandson, also called John was made the 1st Lord Drummond. Chief John, 1st Lord Drummond was judiciary of Scotland, a Privy Councillor, constable of Stirling Castle and was created a Lord of Parliament on January 29th 1487. Battle of Knockmary 1490; This battle was between the two long feuding clans of Clan Murray and Clan Drummond. The Murrays were first successful, however the Drummonds were later reinforced and drove the Murrays off the battlefield. Many of the Murrays took refuge in a small church near Crief. Legend has it that at first the Drummond pursuers could not find them but an all too eager Murray clansmen, seeing his chance fired an arrow and killed a Drummond. The Drummonds then heaped combustibles around the church and burnt it to the ground with all those inside. Eight score Murrays were included in the holocaust, only one of those within the kirk escaping by the compassion of a Drummond clansman outside, who was his relation. 16th Century & Clan Conflicts In 1501 another Drummond, Margaret the fair, enraptured King James IV of Scotland. She was, to him, 'The diamond of Delight.' Because of his love for her, James originally declined the marriage to Mary Tudor, daughter of the King of Henry VII of England. It is rumored that James had indeed married Margaret and was to have her crowned Queen of Scotland. The nobles, mostly lowlanders and border Lords, feared that the Drummonds were becoming too powerful. They decided that Margaret must die, thus forcing James to marry the Tudor Princess. Margaret, and her two sisters, were poisoned. Shortly after, James married Mary Tudor, which made way for the union of the Scottish and English Crowns a century later. In 1589 John Drummond was appointed Royal Forester of Glenartney. It was in this post that he had the ears of some of the Clan MacGregor (one account says MacDonalds) poachers cropped. Clan MacGregor swore revenge and attacked Drummond and chopped off his head. They then proceeded to John's sisters residence, burst in, and demanded bread and cheese. The MacGregors then unwrapped John's head and crammed its mouth full. The feud between the two clans lasted for over a century. 17th Century & Civil War James Drummond, descendant of John, Margaret's father, became the first Earl of Perth in 1605, and his brother John became his successor on his death in 1611, and his sons became Earls of Perth like their father before them. Lord Drummond led his forces in support of the Covanenters against the Royalists at the Battle of Tippermuir in 1644. The chief of Clan Drummond, third Earl of Perth joined James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose in August 1645 and was taken prisoner at the Battle of Philiphaugh the following month. During the battles that followed in the decades after the Civil War the Clan Drummond fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. 18th Century & Jacobite Rebellion During the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Drummond were largely supporters of the Jacobite cause and the House of Stuart, however Drummond's (Edinburgh) Volunteers Regiment fought on the side of the British government at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745. When King James VII came to the throne in 1685, James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth, had converted to the Catholic Faith, as did his brother, the 1st Earl of Melfort. James Drummond, the Duke of Perth was one of Prince Charles Edward Stuart's closest commanders. He was involved in the Siege of Carlisle. Clan Drummond fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) and the Battle of Culloden in 1746. For their support of the Jacobite Stewarts through the risings of 1715 and 1745 the property and titles of the Drummonds were twice forfeited. It was not until 1853, through an Act of Parliament, that the title of Earl of Perth and other forfeited titles were restored to George Drummond, who was also in the French peerage as a Baron. Clan Drummond in the 20th Century James Eric Drummond (1876-1951), 16th Earl of Perth, served as the first secretary-general of the League of Nations. Lord Perth, a Catholic, was also British ambassador to Rome, from 1933 to 1939, and was chief advisor on foreign publicity at the Ministry of Information during World War II. His successor, John David Drummond, was able to buy back the family home, Stobhall Castle. Clan Castles Drummond Castle was built in 1491 by Sir John Drummond. Balmoral Castle was built in 1390 by Sir William Drummond. Megginch Castle was home of Cherry Drummond, 16th Baroness Strange Clan Profile Gaelic names: Druiman Origin of name: Drummond - from Gaelic 'drum' and 'onde', meaning 'high ground' Motto: Gang warily - 'Go carefully' Although the motto would seem as a tiding for a safe journey, the motto is actually a warning to those outside of the clan. Tartans: Drummond tartan Clan Septs Begg Brewer Cargill Doig Grewar Gruer Maccrouther Macgrewar Macgrowther Macgruder Macgruther MacRobbie Clan Drummond today Approximate numbers in various countries: Unknown Prominent members: see Drummond, under People. Ancestral lands: Perthshire. Chief: John Eric Drummond, 18th Earl of Perth

Dunbar

Origins of the Clan The Clan Dunbar descends from Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria, grandson of Crínán of Dunkeld and Seneschal of the Isles and nephew to King Duncan I of Scotland who became Earl of Northumberland after his father. In 1072 this title was deprived from him by William the Conqueror and he fled back to Scotland. He was granted lands in Dunbar by King Malcolm III of Scotland thus becoming the Earl of Dunbar. Wars of Scottish Independence Patrick, the 8th Earl of Dunbar was also called the Earl of March. Patrick was one of the competitors for the crown of Scotland. However he withdrew his claim and swore allegiance to King Edward I of England. Patrick's son also swore fealty to King Edward II of England. However he later signed the Declaration of Arbroath in 1320 for Scottish Independence. During the Wars of Scottish Independence Patrick's son married the daughter of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray, the famous Black Agnes. It was she, 'Isobell' who successfully defended Dunbar Castle against the English in 1338. However the Dunbars were not supporters of Robert the Bruce. The Dunbars also fought against the English at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 with the Earl of Douglas. 15th Century & Earldoms The Earldom of Moray passed to Isobell's children who were Dunbars. The Earldom of Dunbar went to George Dunbar and the Earldom of Moray to his brother John Dunbar. The earldom of Dunbar was forfeited in 1435 by King James I of Scotland who saw the Earldom as powerful threat and so the title came to an end. John the Earl of Moray married Marjorie, the daughter of King Robert II of Scotland and they had two sons. Their sons were Thomas and James. Thomas married the heiress of Frendraught. James became the 4th Earl of Moray and was the last in that male line. James was murdered in 1429 and the Earldom of Moray passed down through the daughters line. Sir Alexander of Westfield, John's son from his second marriage, became the 1st Baron of Mochrum in 1694, ancestor to the hereditary Sheriffs of Moray. 16th Century & Clan Conflicts The Dunbars prospered in Moray despite a feud with the Clan Innes. Many cadet branches of the Dunbars were founded. The Baronets of Durn, of Northfield and of Hempriggs in Caithness. Gavin Dunbar of the Mochrum family was appointed Archbishop of Glasgow and Lord Chancellor of Scotland in the reign of James V, while his exact namesake of the Westfield family was Bishop of Aberdeen and uncle to another Gavin Dunbar, tutor of the young King James V of Scotland. In 1598 the Clan Dunbar lands were raided by the Clan Cameron. The men listed as being involved in this raid include a good number of Camerons and those from the various tribes of Clan Cameron. Among the so-named 'perpetrators' was Allan Cameron, XVI Captain and Chief of Clan Cameron and twenty six other Camerons of noteworthy families. They burnt a handful of homes and took away three score and ten horses, among numerous other personal possessions. Clan Dunbar today Sir Jean Ivor Dunbar was the 13th Baronet of Mochrum and the Chief of the Name and Arms of Dunbar. After his death in 1993 the title passed to his son, Sir James Michael Dunbar, 14th Baronet of Mochrum and 39th Hereditary Chief of the Name and Arms of Dunbar. He is a retired Colonel of the United States Air Force.

Dundas

Clan Dundas is the name given to one of Scotland's most historically important families. Once widely regarded as one of the most noble in the British Empire. The fortunes of the family are now almost lost, with its lands sold to the state, its castles reclaimed and its stately homes either bought by the state, or in the hands of private investors, as is the case with their former home in Edinburgh, which serves as the worldwide headquarters for The Royal Bank of Scotland. It was, and still is, a noted family tradition to name the first born son Robert, after Lord Robert Dundas VI, Earl of Dundas, advisor to the last king of Scotland before the Act of Union, King James IV. Lord Dundas is considered the most influential person in instrumenting the union, and as such, can be considered the key in creating the United Kingdom in its current form. History The Dundas Family has established its position as one of the most important in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent, in the history of the United Kingdom. Although no longer widely known, and with its fortunes severely reduced, the Dundas clan has been instrumental in some of the most important events in Scottish history. It was in the 18th century that the family was key in allowing the Act of Union with England to commence, thereby creating the 'United' Kingdom in its current form (The Republic of Ireland excluded). Origins of the Clan The word 'Dun deas' in Gaelic means 'south fort'. The Dundas family occupied lands on the southern shores of the Firth of Forth. The family is believed to descend from 'Helias', son of 'Hutred', a younger son of Gospatrick, Prince of Northumberland. The Clan Dunbar and Clan Moncreiff also descend from the stock of Gospatrick. Records from the reign of William the Lion mention Serle de Dundas, Serle and Robertus de Dundas who both signed King Edward I of England's Ragman Roll. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Dundas fought alongside William Wallace against the English. Later they would also fight alongside King Robert I of Scotland against the English. However chief Sir George Dundas was killed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor in 1332. James Dundas built Dundas Castle in 1424. Civil War Chief George Dundas the eighteenth laird led the Clan Dundas during the civil war on the side of the Convenantors. George Dundas was also on the committee that tried James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. Jacobite Uprisings William Dundas of Kincavel was imprisoned for his part in the 1715 Jacobite rebellion. Many of the Dundas estates were forfeited after the 1745-1746 Jacobite rebellion.

Durie

Origins There is a persistent myth that the origin of the name Durie is from the French 'Du Roi' but there is no evidence for this. Rather, a younger son of the Earls of Strathearn was granted the existing lands of Durie (from the Gaelic for a small or black stream) and took the name. Another discredited story is that the Duries rose to prominence as administrators to Princess Joan, sister of King Henry III of England and wife of King Alexander II of Scotland. The Duries have been in Fife from the 1200s. 14th to 16th century The Duries briefly held Rossend castle at Burntisland in the 1500s. Rossend was built in 1382 but has an armorial tablet bearing arms of a Durie and the date of 1554. In 1563 the castle was occupied by Mary, Queen of Scots. Rossend Castle and the surrounding estates were confiscated during the reformation. The Duries were also granted the estate of Craigluscar near Dunfermline where a house was built in 1520. The lands were in the family until the early 1900s. The house had a stone shield bearing the Durie arms and initials of a George Dury and his wife Margarat Bruce. 17th century The other Durie estates in Scoonie near Leven were sold in 1614 to Sir Alexander Gibson. He became a judge in 1621 and took the judicial title of Lord Durie. Margarat McBeth the wife of Henry Durie was renowned for her skills with herbs and a favorite of Anne of Denmark. It is said that Margarat saved the life of King Charles I when other physicians had failed.of Durie In the late 17th century George Durie was a Captain in King Louis XIV of France's Scots Guards and also a provost of Dunfermline. Clan chief The Duries were chiefless for some time until the recognition of Lt Col. Raymond Varley Dewar Durie of Durie in 1988. He established his descent through his grandmother, Elizabeth Durie of Craigluscar from Abbot George. Raymond had a distinguished military career which spanned 35 years with Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. His actions were distinguished during the Chinese Civil War and Japans invasion of China. He died in 1999 and the chieftainship passed to his son, the present chief Andrew Durie. Clan castle The seat of the Clan Durie was once at Rossend Castle.

Eliott

Origins of the name The name Eliott is believed to derive from the village of Eliot in Angus although the Old English form of Elwold also appears in Scotland. Little is known of the early history of Clan Eliott because few records survive. This could be because the Eliott's Castle Stobs was burned down in 1712. Legend has it that the extra 't' in Eliott arose when a branch of the Eliotts adopted Christianity. The t was in reality meant to be a cross. The differences in spelling can be distinguished in this rhyme: The double L and single T
Descent from Minto and Wolflee,
The double T and single L
Mark the old race in Stobs that dwell.
The single L and single T
The Eliots of St Germains be,
But double T and double L,
Who they are nobody can tell. Robert Bell in 'The Book of Scots-Irish Family Names' adds: 'For double L and double T, the Scots should look across the sea!' He pointed out that 71 of 76 births of children by that name in Ireland in 1890 spelt it 'Elliott.' Elliot(t)s emigrated or were sent to Ireland in the early 17th century after the unification of the English and Scottish crowns. The Elliot(t)s were notorious reivers - cattle thieves - in the Scottish-English border area and, as such, a thorn in the side of both governments. Many settled in county Fermanagh. 14th century & Robert the Bruce It is known that in the time of King Robert the Bruce that the Clan Eliott who lived in the north in Glenshire moved to Teviotdale in the Scottish Borders. This unusual move was taken in order to protect King Robert the Bruce's son who was also called Robert. This Robert Bruce had become Lord of Liddesdale. The previous Lord of Liddesdale, William de Soulis was serving life imprisonment for treason. 15th & 16th centuries The chief of the clan was usually appointed as Captain of Hermitage Castle in Liddesdale. In 1476 the tenth chief of Clan Eliott was Robert Ellot of Redheugh. The Eliotts became famous as one of the great Scottish 'riding' clans. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars in the 16th Century chief Robert died when he led the Clan Eliot in support of King James IV of Scotland at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 fighting against the English. In 1565 Scott of Buccleuch of Clan Scott executed four men from Clan Eliott for cattle rustling. 17th century Gilbert Eliott of Stobs was made a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1666. Another Gilbert Elliot, of Minto, was created Baronet in 1700 and made a Lord of Session in 1705. 18th century Of the chiefs' direct line, several were distinguished as judges and empire builders. The most famous were Gen. George Augustus Eliott, who as governor of Gibraltar in 1779, conducted the heroic and successful defence of the Rock when it was besieged by Franco-Spanish forces, and Sir Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Baronet, who was created 1st Earl of Minto: he followed his father into politics and in 1794 was made Viceroy of Corsica. In 1807, Lord Minto was appointed Governor General of India. 19th century His great-grandson, Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (1845-1914), is remembered in the sporting world for having broken his neck riding in the Grand National. The mishap had no permanent effects and he was Governor-General of Canada before succeeding Lord Curzon as Viceroy of India in 1905. He was the chief architect of the Morley-Minto Reforms, regarded as dangerously radical in some circles at the time though, as it turned out, insufficient to stem the tide of Indian unrest. Clan castle The seat of the Earl of Minto is Minto House, in Hawick, and of the Eliot of Stobs, chief of the clan at Redheugh. Clan profile The crest badge used by clan members consists of a crest encircled by a strap and buckle containing a motto. The crest is a raised fist holding a sword, while the motto is FORTITER ET RECTE (translation from Latin: 'With strength and right').

Elphinstone

Origins of the Name The surname Elphinstone is derived from the territory of Elphinstone in the parish of Tranent, meaning 'of Elphinstone.' The original people of this name are believed to have been known as 'de Erth'. Later still they were known as 'Elfinstun'. The people of the Clan Elphinstone are believed to have originated from the lands of Airth in Stirlingshire. They were called de Erths and erected a castle nearby and through marriage inherited lands near Tranent in East Lothian. These lands came to be known as Elphinstone. Deeds dating from 1235 from this area bear the name 'de Elfinstun' and grants dating from 1250 record the name John de Elphinstone as a witness. Sir John Elfinstun married Margarot Seton of Clan Seton she was also the niece of King Robert I of Scotland also well known as Sir Robert the Bruce. 15th Century A descendant, William Elfinstun, became rector of Kirkmichael at the age of twenty-five. He studied Civil and Canon Law in Paris, eventually becoming Professor of Law in that university. In 1484 he was appointed Bishop of Aberdeen and later Lord High Chancellor of Scotland, a post he held until the death of King James III of Scotland in June of 1489. In 1494 he was given a bull from Pope Alexander VI for founding the University of Aberdeen. He died in 1514. 16th Century & Anglo Scottish Wars In the 16th Century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars a cousin of William Elfinstun called Sir Alexander Elphinstone led the Clan Elphinstone at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where he was slain, fighting in support of King James IV of Scotland Alexander's son also called Alexander too over as chief and led the Clan Elphinstone at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 where he was killed. The fourth Lord Elphinstone was appointed in 1599 as a judge of the Supreme Court of Scotland in 1599 and later Lord high Treasurer. 18th to 19th Centuries & the Napoleonic Wars The eleventh Lord Eliphinstone was lieutenant governor of Edinburgh Castle. One of his younger brothers called George Keith Elphinstone was a successful and distinguished naval commander. The squadron of ships which served was used to protect British shipping interests off the eastern coast of America. In 1795 he was made vice admiral and commanded the fleet which captured the Cape of Good Hope and compelled the Dutch fleet to surrender without firing a gun. His reward was an Irish barony. He was later promoted to the rank of admiral, and created Baron Keith of Banheath, only to be advanced once more, to the rank of Viscount in 1814. William George Elphinstone, the Viscount's nephew was a Colonel and fought against the French at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 during the Napoleonic Wars. Clan Chief The present Chief of Clan Elphinstone succeeded as 19th Lord Elphinstone in 1994 at the age of 14. Clan Castles Airth Castle Kildrummy Castle Airth Tower

Erskine

Origins of the Name Erskine is an area to the south of the River Clyde and ten miles to the west of Glasgow. The name is believed to be ancient or Old British for green rising ground. In the 13th century during the reign of King Alexander II of Scotland the first known person of the name Erskine was Henry Erskine who was also the owner of the Barony of Erskine. In modern Scottish Gaelic, the name is spelt 'Arascain'. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Erskine were supporters of King Robert the Bruce. 15th Century In 1435 Alexander Stewart, the Earl of Mar died and Sir Robert Erskine claimed the title. this also made him the chief of Clan Mar. However the King withdrew the earldom in 1457 stating that it could only belong to a Royal Stuart. Ten years later Sir Robert was created the first Lord Erskine. This unlawful succession was finally interrupted by Mary, Queen of Scots, who saw that the rightful heir John Erskine, 17th Earl of Mar was restored. 16th century & Anglo Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the 4th 'Lord Erskine' led the Clan Erskine at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where he was slain. Mary Queen of Scots had been in the care of the 5th Lord Erskine and when he died she made John Erskine the 6th Lord Erskine the Earl of Mar: John Erskine, 17th Earl of Mar. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings At the beginning of the Jacobite Uprisings it seemed likely that the Erskines would support the British government. However the chief of Clan Erskine, John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar had traveled to London in 1714 expecting the post of Secretary of State of Scotland. However he was not given the job and as a result he became a Jacobite. He then raised an army of over ten thousand men for the Jacobite cause. This force was not used to its potential during the Battle of Sheriffmuir on 13 November 1715 where the Jacobites were defeated. The Earl of Mar then fled Scotland to Saint-Germain in France, whereupon he betrayed his Jacobite associates. He lost his line of the Earldom of Mar and it was not restored until 1824. Clan Chief The current Chief of Clan Erskine is James Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar who descends from the Earls of Mar, seventh Creation (1565) (as deemed by the House of Lords in 1875). It should be noted that the Clan Mar now has a separate chief; Margaret of Mar, 30th Countess of Mar who descends from the Earls of Mar, first Creation. Clan Castles The House of Dun and the Dun Estate was home to the Clan Erskine family from 1375 until 1980, but archaeological evidence shows that people have lived here for at least 9,000 years. John Erskine of Dun was a key figure in the Scottish Reformation. Kildrummy Castle was the seat of the Clan Erskine until it was abandoned after the failed Jacobite Uprisings in 1716. Corgarff Castle was acquired by John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar in 1626. Kellie Castle was purchased by Sir Thomas Erskine in 1613. Dryburgh Abbey was given to the Earl of Mar by King James VI of Scotland in 1544. Alloa Tower Dirleton Castle Braemar Castle Rosslyn Castle

Farquharson

Origins of the Clan Farquhar - from the Gaelic 'fear' and 'char' meaning 'dear one'. In modern Scottish Gaelic, the surname is writtern 'MacFhearchair'. The name derives its name from Farquhar Shaw, 4th son of Alexander 'Ciar' Mackintosh of Rothiemurchus, 5th Chief of the Clan Shaw, who settled in the Braes of Mar, the source of the River Dee. His descendants took the name Farquharson. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars Farquhar Shaw's son married Isobel Stewart, heiress of Invercauld, however, it was their son, Finla Mor who has become known as the first real Farquharson. He was killed during the Battle of Pinkie in 1547, aged 60, while performing the duty of the King's Standard Bearer. This was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars His nine sons ensured that the clan became numerous and influential. In 1595 the clan entered a bond of manrent with the Clan MacKintosh, so also associating themselves with the Chattan Confederation. At the end of the sixteenth century the Erskines attempted to reclaim the Earldom of Mar. Jon Erskine, who styled himself Earl of Mar, built Braemar Castle in 1628 to defend himself against the claims of the Farquharsons. The castle passed into the hands of the Farquharsons and remains the clan seat to this day. 17th Century, Clan Conflicts & Civil War In 1673 a skirmish took place between the Clan Farquharson and the Clan MacThomas. Of the six sons born from the clan MacThomas chief John and Robert, the eldest and fourth eldest respectively were killed in a skirmish at Drumgley on January 28th 1673. The feud was as a result of the MacThomases allowing their cattle to pasture on the Faquharson's land. After the skirmish the MacThomases were fined, there was a crippling lawsuit made against them. After the chiefs death which followed the remaining sons were forced to sell their lands. The Farquharsons were staunch supporters of the House of Stuart and in 1689, John Farquharson of Inverey declared for John Graham of Claverhouse, Bonnie Dundee. He burned Braemar Castle and was a source of irritation to the government until his death in 1698. 18th Century & Jacobite Rebellion During the 1715 Rebellion, John Farquharson of Invercauld supported the Chattan Confederation and was a colonel of the regiment in support of James Francis Edward Stuart. In 1745 the Clan Farquharson are believed to have supported Lord Lewis Gordon during his victory at the Battle of Inverurie (1745). Also During the 1745 Jacobite Rising, Angus, the chief of Clan MacKintosh, was a serving member of the British Black Watch however while he was away on duty his wife, Lady Anne Mackintosh, daughter of Invercauld was a supporter of Charles Edward Stuart and ensured that 350 members of the Clan Chattan Regiment fought at the Battle of Culloden on the side of the Jacobites. During her husband's absence, she successfully rallied the Clan Mackintosh to their Chattan allies including Clan Farquharson. Angus was captured at the Battle of Prestonpans and was paroled to his wife. She famously greeted him with the words, 'Your servant, captain' to which he replied, 'your servant, colonel' thereby giving her the nickname Colonel Anne. Clan Farquharson today The current chief of Clan Farquharson is Captain Alwyn Compton Farquharson of Invercauld. Clan Castles Inverey Castle was the seat of the chief of Clan Farquharson. Braemar Castle was attacked and burned by John Farquharson, the Black Colonel of Inverey in 1689, killing John Erskine. The castle was left in ruins until 1748 when it was leased to the government by the Clan Farquharson. Invercauld House is the seat of the current chief of Clan Farquharson, Captain Alwyn Compton Farquharson. Clan Profile Crest: On a chapeau Gules furred Ermine, a demi-lion Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Proper. Motto: Fide et Fortitudine ('Faithful and Courageous') and (On compartment) I force nae freen, I fear nae foe. There are several tartans attributed to the name Farquharson. Clan Septs Septs of the Clan Farquharson include: Barrie Bowman Brebner Bremner Carracher Clan Christie Christison Christy Coates Coats Coutts Cromar Farquhar Ferries Findlay Findlayson Findlaison Findley Finlay Finlayson Finley Gracie Grassick Greusach Hardie Hardy Herald Kellas Kerracher Leys Lion(s) Lyon(s) MacArtney MacGaig MacCartney MacCraig MacCuaig MacEaracher MacErcher MacErracher MacFarquhar MacFerchar MacHardie MacHardy MacKerchar MacKerracher MacKindlay MacKinlay MacKinley MacWade Paterson Patterson Pattison Reaich Reoch Riach Tawse Wade

Fergusson

History of the clan Before the 18th century, at least five groups of Fergusons possessed lands and lived in the style of a clan under their respective chiefs in Argyll, Perthshire, Aberdeenshire, Galloway, and Carrick. Today, the Kilkerran Fergusons in Ayrshire and the family of Ferguson of Baledmund and the Fergusons of Balquhidder, both in Perthshire, are still owners of extensive lands. Fergussons from both Galloway and Carrick alike claim descent from Fergus of Galloway. The grandfather of Donnchadh, Earl of Carrick and in turn great-great-grandfather to Robert Bruce, Fergus, restored the see of Whithorn and founded Dundrennan Abbey during the reign of David I and Malcolm IV. He died as a monk at Holyrood in 1161. Through Robert Bruce passes the line of the Royal Family of Britain. It was the 1st Earl of Carrick's signature that might suggest the origins of the Fergusson surname, Duncan, son of Gilbert, the son of Fergus, hence MacFhearguis. It is known with certainty that by the 13th century there were men in widely separated districts of Scotland which called themselves 'sons of Fergus'. It is recorded in the Annals of Ulster there was in 1216 a day of disaster to the Cenel-Ferghusa at the hand of the Mormaer of Lennox's son, Muireadhach. Through the passing of the ages however the particulars of the story have been lost. Robert I of Scotland granted certain lands in Ayrshire to Fergus MacFergus, and in 1466 John Ferguson resigned a portion of his estate to Fergus Ferguson (of Kilkerran), his son, and Janet Kennedy, his wife. From this line stems Sir Charles Fergusson, 9th Baronet, and Baron of Kilkerran who holds the undifferenced arms as Chief of the Name. The name is also common in Ulster where there have been several landed families, some claiming to have been planted there from Ayrshire in the 17th century. Others of the name in Antrim and nearby counties descend from people who did not migrate to Dalriada in the 5th century. The Anglicised 'Fergusson' was widely used by the reign of James IV. The shortened form of the name with the single 's' was initiated by record clerks before the 1600s. The common spelling of the day was 'Fergussoun' and by the reign of Charles II, 'Fergussone'. 17th century & Civil War The dispersed Clan Fergusson has not blazed the battlefield with glories won by the sword. However, 'Sons of Fergus' fought with Clan Bruce in the Scottish Civil War and the English Civil War. Some Perthshire Fergusons fought alongside James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1644. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings The oldest soldier in Prince Charles Edward's Army at the Battle of Prestonpans in the '45 was an 80-year-old Ferguson. In the 18th century the head of the Kilkerran family came gradually to be regarded as the chief of all the Fergus(s)ons. This family has produced notable statesmen, military leaders, lawyers, writers and agricultural improvers. The present Chief is Sir Charles Ferguson of Kilkerran, 9th Baronet, who lives in the ancestral home near Maybole, Ayrshire. World wars In modern times and during World Wars I and II many Fergus(s)ons from Scotland and abroad were distinguished military leaders. Clan Ferguson has been termed a 'gentle force' that gained respected prominence from live and let live. Recently, however, a clansman, after looking at McIan's depiction of 'The Ferguson' as a barefooted, Claymore-wielding, helmeted warrior wearing the ancient Lein-croich, or saffron colored shirt of the Celts, remarked that 'if Clan Ferguson is a 'gentle force' he was glad the warrior was one of us and not a foeman!' Clan Fergusson today 'Sons of Fergus' the world over have gained distinction in nonmilitary activities, e.g. in the law, the church, government, the arts and sciences, medicine, education, agriculture and in business and industry. Mention can only be made of Adam Ferguson the philosopher (1724-1816) and Robert Fergusson (1750-1774) the poet and mentor of Robert Burns. And in the realm of romance, the heroine of the song Annie Laurie was married to Alexander Ferguson of Craigdarroch. In the modern era the peers of Ayrshire, Dumfries, Argyll, and Perthshire families have retained the double 's' while those of Fife, Aberdeenshire, Angus and Ireland have the single 'Ferguson'. Clan septs Ferguson and Fergusson are the two most common renderings of the name found through out the world. However the following names are also included as septs of the Clan Fergusson; Forgan, Fergie, Fergus, Fergushill, Fergussill, Farries, Ferrie, Ferries, Ferris(s), Forgie, Furgerson, Grevsack, Hardie, Hardy, Kiddie, Kydd, Keddie, Keddle, Ketchen, Kidd, MacTavert MacHerries. The Gaelic name has been rendered through translation into the forms, MacFergus, MacFerries, and MacFerris. Since the 'f' and 'g' are silent in the old language such variations as MacAdie, MacCade, MacErries, MacHerries, MacKerras (especially common in Argyll and Australia), MacKersey, MacKestan, MacFhearghuis, MacMagnus and even MacIrish, MacInlay were formed. Clan profile Clan Chief: Sir Charles Fergusson of Kilkerran, 9th BT, Chief of the Name and Arms of Fergusson. Clan Chief's Arms: A buckle Argent between three boars' heads couped. Badge: A bee on a thistle, all Proper. Motto: Dulcius ex asperis (Sweeter after difficulties). Gaelic Name: MacFhearghuis. War Cry: Clannfhearghuis gu brath! Tartans: Fergusson (of Atholl), Fergusson of Balquhidder, Ferguson Dress. Septs: Fergie, Fergus, Ferguson, Furgerson, Ferries, Firgie, Keddie, Kiddie, MacAdie, MacFergus, MacKeddie, Mackerras, MacKersey.

Forrester

Clan Forrester is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan is an armigerous clan, and has no position under Scots law, because there is no chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. History Origins of the Clan It is believed that the Clan Forrester is of Celtic origin. The founder of the clan is believed to be a man called Marnin Forrester who held lands in Dunipace, Stirlingshire in about 1200. Sir Adam Forrester is the first confirmed Forrester from contemporary evidence and is also regarded as the first confirmed founder of the Clan Forrester. He was an ambassador, merchant, Provost of Edinburgh, Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland and Deputy Chamberlain of Scotland. In 1376 he acquired the estate of Corstorphine in Midlothian where Corstorphine Castle once stood. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Forrester supported King Robert the Bruce of Scotland and fought against the English at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. A daughter of the chief of Clan Forrester married Robert de Munro of Foulis, chief of the Clan Munro. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts Sir Adam's son, Sir John Forrester also became Keeper of the Great Seal of Scotland , Chamberlain of Scotland and Keeper of the Household to King James I of Scotland Together they fought in support of the King at the Battle of Humbleton Hill in 1402. The Clan Forrester also fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars In the 16th century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Forrester led by the leader of a cadet branch Sir John Forrester of Niddry fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where he was slain. The Clan also fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 where the seventh chief. Sir James Forrester was there slain. The Clan Forrester also fought at the Battle of Langside in 1568 and the Battle of Ivry in 1590. 17th Century & Civil War The tenth chief Sir George Forrester was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia and raised to Lord Forrester of Corstophine in 1633. On his death the title became dormant and still awits to be claimed. James and William Baille, the sons in law of the first Lord Forrester assumed the name and arms of Forrester and inherited the title under a regrant of the peerage of Scotland. During the Civil War the Clan Forrester supported the Royalist cause. As a result James, chief of Clan Forrester was fined heavily by Oliver Cromwell and the estates became burdened with debts. James was murderdby his mistress, Mrs Christian Nimmo, when his brother who was mad, inherrited the title. 18th Century, Wars of Spanish Succession & Jacobite Uprisings War of the Spanish Succession At the beginning of the 18th Century the Clan Forrester fought for the British Government during the War of the Spanish Succession. The chief who was the fifth Lord Forrester was Colonel George Forrester of the Grenadier Guards and Life Guards. The Clan Forrester fought against the French at the Battle of Oudenarde in 1708 and the Battle of Malplaquet in 1709. Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite Uprisings of the 18th century the Clan Forrester supported the British Government. The Clan Forrester fought and helped defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Preston in 1715. Castles and Seats Castles and seats of the Clan Forrester have included Corstorphine Castle and Torwood Castle. Clan Profile Motto: Blaw, hunter, Blaw Thy Horn. Crest: A hound's head erased Proper collared Gules. Patron: Earl of Veralum, 16th Lord Forrester of Corstorphine. Arms: Argent, three bugle horns Sable, garnished Vert and stringed Gules. Supporters: Dexter, a ratchhound Proper, colared Gules; sinister a ratchhound Proper, collared Gules.

Forsyth

Origins of the Clan The first recorded person of the name was William de Firsith on the Ragman Roll in Berwick on the 28th August 1296. Much of the records of Clan Forsyth were destroyed by Oliver Cromwell in the Civil War, therefore little is known. Wars of Scottish Independence In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence Robert de Forsyth received lands from King Robert I of Scotland. Roberts de Forsyth's son called Osbet Forsyth led the clan against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. In 1364 the accounts of the 'Customers' of Stirling were rendered by Fersith the Clerk who was probably Robert's brother and who was granted ú100 per annum from the lands of the Polmaise Marischal by Robert II. 15th Century In 1418 Robert Forsyth renderd the accounts of the Burgh of Stirling. In 1432 his son who was also called Robert became Burgess of Stirling and a Baille in 1470. Duncan Forsyth and David Forsyth became Burgesses in 1497 and descendants of the family settled in Stirling and held civic office for centuries. In 1488 David Forsyth the now Burgess of Stirling bought the land of the Dykes also known as Hallhill which is near Strathaven near Lanarkshire. The castle there had fallen into ruin but it was not demolished until 1828. 16th Century Anglo-Scottish Wars In the 16th century the Clan Forsyth led by Alexander Forsyth fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where Alexander was slain. Alexander's grandson James Forsyth married Elizabeth Leslie in around 1520. Elizabeth was the granddaughter of George Leslie who was the Chief of Clan Leslie and the 4th Earl of Rothes. Elizabeth was also the great granddaughter of King James III of Scotland. In 1540 the family left Dykes and moved to Inchnoch Castle in Monkland which was also in Lanarkshire. 17th Century In 1621 William Forsyth had become a member of Forres in the Scottish Parliament. 20th Century Alistair Charles William Forsyth, Baron of Ethie, was recognised by Lord Lyon King of Arms as Chief of the Name and Clan of Forsyth in 1978. The Arms of Forsyth of that Ilk Argent a chevron engrailed Gules between three griffins segreant Azure armed and membered Sable, crowned Or. 30th November 1978

Fraser of Lovat

Clan Fraser of Lovat is a Highland Scottish clan and is a branch of the Clan Fraser. The Frasers of Lovat are descendants from a younger brother of Sir Alexander Fraser. It is Sir Alexander Fraser descendants whom are the chief line of the Fraser clan. The current chief of the clan is Simon Fraser, 16th Lord Lovat. History For the history of the Clan before the Scottish Wars of Independence, see Clan Fraser Clan Fraser of Lovat traces its heritage from Sir Simon Fraser, brother of Sir Alexander Fraser, Robert the Bruce's Chamberlain, whom Clan Fraser traces from. Sir Simon acquired the Bisset Lands around Beauly when he won the hand of its heiress, and these lands became the family home. A record from 1367 describes Hugh Fraser as 'Lord of Lovat and portioner of Ard', the first known connection the Frasers had with Lovat land. By 1422 the Frasers of Lovat had extended their lands to include Stratherrick by Loch Ness, together with part of Glenelg. Around 1422, the Frasers acquired lands at Stratherrick by Loch Ness, together with part of Glenelg. Although the exact date of creation is uncertain, some time between 1456 and 1464, Hugh Fraser was raised to the peerage as Lord Lovat or Lord Fraser of Lovat. Around 1511, the 5th Lord Hugh Fraser of Lovat established his seat at Castle Fraser, which is now owned by Historic Scotland since 1971. The Castle stands in its old glory today. Around the middle of the 18th century, Sir Simon Fraser, the 11th Lord Lovat was the third son of the seventh Lord Lovat. He captured and married the widow of the 10th Lord Lovat by drowning her squeals and screams by way of pipers. It is for this reason he was known as the Fox. Castle Fraser was therefore left abandoned with no male heir for nearly two centuries until 1962 when a rightful heir was located through a proper search. During the spring of 1962, Clan Fraser made a last minute attempt to keep Castle Fraser in Fraser hands, but the plan failed as the heir refused Castle Fraser, as he was an American citizen. In the early part of the nineteenth century Beauly Castle was constructed as the new seat of Lord Lovat for descendants of the 11th Lord Lovat. Beauly Castle is no longer owned by Clan Fraser, however it still stands in all its original glory. Battle of the Shirts The Frasers fought a great clan battle against the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald in 1544, Blar-ne-Léine, the Battle of the Shirts, over the disputed chieftainship of Clan Ranald. The Frasers backed a son of the 5th Chief, Ranald Gallda (the Stranger), which the MacDonalds found unacceptable. Prevented from battle by the Earl of Argyll, the Frasers were ambushed on their march home by 500 MacDonalds. Only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds are said to have survived the bloody engagement. Both the Lovat Chief, Lord Lovat and his son and heir were amongst the dead and were buried at Beauly Priory. Despite these atrocities, the Frasers were stronger than ever before within a hundred years. Mary, Queen of Scots Robert Mor Munro, 15th chief of Clan Munro , was a staunch supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, and he consequently was treated favourably by her son, James VI. Robert was also a faithful friend of Mary. Buchanan states, when the unfortunate princess went to Inverness in 1562, that: 'as soon as they heard of their sovereign's danger, a great number of the most eminent Scots poured in around her, especially the Frasers and Munros, who were esteemed the most 'valiant of the clans inhabiting those countries in the north.' ' These two clans took Inverness Castle for the Queen, which had refused her admission. The Queen later hanged the governor, a Gordon who had refused her admission. Clan Conflicts In 1571 the Clan Fraser joined forces with the Clan Forbes in their feud against the Clan Gordon. The Forbes were also joined by Clan Keith and Clan Crichton. The Gordons were also joined by Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton. The feud between the Gordons and Forbes which had gone on for centuries culminated in two full scale battles: The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. A battle took place between the Clan Fraser and Clan Logan at Kessock where Gilligorm the Chief of Clan Logan was killed. The Civil War In 1649, during the Civil War the Clan Munro and Clan Fraser again took Inverness Castle. This time they were also joined by Clan Urquhart and Clan MacKenzie who they had recently made peace with. They were all opposed to the authority of the current parliament. They assaulted the town and took the castle. They then expelled the garrison and raised the fortifications. However on the approach of the parlimentry forces led by General Leslie all of the clans retreated back into Ross-shire. During that year several skirmishes took place between these parties. 18th Century & Jacobite Risings Simon 'the Fox' Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, 1668. The Fox was Chief during the Jacobite risings. 1715 to 1719 During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 to 1716 the Clan Fraser supported the British government. In Inverness in 1715 Simon Fraser of Lovat (who had been outlawed and in exile), put pressure on the Jacobite garrison in Inverness, which was delivered upon the very day when the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought and another Jacobite force was defeated at the Battle of Preston. Soon after this 31 year old Chief Colonel Robert Munro of Foulis marched into the town of Inverness with 400 Munros and took over control as governor from Fraser. A number of Frasers also helped to defeat the Jacobites at the Battle of Glenshiel in 1719. 1745 to 1746 However the infamous Simon the Fox was also chief during The '45, and supported the Jacobites and Charles Edward Stuart, contrary to his action during The Fifteen (though, his clan did indeed rally for Jamie). Frasers were on the front lines of the Jacobite army at the Battle of Falkirk (1746), and the Battle of Culloden in 1746.

Fraser

Clan Fraser (Scottish Gaelic: Clann Frisealach, French: Clan Frasier) is a Scottish clan of French origin. The Clan has been strongly associated with Inverness and the surrounding area since the Clan's founder gained lands there in the 13th century. Since its founding, the Clan has dominated local politics and been active in every major military conflict involving Scotland. It has also played a considerable role in most major political turmoils. The Clan's current chief is Simon Fraser, the 16th Lord Lovat, and 25th Chief of the Clan. The arms of Clan Fraser are Quarterly: 1st and 4th Azure, three fraises Argent, 2nd and 3rd Gules, three antique crowns Or, or in layman's terms, the traditional three cinquefoils, or fraises (strawberry flowers), as they have come to be known, in the first and fourth positions and three crowns in the second and third positions. Only the Lord Lovat is allowed use of these arms plain and undifferenced. Origins of the surname Main article: Fraser (surname) The surname 'Fraser' is of an uncertain origin. The first record of the name occur in the mid-12th century as 'de Fresel', 'de Friselle', and 'de Freseliere', and appears to be a Norman name, though there is no known placename in France that corresponds with it. Also, it has been thought possible that a medieval scribe could have corrupted a Gaelic name beyond recognition. A tradition, favoured by the leading family of Fraser, derived the clan's descent from a Frenchman, Pierre Fraser, Seigneur de Troile, who came to Scotland in the reign of Charlemagne to form an alliance with the mythical King Achaius. Pierre's son was then to have become thane of the Isle of Man in 814. Another explanation for the surname is that it is derived from the French words fraise, meaning strawberry (the fruit), and fraisiers, strawberry plants. There is a fabled account of the Fraser coat of arms which asserts during the reign of Charles the Simple of France, a nobleman from Bourbon named Julius de Berry entertained the King with a dish of fine strawberries. De Berry was then later knighted, with the knight taking strawberry flowers as his Arms and changing his name from 'de Berry' to 'Fraiseux' or 'Frezeliere'. His direct descendants were to become the lords of Neidpath Castle, then known as Oliver. This origin has been disputed, and seen as a classic example of canting heraldry, where heraldic symbols are derived from a pun on similar sounding surname: (strawberry flowers - fraises). Early Frasers Around the reign of William the Lion (r.1165-1214), there was a mass of 'Norman' immigration into Scotland. Thomas Grey, a 14th century English knight, listed several 'Norman' families which took up land during William's reign. Among those listed, the families of Moubray, Ramsay, Laundells, Valognes, Boys and Fraser are certainly or probably introduced under King William. The earliest written record of Frasers in Scotland is in 1160, when a Simon Fraser held lands in East Lothian at Keith. In that year, he made the gift of a church to the Tironensian monks at Kelso Abbey. The Frasers moved into Tweeddale in the 12th and 13th centuries and from there into the counties of Stirling, Angus, Inverness and Aberdeen. New homes The remains of Beauly Priory. Sir Simon Fraser of Oliver acquired the Bisset Lands around Beauly when he won the hand of its heiress, a young Bissett. King Alexander III granted the right of the 'Lordship of Loveth, vulgo Morich,' in the Aird, in 1253, and the corresponding lands, to Simon Fraser of Lovat, either his son or cousin, from whom the Clan Fraser claims descent. Sir Simon held other lands in Aberdeen, which were given to his eldest son (or cousin), Sir Alexander Fraser of Touchfraser and Cowie. It is from Alexander that the Frasers of Philorth descend. In 1336, Thomas Fraser, of the Frasers of Muchalls, gained the estates of Stonywood and Muchalls in Kincardineshire, and soon erected a tower house stronghold overlooking the North Sea. This tower house was later expanded, and became known as Muchalls Castle. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Scottish Wars of Independence, Sir Simon Fraser, known as 'the Patriot', fought first with the Red Comyn, and later with Sir William Wallace and Robert the Bruce. Sir Simon is celebrated for having defeated the English in three separate engagements at the Battle of Roslin in 1303, with just 8,000 men under his command. Along with the Clan Fraser, the Red Comyn's Clan Comyn, and the Clan Sinclair are known to have fought at the battle, which took place on 24 February 1303. At the Battle of Methven in 1306, Sir Simon led troops along with Bruce, and saved the King's life in three separate instances. Simon was allegedly awarded the 3 Crowns which now appear in the Lovat Arms for these three acts of bravery. At the end of the day, he was captured by the English and executed with great cruelty by King Edward in 1306, in the same barbaric fashion as Wallace. At the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Sir Simon's cousin, Sir Alexander Fraser of Cowie, was much more fortunate. He fought at Bannockburn, married Bruce's sister, and became Chamberlain of Scotland. The Frasers of Philorth trace their lineage from Alexander. At the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, Alexander Fraser's three younger brothers, Simon Fraser of Lovat, Andrew, and James, were killed while fighting the English. Clan wars Fraser lands are shown in blue. This map is accurate to the acts of parliament 1587 & 1594. Click to enlarge. As most all Highlanders, the Frasers have been involved in countless instances of Clan warfare, particularly against the Macdonalds. Two Gaelic war cries of the Frasers have been generally recognized. The first, 'Caisteal Dhuni' (Castle Dounie/Downie) refers to the ancestral Castle and Clan seat, which once existed near the present Beaufort Castle. The second is 'A Mhòr-fhaiche' (The Great Field). In 1544, the Frasers fought a great clan battle, the Battle of the Shirts (Blar-ne-Léine in Gaelic) against the Clan Macdonald of Clanranald, over the disputed chiefship of Clan Ranald. The Frasers, as part of a large coalition, backed a son of the 5th Chief, Ranald Gallda (the Stranger), which the MacDonalds found unacceptable. The Earl of Argyll intervened, refusing to let the two forces engage. But on their march home, the 300 Frasers were ambushed by 500 MacDonalds. Only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds are said to have survived the battle. Both the Lovat Chief, Hugh Fraser, and his son were amongst the dead and were buried at Beauly Priory. Robert Mor Munro, 15th chief of Clan Munro, was a staunch supporter of Mary, Queen of Scots, and he consequently was treated favourably by her son, James VI. Robert was also a faithful friend of Mary. Scottish historian George Buchanan, a contemporary, wrote that when the unfortunate princess went to Inverness in 1562: 'as soon as they heard of their sovereign's danger, a great number of the most eminent Scots poured in around her, especially the Frasers and Munros, who were esteemed the most 'valiant of the clans inhabiting those countries in the north.' ' These two clans took Inverness Castle for the Queen. The Queen later hanged the governor, a Gordon who had refused her admission. In 1571 the Clan Fraser joined forces with the Clan Forbes in their centuries-long feud against the Clan Gordon. The Frasers and Forbes were joined by Clan Keith and Clan Crichton. The Gordons were joined by Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton. The feud culminated in two full scale battles: the Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. At the first, the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son, known as Black Aurther Forbes, was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. A separate battle took place between the Clan Fraser (with help from the Clan MacRae) and the Clan Logan at Kessock, where Gilligorm, the Chief of the Clan Logan, was killed. Call to arms & civil war Traditionally, Frasers wear small branches of Iubhar (Gaelic), or Yew, in their caps. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644-1650, the Clan was as active as ever, supporting the cause of the Covenanters. In 1645, at the Battle of Auldearn, in Nairnshire, the Clan opposed the Royalist leader James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose, and fought under a Fraser of Struy (from a small village at the mouth of Glen Strathfarrar). The battle left eighty-seven Fraser widows. A poem about the battle reads: 'Here Fraser Fraser kills, a Browndoth kills a Browndoth.
A Bold a Bold, and Lieth's by Lieth overthrown.
A Forbes against a Forbes and her doeth stand,
And Drummonds fight with Drummonds hand to hand.
There dith Magill cause a Magill to die,
And Gordon doth the strenth of Gordon try.
Oh! Scotland, were though Mad? Off thine own native gore.
So Much till now thou never shedst before.' In 1649, the Clan Fraser and Clan Munro joined for a second time to assault Inverness Castle. This time, they were also joined by the Clan Urquhart and the Clan Mackenzie, with whom they had recently made peace. The four clans, all opposed to the authority of the current parliament, assaulted the town and took the castle. They then expelled the garrison and raised the fortifications. However, on the approach of the parliamentary forces led by General Leslie, the clans retreated back into Ross-shire. Over the next year, several skirmishes took place between these parties. In 1650, at the Battle of Dunbar, the Clan Fraser fought against the forces of Oliver Cromwell. However, the Covenanters were defeated. In 1651, the Clan Fraser joined the army of Charles II at Stirling. They fought at the Battle of Worcester where the King's army was defeated by Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army. Jacobite risings Simon 'the Fox' Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat, 1668. The Fox was Chief during the second and third Jacobite Risings. In 1689, the Glorious Revolution deposed the Roman Catholic King James VII as monarch of England, replacing the King with his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband and cousin William of Orange. Swiftly following in March, a Convention of the Estates was convened in Edinburgh, which supported William & Mary as joint monarchs of Scotland. However, to much of Scotland, particularly in the Highlands, James was still considered the rightful, legitimate King. Bonnie Dundee On 16 April 1689 John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee (Bonnie Dundee), raised the royal standard of the recently deposed King James VII on the hilltop of Dundee Law. Many of the Highland clans rallied swiftly to his side. The chief of the Clan Fraser, Thomas Fraser, tried to keep the members of his clan from joining the uprising, to no avail: The Clan marched without him, and fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie. In 1690, Thomas gave in and joined them. The Fifteen The Clan Fraser was split during the first Jacobite rising in 1715. While some supported the Jacobite cause, Simon 'the Fox' Fraser, Chief at the time, supported the British Government. In 1715, a force led by Simon, who had been outlawed by the Stewarts and was in exile, surrounded the Jacobite garrison in Inverness. The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch attempted to relieve the garrison, but when their path was blocked by the Frasers, Keppoch retreated. The Inverness garrison surrendered to Fraser on the same day that the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought, and another Jacobite force was defeated at the Battle of Preston. Soon after this 31 year old Chief Colonel Robert Munro of Foulis marched into the town of Inverness with 400 Munros and took over control as governor from Fraser. In 1719 the Clan Fraser fought for the British government at the Battle of Glen Shiel where they helped defeat the Jacobites and MacKenzies alike. The Forty-Five On 2 August 1745, a frigate successfully landed Bonnie Prince Charlie, grandson of James VII with his seven men of Moidart on the island of Eriskay in the Outer Hebrides. He would go on to raise the royal standard at Glenfinnan, and led the second Jacobite rising in Scotland. The by-now-infamous Simon 'the Fox' Fraser supported the Jacobites and Bonnie Prince Charlie during The '45. One very strong reason was that Simon had been created Duke of Fraser, Marquess of Beaufort, Earl of Stratherrick and Abertarf, Viscount of the Aird and Strathglass and Lord Lovat and Beauly in the Jacobite Peerage of Scotland by James Francis Edward Stuart in 1740. Frasers were on the front lines of the Jacobite army at the Battle of Falkirk, and the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Culloden The Battle of Culloden in 1746 was a decisive defeat for the Jacobites and the House of Stuart. At the battle, Frasers made up the largest centre regiment of the front line, with 400 men under Charles Fraser of Inverallochy, and Simon Fraser, Master of Lovat. The Fox was not present at the battle, reportedly trying to gather dispersed Clansmen to fight. Being on the front line, the Frasers were one of the few units to actually close with Government forces, breaking through Barrell's regiment with 800-900 other Highlanders (Atholl men, Camerons, Stewarts of Appin). The ferocious Frasers were massacred by the Government second line. Aftermath The Fraser gravestone at Culloden Moor. Frasers who fell at the Battle of Culloden were buried in a mass grave underneath this stone. Hundreds may lie underneath it. Each clan had its own grave. After the battle, the same year, Castle Dounie was burnt to the ground, while the Fox was on the run. He was captured, tried for treason, and executed in London on 9 April 1747, and his estates and titles were forfeited to the Crown. The Fox's son, Simon Fraser escaped punishment, and was pardoned - later raising a Fraser regiment for the British army which fought in Canada in the 1750s, including Quebec. Charles Fraser was mortally wounded and found by General Hawley on the field, who ordered one of his aides, a young James Wolfe to finish him off with a pistol. Wolfe refused, so Hawley got a common soldier to do it. We also know the fate of some of the clansmen. David Fraser of Glen Urquhart, who was a deaf-mute had, it was said, charged and killed seven redcoats, but was captured and died in prison. John Fraser, also called 'MacIver' was shot in the knee, taken prisoner and put before a firing squad, but was then rescued by a British officer, Lord Boyd, who was sick of the slaughter. Another John Fraser, who was Provost of Inverness tried to get fair treatment for the prisoners. Castle Dounie was replaced by a small square building costing £300 in which the Royal Commissioner resided until 1774, when some of the forfeited Lovat estates were granted by an Act of Parliament to his son, Simon Fraser (1726-1782), by then a major general, in recognition of his military service to the Crown and the payment of some £20,000. Later, two modest wings were added. On the death of General Fraser's younger half-brother, Colonel Archibald Campbell Fraser of Lovat (1736-1815), without legitimate surviving male issue, the Lovat estates were transferred, by entail, to Thomas Alexander Fraser of Strichen (1802-1875), a distant cousin who was descended from Thomas Fraser of Knockie & Strichen (1548-1612), second son of Alexander Fraser, 4th Lord Lovat (1527-1557). Knockie was sold about 1727 to Hugh Fraser of Balnain (1702-1735). Frasers in the New World Seven Years' War Under the chief, Simon (who had led the Frasers in the '45 as the Master of Lovat) a regiment of Frasers, the 78th Fraser Highlanders, numbering fourteen hundred were raised and fought the French and Indians in the colonies and in Canada, from 1757-1759. Interestingly, the 78th fought under General Wolfe, who had previously fought at the Battle of Culloden, against Simon and perhaps some of the 78th. It was one of the 78th, possibly Simon, possibly one of his men, whose familiarity with the French language saved the first wave of British troops at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which led to the capture of Quebec. American rebellion In the fight against American independence Simon, who was by this time a General, raised 2,300 men; the 71st Fraser Highlanders. He recruited two battalions at Inverness, Stirling and Glasgow. Most of the men were not Frasers for the number of Frasers had been substantially reduced after the battle of Culloden and the end of the clan system. Diaspora Many Frasers settled in the United States and Canada after the war against the French in Quebec. Many others later emigrated to those countries and to Australia and New Zealand (which have both had a Fraser prime minister). Frasers in the US have continued their proud military tradition, fighting on both sides of the American Civil War. Frasers from both sides of the Atlantic fought in the Great War, and the Second World War. Military regiments The 78th Fraser Highlanders Pipe Band, sponsored by the regiment of the same name. Frasers have always been known for their fighting spirit and their skill in the art of war. Frasers have fought in many wars, from defending Scottish lands against invading Danes and Norse, to the Scottish Wars of Independence, to the Jacobite risings, both World Wars, and they continue to serve today. Among the organized regiments were an Independent Highland Company in 1745 that fought at the Battle of Culloden, and The 2nd Highland Battalion, formed in January 1757.. The 62nd Regiment of Foot, formed 1757, was soon redesignated as the 78th Fraser Highlanders in 1758, and retired as a fighting unit in 1763, but the unit is still active as a fund raising organization under the authority of the Lord Lovat. The 71st Fraser Highlanders formed in October 1775, and consisted of two battalions raised at Inverness, Stirling and Glasgow for service in North America. They were disbanded in 1786. The Fraser Fencible Regiment was raised by Col. the Hon. Archibald Campbell Fraser of Lovat, as a home guard in the event of an invasion by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Fraser Fencibles served in the Irish Rebellion of 1798. The Lovat Scouts, formed in January 1900 by Simon Joseph Fraser, for service in the Second Boer War, saw extensive action during the Great War and the Second World War, and now consist of a platoon, Company C, of the 51st Highland Volunteers. The modern Clan Today the Clan Fraser is composed of many thousands all over the world. Large Fraser populations exist in the United States and Canada, and smaller populations are in Australia, New Zealand (both of which have had Fraser prime ministers), and South Africa, not to mention those who never left Scotland. In 1951, the Lord Lovat Simon Christopher Joseph Fraser was able to muster some 7,000 Frasers to the family seat at Beaufort Castle, and in 1997, some 30-40,000 Frasers from 21 different countries came to Castle Fraser over a period of four days for a world-wide Clan gathering. Two chiefs Main article: Chiefs of Clan Fraser On May 1, 1984, by decree of the Court of the Lord Lyon, the 21st Lady Saltoun was made 'Chief of the name and arms of the whole Clan Fraser'. Lord Lovat, Simon Christopher Joseph Fraser, was reported to have not given any heed to the decision, dismissing the matter as being beneath him. Since this decree, there has been much confusion as to who is the Chief of the Clan Fraser. Many believe that this decree made the Lady Saltoun the chief of the Clan. However, the Lord Lyon did not grant the chiefship of the Clan Fraser, just a description of 'Chief of the name and arms.' The Lord Lyon does not have power over the Chief of a Highland Clan. What the decree did was reinforce the Lady Saltoun's claim to being the head of the senior branch of the wider Fraser family, and granted her the use of the plain and undifferenced Fraser arms (three strawberry flowers on a field of blue). The current Lord Lovat, Simon Fraser retains the chiefship. The Arms of Lady Saltoun as Head of the Name & Arms of Fraser. - Azure three fraises Argent. The Arms of Fraser of Lovat - Quarterly 1st & 4th Azure three fraises Argent 2nd & 3rd Argent three antique crowns Gules. Notable Frasers Simon Fraser the explorer. Main article: Fraser (surname) Many Frasers have earned wide renown over the years. In military service, General Simon Fraser of Balnian, of Saratoga fame, General Simon Fraser of Lovat (who also fought in the Seven Years' War against the French, and commanded Frasers at Culloden), Admiral of the Fleet the Lord Fraser of Northcape, Simon Christopher, the 17th Lord Lovat, served in the Scots Guards and was an outstanding British Commando leader in the Second World War, noted for his service during the D-Day landings of the Battle of Normandy. In the political realm, the Rt. Hon. Peter Fraser, Prime Minister of New Zealand 1940-1949, and the Rt. Hon. Malcolm Fraser, Liberal Prime Minister of Australia 1975-1983. William Fraser, 1st Baron Strathalmond, Chairman B.P., Hugh Fraser III, grandson of the founder of the House of Fraser, and at one time owner of Harrods have made names for themselves in the business world. Dedication to the Kirk has been shown by the Very Reverend John Annand Fraser, MBE, TD, DD, Moderator of the Church of Scotland, Sir Charles Fraser, Pursebearer to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and Lady Marion Anne Fraser, Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. John Fraser (1750-1811) was a noted botanist. Simon Fraser, US-born Canadian explorer, mapped the Fraser River and Simon Fraser University is named in his honour. Ian Frazer, Australian immunologist, worked on the development of a cervical cancer vaccine. See also Castles Moniack Castle Lords Lord Fraser Lord Saltoun [ Clan Fraser Motto Je Suis Prest (French I Am Ready) Origins Gaul, Anjou, East Lothian, Beauly. Gaelic Friseal Branches Frasers of Inverallochy Clan Fraser of Lovat Frasers of Muchalls Frasers of Philorth Frasers of Strichen Septs Bissett Brewster Cowie Frew Frissel Frizell MacCimmie MacGruer MacKim MacKimmie MacSimon MacShimes MacTavish McCoss M'ktaus Oliver Sim Sime Simon Simpson Simson Sims Syme Symon Twaddle Tweedie Arms Tartans Fraser Dress Fraser Hunting Fraser of Lovat Green Hunting Plant badge Iubhar (Yew) Chieftain Simon Fraser, 18th Lord Lovat Clan seat Beauly, Inverness-shire

Galbraith

Origin of the clan The surname Galbraith means Foreign Briton. The surname denoted the ethnic differences between the Gaels who migrated to Scotland in about the fifth century and the native Welsh speaking Britons of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. The Strathclyde Britons remained a distinct ethnic group from the Highland Gaels and Lowland Angles until the fourteenth century. The former capital of the Kingdom of Strathclyde was Dumbarton ('Fortress of the Britons'), in the Lennox. In Scottish Gaelic the Galbraiths are called Breatanuich or Clann-a-Breatannuich, meaning 'Britons' and 'Children of the Britons'. The early Galbraiths held lands in the Lennox, in the area of Loch Lomond, north of Dumbarton. The stronghold of these early Galbraiths was on the island of Inchgalbraith in Loch Lomond. The celebrated heraldist Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk speculated that the Arms of the Galbraiths, which bore three bears' heads, may allude to the British name Arthur, which means bear. History The Galbraith tartan. The man who is considered to be first chief of Clan Galbraith was Gilchrist Bretnach who married the granddaughter of the first Earl of Lennox. The fourth chief, Sir William Galbraith of Buthernock, married a sister of 'Black Comyn' who was head of the most powerful family in Scotland at the time. Sir William, however, sided against the Comyns when he had a part in the rescue the boy king Alexander III from Comyn's control. Ultimately Sir William rose in power to becoming one of the co-Regents of Scotland in 1255. Sir William's son, the fifth chief of the clan, Sir Arthur, supported Robert the Bruce, and also married a sister of Sir James Douglas. 'Good Sir James Douglas' is famous for perishing in Spain against the Saracens, while leading a small band of Scottish knights carrying Bruce's heart to the Holy Land. A branch of the Galbraiths held Culcreuch in Strathendrick in 1320, and before the end of that century had inherited the leadership of the clan. In 1489 the twelfth chief, Thomas Galbraith of Culcreuch, was captured by James IV and hanged. Fall of the clan The 17th Chief of Clan Galbraith, Robert Galbraith, Laird of Culcreuch brought ruin to the clan. Sometime before 1593 Robert's widowed mother had married, against his wishes, the chief of the Clan MacAulay, Aulay MacAulay, Laird of Ardencaple. Galbraith's animosity towards MacAulay was so much that Galbraith was said to have 'gevin vp kindnes, and denunceit his euill-will to him with solempne vowis of revenge'. In spring of 1593, Robert Galbraith, purchased a commission of Justiciary, (a commission of fire and sword), to pursue the Clan Gregor and 'their ressetters and assisters'. Both the MacAulays and Colquhouns were suspicious of Galbraith's real intentions, and on May 3, 1593 the lairds of the two clans complained that Galbraith had only purchased the commission under counsel from George Buchanan and that Galbraith had no intentions of actually harassing the MacGregors. It seemed more likely that the Galbraiths, allied with the Buchanans would direct their vengeance against the MacAulays and Colquhouns, under the guise of hunting and clearing the Clan Gregor from the Lennox. Ultimately Robert Galbraith's letter of commission was taken from him. In 1612 Robert and his wife, likely from pressure from higher up, gave up possession of West Milligs, to his mother who had married MacAulay. Thus, West Milligs (which adjoined Ardencaple (modern day Helensburgh) had been held by the Galbraiths of Culcreuch since at least the mid fifteenth century, was lost to the MacAulays of Ardencaple. In 1622, Robert Galbraith, Laird of Culcreuch, was in debt to his brother-in-law (whom he attempted to assassinate), was denounced as a rebel, and forced to give up Culcreuch Castle. Galbraith then fled Scotland for Ireland where he died ten years later, leaving nothing for his son to inherit, and his grandson the 19th Chief of Clan Galbraith was the last of his line. Clan profile Clan Motto: Ab obice sauvoir - (Sweeter for there having been difficulties).

Gayre

Origins of the Clan There are several theories as to the origin of the name Gayre. The first is that it is a name of Celtic origin. However it is now believed that the name hails from Cornwall in the south of England, where the de Ke Kayres were lords of many manors. The name as it arises in Orkney and Shetland may have a separate origin deriving from the Norse word 'Geirr' which means 'Spear'. 17th Century A cadet of the line of Otys Gayre settled in Rossshire in around 1649. The MacCullochs had until this time held the lands of Nigg but these lands passed to the Gayres through marriage to Katherine MacCulloch. Alexander Gayre of Nigg and his son Thomas Gayre extended the family's holdings when in 1679 Thomas became a notary public. Thomas fourth Laird of Nigg was a notary public at Fort Rose and chancellor of the diocese of Ross. He became a prosperous merchant and councillor for Cromarty which was at this time a prominent sea port. 18th Century The Gayres became embroiled in the eighteenth-century ecclesiastical disputes which raged throughout Scotland. In 1756 the royal candidate for the church at Nig was strongly opposed by Thomas Gayre, although the Crown candidate was eventually inducted. The Gayres became Dissenters, and William Gayre supplied land at Balchreggan to build a church. The church was seized at the end of the century by Lord Akerville when the lease came to an end, and he tore it down to build Shandwick House. The house itself fell down, which the faithful attributed to the wrath of the Lord. 20th Century Robert Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, the father of the present chief, virtually rebuilt the clan after distinguished service in World War II. He served for a time as Minister of Education with the Allied government of occupation in Italy, and was awarded by King Umberto an augmentation to his coat of arms of the royal knots of Savoy. He established his seat at Minard Castle in Argyll and was founding editor of Mankind Quarterly and a noted expert on heraldry, having published numerous works on heraldry and related subjects. Clan Crests & Badges Crest: Issuing from a crest coronet Or, of four (three visible) strawberry leaves, a mount Vert. Motto: Super astra spero (I hope beyond the stars) On Compartment Sero sed serio (Late but in earnest). Plant badge: Variegated bay or noble laurel Proper berries Purpure. Guidon: Barry of five Argent and Vert a cross moline Sable. Pinsel: Vert, a mount Vert issuant from a crest coronet Or within a strap of leather Sable buckled and embellished Or inscribed with the Motto 'Super astra spero' in letters Or all within a circlet Or bearing the title 'Gayre of Gayre and Nigg' in letters Gules and in the fly an Escrol Or surmounting a sprig of variegated bay or noble laurel Proper, berries Purpure, bearing the Slogan 'An Gayre' in letters Gules Standard: The Arms in the hoist, and of two tracts Argent and Vert semée of sprigs of golden or variegated bay or laurel Proper fructed Purpure, upon which is depicted a lion rampant guardant Sable supporting a spear Or pointed Argent in first compartment, the crest and a fret engrailed Gules in the second compartment, and a fleur de lis Sable charged with a mullet Or, on a wreath Or composed of four roses Gules, seeded Gold, barbed Vert, set saltireways in the 3rd compartment, along with theSlughorn 'An Gayre' in letters Or upon two transverse bands Gules Supporters: (on a compartment embellished with variegated bay or laurel Proper, berries Purpure) Dexter, a lion rampant Sable, armed and langued Gules holding with the dexter forepaw a lance Or pointed Argent, charged on the dexter shoulder with a Knot of Savoy Or; sinister, an ermine Proper langued Gules holding with the sinister forepaw a staff Or entwined with ivy leaves Proper fructed Purpure, charged on the sinister shoulder with a Knot of Savoy Or. Arms: Quarterly, 1st & 4th, Argent, a fleur de lis Sable, in the dexter chief point a mullet Vert (Gayre); 2nd & 3rd, Ermine, a fret engrailed Gules (McCulloch of Nigg. Standard: The Arms in the hoist, and of two tracts Argent and Vert semée of sprigs of golden or variegated bay or laurel Proper fructed Purpure, upon which is depicted a lion rampant guardant Sable supporting a spear Or pointed Argent in first compartment, the crest and a fret engrailed Gules in the second compartment, and a fleur de lis Sable charged with a mullet Or, on a wreath Or composed of four roses Gules, seeded Gold, barbed Vert, set saltireways in the 3rd compartment, along with theSlughorn 'An Gayre' in letters Or upon two transverse bands Gules Additional badges: (1) A cross moline Sable (granted by the Chief Herald of Ireland); (2a) on a mount Vert a castle with three turrets Proper masoned Sable, fenestrated and port and caps Gules, flagged Argent a fleur de lis Sable; (2b) a fleur de lis Sable ensigned of a coronet Or (granted by the Council and Bureau of Heraldry of South Africa) Clan Chief The current chief of the Clan Gayre is Reinold Gayre of Gayre and Nigg.

Gordon

History Origins of the clan The origin of the Gordon clan in Scotland was not Gaelic. The Gordon clan is originally from Normandy, where their ancestors are said to have had large possessions. From the great antiquity of the race, many fabulous accounts have been given of the descent of the Gordons. Some derive them from a city of Macedonia, called Gordonia (Close to modern day Gevgelija). The best description that the Gordons are not Gaelic is described in H. Potter's book, Blood Feud. Although the Gordon family in Scotland rose to become the predominant power in the northeast of Scotland they were not natives to that part or indeed to Scotland, and had a feudal origin. Of Norman descent, they were one of many families welcomed into his kingdom by King David I of Scotland. By the early twelfth century they had settled in the village and estates of Gordon, near Kelso in the Scottish Borders under the protection of their kinsman, the Earl of Dunbar.' Because the Gordon family did not start as a 'clan', it is often referred to as the House of Gordon, a name more tied to its Norman descent. While the family organization in Scotland calls itself the 'House of Gordon', most publications use the more common 'Clan Gordon' as does the book 'Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia' considered the authority. Some Gordons claim to be Clan Gordon while others House of Gordon out of personal preference. While Clan Gordon is certainly the most common term used, both Clan and House are truly synonymous and either term is proper; hence our use of both House of Gordon and Clan Gordon. Although described variously as Highland Catholic, Lowland Presbyterian, or even Jewish in some cases, the clan or house is rather broadly Episcopalian and varies by individual branches or even persons. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Gordon supported Robert the Bruce and fought at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. Clan Chief Sir John Gordon was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Otterbum, where the English were defeated in 1388. 15th century & clan conflicts The Clan Gordon was at one point one of the most powerful clans in middle Scotland. Clan feuds and battles were frequent, especially with the Clan Cameron, Clan Murray, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation. Clan Chief Sir Adam Gordon was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Homildon Hill, also known as the Battle of Humbleton Hill on 14th September 1402. On September 14, 1402, a Scottish army was returning from a pillaging expedition in the English county of Northumberland. The chief left his only child, a daughter named Elizabeth Gordon who married Alexander Seton, who was the son of Sir William Seton the chief of Clan Seton. The Gordons fought at the Battle of Arbroath in 1445 where Patrick Gordon of Methlic was slain. Patrick Gordon was from the branch of the Gordons of Haddo, which has for its head the Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair. This branch claims to represent the original house of Gordon in the male line, by descent from Gordon of Coldingknowes. The Gordons fought alongside men from the Clan Ogilvy, Clan Oliphant, Clan Seton and Clan Forbes of Pitsligo. They fought against an army of over 1000 men from the Clan Lindsay under the Master of Crawford. The Master's father the Earl of Crawford rode in between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce. However, an illadvised Ogilvie, thinking that this was the start of the Lindsay's attack, threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth and killing him instantly. So the battle began which went in the Clan Lindsay's favour. Here fell Ogilvie of Inverquharty, Forbes of Pitsligo, Brucklay of Gartley, Gordon of Borrowfield, and Oliphant of Aberdalgie, along with 500 or so Ogilvie's. However, the Lindsays lost a disproportionate amount of men, most notably the Earl himself. Huntly Castle 1449; The Gordons defeat the Clan Douglas who had invaded their lands. The Douglases were enemies of the King. The Gordons stood on the king's side, and with their men involved in the south of the country, the Earl of Moray, a relation and ally of the Douglases, took the opportunity to sack the Gordon lands, setting Huntly Castle ablaze. The Gordons returned and quickly destroyed their enemies. Although the castle was burned to the ground, a grander castle was built in its place. In 1449 the eldest son of Elizabeth Gordon and Alexander Seton, who was also named Alexander was made chief, Lord of Gordon and Huntly. However, his male heirs through his third wife Elizabeth Crichton were obliged to bear the name of Gordon to succeed as chiefs of the clan. Chief of Clan Lindsay Alexander Lindsay, the 4th Earl of Crawford, also known as the Tiger Earl and Earl Beardie was badly defeated by the Clan Gordon and Clan Ogilvy under the Earl of Huntly at Brechin in 1452. 16th century & clan conflicts The Gordons fought at the Battle of the Western Isles in 1505. 1520, Feud with Clan Forbes, During the 15th and 16th centuries the Clan was engaged in a long feud against Clan Forbes. The feud which had been carried on for a long time reached a climax in the 1520s with murders committed by both sides occurring constantly. One of the most prominent of those killed by the Forbes action, Seton of Meldrum, was a close connection of the chief of the Gordons, the Earl of Huntly. The Earl of Huntly soon became involved in a plot aimed at the Master of Forbes (son of John, the 6th Lord Forbes), who was heavily implicated in the Seton murder. In 1522 Alexander Gordon (the Countess of Sutherland's eldest son) overthrew John Mackay of Strathnaver at Lairg, and forced him to submit himself to the Countess's husband, Adam Gordon; unto whom John Mackay gave his band of manrent and service. In 1526 the title of Earl of Sutherland and chieftenship of the Clan Sutherland passed by right of marriage to Adam Gordon who was a younger son of the chief of Clan Gordon. In 1536 Chief of Gordons, the Earl of Huntly accused the Master of Forbes of conspiring to assassinate King James V of Scotland while visiting Aberdeen by shooting at him with a cannon. The Master of Forbes was tried and executed, but within days his sentence was revoked and the Clan Forbes family restored to favour. However the damage to relations between the Clan Forbes and Clan Gordon was irreparable. Attacks by each family and their supporters were carried out more or less continuously throughout the remainder of the century, reducing Aberdeenshire to an unparalleled state of lawlessness. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Gordon, under George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly defeated an English army at the Battle of Haddon Rig in 1542. Later during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Gordon fought in the Scottish army which was defeated at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. On the 13th of December 1545, at Dingwall, the Earl of Sutherland entered into a bond of manrent with John Mackenzie of Kintail for mutual defence against all enemies, reserving only their allegiance to their youthful Queen, Mary Stuart Inverness Castle 1562; In 1562 while visiting Inverness the Princess who would later become Mary Queen of Scots was refused admission into Inverness Castle by the governor of the Castle who was a Gordon. The Clan Munro and Clan Fraser wishing to support Mary took Inverness Castle for her. Mary then hanged the Gordon who had refused her admission. Corriche 1562, The Battle of Corrichie took place around Meikle Tap in 1562, between George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly and James Stuart, the new Earl of Moray (half-brother to Mary Queen of Scots). Gordon was killed and his son, Sir John, and other members of his family were later executed at Aberdeen. 1571, Feud with Clan Forbes, During the 15th and 16th centuries the Clan was engaged in a long and bitter struggle against the Clan Forbes. By 1571 the feud had got to the point where other clans began taking sides. The Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton who had their own feuds with the Forbeses joined forces with Clan Gordon. However opponents of the Gordons such as Clan Keith, Clan Fraser and Clan Crichton joined forces with Clan Forbes. The feud culminated in two full scale battles in 1571; The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. 1571, The Castle Druminnor, then Lord Forbes's seat, was itself plundered and sacked and in the same month the Gordons followed this up by the atrocious massacre of 27 Forbeses of Towie at Corgarff. Two acts of Parliament were required to force the clans to lay down their arms but the struggle had drawn the Forbeses deep into debt making it necessary for them to sell much of their land. At the Battle of Glenlivet in 1594 the Earl of Argyll's forces which consisted of Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl, Clan Forbes and the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh were defeated by the Earl of Huntly's forces which consisted of Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn/Cumming and Clan Cameron. 17th century & Civil War Between 1615 and 1616 there appears to have been a disagreement of some sort between the Gordons and the neighboring Clan Leask. In all the recorded cases the Gordons appear to have been the aggressors; Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird of Gight assaulted Alexander Leask, then the son of the chief was attacked by George Gordon and finally William Leask of that Ilk was ambushed by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of armed men. In 1644 Alexander Bannerman of Pitmedden fought a duel with his cousin, Sir George Gordon of Haddo, and wounded him. During the Civil War at the Battle of Aberdeen in 1644 there were Gordons on both sides. Lord Lewis Gordon led his forces on the side of the Covenanters while Sir Nathaniel Gordon led his forces in support of the Royalists. During the Civil War cavalry from the Clan Gordon fought in support of the Royalist James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose at the Battle of Auldearn where they helped defeat the Covenanters of Lord Seaforth who was the chief of Clan MacKenzie. The battle took place on the 9th May 1645. During the Civil War the Clan Gordon fought at the Battle of Alford in 1645. They are victorious, led by George Gordon, 2nd Marquess of Huntly fighting under James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose. The Marquess of Huntly's eldest son George Gordon fell at this battle. 1645, Lewis Gordon, clan chief and 3rd Marquess of Huntly of the Clan Gordon attacks and burns down Brodie Castle of the Clan Brodie. This was part of the Covenanting conflict during the Civil War 1682, A fight over cattle and land with the southern Scottish family the MacCulloch's of Myreton. Following the fatal fight, Sir Godfrey Macculloch fled the country for a time, but returned, only to be apprehended and executed in 1697. 17th century alliances In the early 17th century Clan Gordon had a number of alliances by marriage or friendship. Among these was a strong bond to the Clan Burnett of Leys. The Gordon crest is emblazoned in plasterwork on the ceiling of the early 17th century great hall of Muchalls Castle built by Alexander Burnett. 18th century & Jacobite Risings During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 - 1716 and 1745 - 1746 there were Gordons on both sides. The 2nd Duke of Gordon followed the Jacobites in 1715, but Cosmo Gordon, 3rd Duke of Gordon supported the British government by the time of the 1745 uprising. While his brother, Lord Lewis Gordon raised two regiments against him at the Battle of Inverurie (1745), the Battle of Falkirk (1746) and the Battle of Culloden (1746). Gordon castles Huntly Castle was the seat of the chief of Clan Gordon from at least the 14th century until the late 17th century. Balmoral Castle was sold to Alexander Gordon, the 3rd Earl of Huntly, in the 15th century. Castle Craig, or the Craig of Auchindoir, is located on the edge of Aberdeenshire's "wild west", between Lumsden and Rhynie. Auchindoun Castle was awarded to the Marquis of Huntly in 1535. Gordon Castle was built in 1789 for the 4th Duke of Gordon, becoming the new seat for the chief of Clan Gordon. Fyvie Castle was owned by several Gordons between the 18th and 19th century. Clan profile Gaelic Names: Gordan (Surname), Gordanach (Singular), Na Gordanaich (Collective). Motto: Bydand (Steadfast, Abiding) Motto: Do Well and Let Them Say ...A Gordon Motto: Animo non Astutia (By Courage not Craft) Slogan: An Gordonach Pipe Music: 'The Gordon's March' Plant Badge: Rock Ivy Clan tartans Gordon tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum of 1842. The tartan is based upon the Black Watch tartan. Clan Gordon has several recognized tartans: Gordon (Modern) Gordon (Dress) Gordon (Ancient) Gordon (Weathered) Gordon (Muted) Gordon (Red) The Gordon Modern tartan was used by The Gordon Highlanders, (now The Highlanders (4th Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland)) and is sometimes referred to as 'Military'. The tartan itself is based on the Black Watch military tartan with an additional yellow stripe. The difference between the family sett (modern) and military sett is only in the pleating of the kilt. The military pleat to the stripe, showing a series of stripes across the back of the kilt. The family sett is pleated to the sett, showing the repeat of the pattern in its entirety across the back of the kilt. The Red Gordon tartan is sometimes referred to as 'Huntly'. The Gordon Modern tartan was used for many years as the troop tartan for the 10th Finchley (Scottish) Scout Group, London N3. Clan chief & arms The current Chief of Clan Gordon is Granville Charles Gomer Gordon, 13th Marquess of Huntly Arms: Quarterly, 1st Azure, three boars' heads couped Or, Proper langued Gules (for Gordon), 2nd, Or three lions heads erased Gules langued Azure (for Lordship of Badenoch), 3rd, Or, 3 crescents within a Royal Tressure, flory counter flory, Gules (for Seton), 4th, Azure three fraises Argent (for Fraser, acquisition of the Aboyne lands) Clan branches Gordon of Haddo Gordon of Lochinvar Gordon of Strathbogie Septs of Clan Gordon Adam(son) Ad(d)ie Addison Adkins Aiken Aitchison Aitken Atkin Atkins(on) Badenoch Barrie Connor Connon Coyle Craig Cromb(ie) Cullen Culane Darg(e) Dorward Duff Durward Eadie Ed(d)ie Edison Esslemont Garden Gard(i)ner Garioch Garr(o)ick Geddes Gerrie Harrison Haddo Huntl(e)y Jessiman Jopp Jupp La(i)ng Laurie Lawrie Leng Ling Long MacAdam MacGwyverdyne Mallett Manteach Marr Maver McGonigal

Graham

History Origins of the Clan The early history of the Grahams of Scotland remains complex. Legend suggests that the Roman Antonine Wall, which forged the divide between Roman Britannia and the unconquered highlands, was broken by Graeme (sic.), a great Caledonian chief, as he drove the Roman legions from his lands. This, unfortunately, might never be proven, although Roman texts vaguely reference a Graeme in similar context. Theories attempt to explain the ancient roots of the clan with the postulation that similar names from the Celtic 'Greamach' (grim) or the Saxon 'Gram' (fierce) were absorbed into a larger entity to form a united clan. Scottish legend also suggests that the daughter of a Gryme married a King of the Scots, Fergus II, and that the family consequently holds exceptionally old royal ancestry beyond that later gained. The Celts and Saxons disappeared or were swallowed up by the descendants of 'Lez Grames' of Norman origin. Some say that the original Grahams in Scotland were Picts, established long before the Normans or Saxons came to Scotland, making Graham one of the most ancient families in all of Britain. Though the above theories differ as to how the clan was established in Scotland, solid information has established a Norman descent of the original Grahams. These Normans were originally of the Vikings who landed on Scottish soil in ancient times and thus a Graham lineage goes back into Scandinavia. From the records available, the first Graham known in Scotland was Sir William de Graham (or De Graeme), a knight who accompanied David I, England's premier baron, on his journey north to claim the Scottish crown in 1128. William De Graeme personally witnessed the signing of the charter founding the Abbey of Holyrood in the same year 1128. From this line descended the Montrose line of Grahams, one of the most distinguished families of Scotland and perhaps all of Britain. This knight might have originated from a place listed as 'Graeg Ham' in the Domesday Book of William the Conqueror in 11th Century in England - now the town of Grantham. Grahams of Great Ability In John Stewart's book, The Grahams, he states that 'Most Scottish Clans would be proud to have one great hero. The Grahams have three.' He refers to Sir John Graham (see below), James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee. There were, of course, many more besides these three towering figures. Stewart also wrote, It is remarkable that the early Grahams were one and all exceedingly capable men. In an age when the reputation of many great public figures, alas, that of most of the Scottish nobility, were sullied by deeds of violence, and often deeds of blackest treachery, it is refreshing to find that the Grahams stand out as loyal and true to the causes they espoused. Their story is not one of rapid rise to power through royal favor, or even at the expense of their peers, but rather a gradual steady rise based on their undoubted ability and worthiness which seems to have endured from one generation to another. Wars of Scottish Independence Twice the Montrose Grahams married into the royal family. From these came some notable men. First among them was Sir John de Graham, right hand man to William Wallace, killed during the Wars of Scottish Independence at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298. The Clan Graham also fought at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296 where Sir Patrick Graham of Kincardine was the only man of all the Scots not to retreat and instead fought to the death. The Clan Graham also fought against the English at the Battle of Durham in 1346, in support of Robert the Bruce. The Grahams acquired the lands of Mugdock north of Glasgow, where they built a stout castle around 1370. Sir John de Graham Sir John de Graham, hero of the Wars of Independence, rescued William Wallace at Queensberry, becoming one of Wallace's few close friends and perhaps his most trusted advisor. William Wallace was at his side when Graham was killed in 1298 at the battle of Falkirk, where his name is still perpetuated in the district of Grahamston. The grave of this hero in Falkirk churchyard is still to be seen, with table stones of three successive periods above it. As an evidence of the honour in which his memory was held, it is recalled that, after the second battle of Falkirk in 1746, the Jacobites wished to do special honour to one of their opponents, Col. Sir Robert Munro, chief of the Clan Munro. Robert Munro, who supported the British government had been rewarded the command of an English regiment. He had been fighting at the front at the second battle of Falkirk in 1746, when the English troops he was in command of ran away. He was attacked by six Jacobites, he killed at least two with his pike before being shot by a Jacobite commander. The Jacobites opened the grave of Sir John de Graham and buried Sir Robert Munro beside the dust of the hero. One great two-handed sword of Sir John the Graham is preserved at Buchanan Castle by the Duke of Montrose; another was long in possession of the Grahams of Orchil, and is now treasured by the Free Mason Lodge at Auchterarder. James III v James IV The family's landholdings and power grew throughout the centuries, partly as a result of the family's continued tendencies toward marrying into the royal family. Patrick Graham of Kincardine was created a peer in 1451 with the title, 'Lord Graham'. The Clan Graham fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn which was fought on June 11, 1488, at the side of Sauchie Burn, a brook about two miles south of Stirling, Scotland. The battle was fought between as many as 30,000 troops of King James III and some 18,000 troops raised by Scottish nobles who favored the King's then-15-year-old son, Prince James who would become King James IV. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars In 1504 Lord Graham, on account of his gallantry was made 1st Earl of Montrose. He would go on to lead part of the Scottish Vanguard against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars where he was slain. The Clan Graham were among the clans who fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 1547, where the eldest son of the second Earl, Robert, Lord Graham was slain. 17th Century & Civil War James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose A second notable Graham was James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose poet, but above all, the most distinguished soldier of his time. He was martyred in Edinburgh in 1650. He played a massive part in the Civil War in Scotland. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is victorious at the Battle of Tippermuir on 1st September 1644. Graham was fighting in support of King Charles I. Graham was also supported at this battle by the Clan Robertson and the Clan Murray led by the Earl of Atholl. It was the first battle James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose fought for the king during the Scottish Civil War. The main objective of the battle was the reclamation of Perth. Montrose had joined forces with Alaster M'Coll Keitach (known as Alasdair MacColla McDonald) and his Irish soldiers. Nevertheless, he was greatly outnumbered by the Covenanters: Montrose's Highlanders and the Irish together made up no more than 2000 men, Lord Elcho on the other side had 7,000 infantry and 700 horse. Yet Montrose's men were more experienced and better motivated, a fact that would count to their advantage during the battle. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is victorious at the Battle of Aberdeen on 13th September 1644. Again commanding forces loyal to King Charles I. Graham was supported at the battle by the Clan Robertson. After defeating Lord Elcho's forces at the Battle of Tippermuir, outside Perth, Montrose's forces had captured a large cache of weapons and munitions, but had not captured Perth, and had suffered the desertion of the highland forces under his command, leaving a force of around 1000 Irish infantry under Alasdair MacColla and 44 horse from the Earl of Newcastle. Montrose led these men on a rapid advance on Aberdeen, the main Covenanter sea port in Scotland, picking up a force of around 500 highlanders on the way. After a diversion to avoid being forced to take a fortified bridge over the River Dee, they reached Aberdeen on the 12th of September. The battle took place the following day on the 13th,after which Montrose's troops set about three days of rape, robbery and murder through the town. This act undermined any prospect that Aberdeen - or any other Scottish town - would be prepared to become a capitol for the Royalist cause in Scotland in the way that Oxford became the Royalist capitol in England. In October 1644, Huntly Castle was captured by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and defended against the Duke of Argyll. In 1645 James Graham at the head of his Royalist forces took the opportunity to lay waste to the lands of the Arbuthnott family; this was because the Arbuthnotts who had previously been loyal to the Royalist cause had become sympathetic to the Covenanters. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is victorious at the Battle of Inverlochy (1645). Commanding forces loyal to King Charles I. Graham was supported by clans including the Clan MacDonald, Clan Robertson, Clan Cameron, Clan MacKinnon, Clan Ogilvy and Clan MacLean. Their enemy was an army of the Scottish Government commanded by Duncan Campbell of Auchinbreck whose forces mostly consisted of the Clan Campbell. It was one of the most complete victories of the whole royalist campaign; but it was also a battle that-if it had been left to Montrose alone-might never have been fought. It is important to remember that Montrose's whole campaign in northern Scotland was based on two distinct elements that could not always be reconciled-a war for King Charles and a war against Clan Campbell. For Alasdair MacColla, the royalist second-in-command, and for many of the ordinary Highland and Irish soldiers the cause of King Charles came a distant second to the destruction of an ancient enemy. MacColla was fighting primarily for the interests of Clan Donald, and against the Campbells, who had taken much land from the MacDonalds, driven them from MacColla's home in the Western Isles and were holding his own father hostage. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is victorious at the Battle of Auldearn on 9th May 1645. Again commanding forces loyal to King Charles I. He was supported by the Clan Robertson and cavalry from the Clan Gordon. It was a victory for Montrose and Alasdair MacColla, heading the royalist forces, over a Covenanter army under the command of Sir John Hurry whose forces included the Clan MacKenzie and the Clan MacLennan. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is victorious at the Battle of Alford on 2nd July 1645. Again commanding forces loyal to King Charles I. Graham was also supported by the Clan Robertson and Clan Maclachlan at this battle. Having defeated Colonel Hurry at Auldearn, the Marquis of Montrose continued his raiding campaign in the Highlands. Fearing that Montrose intended to attack Aberdeen again, Major-General William Baillie led the Government army to cut him off but was defeated by Grahams forces. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is victorious at the Battle of Kilsyth on 15th August 1645. Again commanding forces loyal to King Charles I. Here Graham was supported by the forces of the Clan Robertson, Clan MacNab and Clan Ogilvy. Despite the numerical disadvantage, the battle was another victory for Royalist forces over the Covenanters, and marked the end of William Baillie's pursuit of the Royalists. James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose is defeated at the Battle of Philiphaugh 13th September 1645. Again commanding forces loyal to King Charles I. Here Graham was supported by the forces of Clan Douglas who were led by Chief William Douglas, the 11th Earl of Angus. Graham was also supported by the Clan Robertson, Clan Stirling, Clan Ogilvy, Clan Charteris and Clan Maclachlan at this battle. The Royalist army of the Marquess of Montrose was destroyed by the Government army of Sir David Leslie, restoring the power of the Committee of Estates. During the Civil War the Clan MacKenzie Chief who was still in possession of the Castle Chanonry of Ross was now known as the Earl of Seaforth. However in 1646 James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to the castle and took it from the MacKenzies after a siege of four days. At the Battle of Invercarron in 1650 Graham was supported by the Clan Menzies and Clan Crichton. However Graham was defeated, only escaping by means of a horse given to him by the chief of Clan Crichton. In 1650 James Graham captured Dunbeath Castle castle of the Clan Sinclair. James Graham, 1st Marquees of Montrose is defeated when he led an army of German and Danish soldiers at the Battle of Carbisdale (1650). James Graham had landed an army of foreigners in Rosshire and at the head of them he was defeated at the Battle of Carbisdale. James Graham had always been loyal to the Royalist cause. John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee A third notable Graham was John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee also known as John Graham of Claverhouse 'Bonnie Dundee'. By means of purchase and inheritance the Graham lands had become, by the late seventeenth century, among the richest in Scotland. John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee led a Royalist force which was defeated at the Battle of Drumclog in 1679 by a force of Covenanters. The battle was fought on 1 June 1679, at High Drumclog, in South Lanarkshire, Scotland. John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee is victorious at the Battle of Bothwell Brig where he put down a rebellion by the Covenantors. The battle was fought on the 22nd June 1679 in Lanarkshire. John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee later died at the Battle of Killiecrankie whilst commanding the Jacobite Royalists during their victory over the Orange Covenanter Royalists in 1698. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings The Clan Graham took no side in the Jacobite Uprisings and remained neutral throughout. Highlanders can thank the James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, for the repeal in 1782 of the Act of 1747 prohibiting the wearing of highland dress. He persuaded Parliament to remove the law forbidding Scots to wear their tartan. Castles Mugdock Castle was the seat of the chiefs of the Clan Graham Dukes of Montrose. Claypotts Castle was bought by the Grahams in 1601. Dalkeith Palace passed from the Grahams to the Clan Douglas in the 14th century. Mains Castle was built by Sir David Graham in 1562. Inchtalla Castle was the seat of the Grahams who were Earls of Menteith. Sir John de Graham Castle said to be the birth place of the legendary Sir John de Graham. Arms of His Grace the Duke of Montrose Clan Chief and Titles The current chief of the Clan Graham is James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose. A full list of the Chiefs of Clan Graham who held the position as Lords, Earls, Marquesses and Dukes of Montrose is on the Duke of Montrose page. Graham crest Motto Ne Oublie (Never Forget) Origins Scottish Gaelic name(s) Graham possibly originated from Graeme or Gramus Sept(s) Airth, Allardyce, Auchinloick, Ballewen, Blair, Bonar, Bonnar, Bonner, Bontein, Bontine, Buchlyrie, Buntain, Bunten, Bunting, Buntyn, Conyers, Drumaguhassle, Duchray, Dugalston, Esbank, Glenny, Graeme, Grahame, Grim, Grimes, Hadden, Haldane, Kilpatrich, Lingo, MacGibbon, MacGilvern, MacGilvernock, MacIlvern, MacShille, Menteith, Monteith, Monzie, Orchille, Pitcairn, Pyatt, Pye, Pyott, Rednock, Sirowan, Sterling. Badge True Scottish Laurel Chief James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose Seat(s) Mugdock Castle , Stirlingshire & Inchtalla Castle , Lake of Menteith

Grant

Clan Grant is a Highland Scottish clan which inhabited land in Northern Scotland since 1316, although the clan is known to have existed farther back than that. During the various times of personal financial hardship in Scotland (particularly in the aftermath of the Jacobite rebellions) many Grants moved elsewhere, mostly across the former British Empire including Canada, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. In the present, Grants live in a large number of nations in most parts of the world - an important faction of the Scottish diaspora. History Origins of the Clan The Clan Grant connection to King Alpin of Dál Riata Clan tradition is that the Grants are descended from King Alpin of Dál Riata. However little is recorded about the clan from before the 13th century. The earliest recorded members by contemporary evidence may include: Thomas Grant, merchant of the King of Scotland, who retired from his post as visor of York Castle on 2nd January, 1252 Sir Laurence le Grant, Sheriff of Inverness, who 'rendered accounts to the Scottish Exchequer in 1263 and 1266 Richard le Grant, Chancellor of the diocese of Lincoln, who was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in 1229 William le Graunt, said by Henry III of England to have travelled to Scotland with Alexander III of Scotland Members of Clan Grant have owned land in Strathspey at least since 1316, most likely in Stratherrick, to the east of Loch Ness. In 1316, John Grant of Inverallan sold his land to John le Grant, who was father of Patrick le Grant, Lord of Stratherrick. The clan's lands in Stratherrick would later become controlled by Clan Fraser. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence Clan Grant were supporters of William Wallace and fought at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296 where both Randolph and John de Grant were captured and imprisoned for a time. The Clan Grant later supported King Robert the Bruce and it was this support that secured their landholdings in Strathspey upon Bruce's ascent to the throne. The taking of Castle Grant, 14th century; Originally a Comyn Clan stronghold, Clan traditions tell us that the castle was taken from the Comyns by a combined force of the Grants and MacGregors. 15th and 16th centuries The next available reference is of Duncan le Grant in 1434, and later, Sir Duncan Grant of Freuchie (Castle Grant), who inherited land in Dulnain valley in upper Speyside from his mother, Matilda of Glencarnie. Her family had partially owned it since 1180, when Richard I of England gave Kinveachy (approximately ten miles southwest of Castle Grant) to Gilbert, 3rd Earl of Strathearn. By the late 16th century, Clan Grant became an important clan in the Scottish Highlands. During this period, the clan's actions resulted in the murder of the Earl of Moray and the defeat of the Earl of Argyll at the Battle of Glenlivet in 1594. The Chief of Clan Grant ordered his men to retreat as soon as the action began. This treacherous move led to the defeat of Clan Campbell of Argyll. 17th Century & Civil War During the Civil War Captain David Grant led his forces in support of the Covenanter forces against the Royalist forces at the Battle of Tippermuir in 1644. In October 1645 the Clan Cameron raided the lands of the Clan Grant. The Grants gave chase catching the Camerons in the Braes of Strathdearn, where the Cameron men were defeated and many clansmen were slain. By 1651 the Scottish Covenantor Government was no longer in agreement with the English Parliament of Oliver Cromwell. Sir James Grant of Grant, 16th Chief, led the clan to fight for Charles I and the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. Also, an alliance between Sir James Grant and the Earl of Huntly led to the annihilation of the Clan Farquharson. After the Civil War the Clan Grant supported the British government. A force of over 600 Grants joined Colonel Livingstone who fought against and defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Cromdale in 1690. These same Grants fought against the Jacobite Grants of Glenmoriston who had fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings Battle of Sheriffmuir 1715; Here Grants fought on both sides. The British government forces won the battle with many of the Jacobites surrendering to General Grant. In 1725 six Black Watch regiments were formed to support the Government. One from Clan Grant, one from Clan Fraser, one from Clan Munro and three from the Clan Campbell. Taking advantage of the partisan nature and warrior instincts of the highlanders, these men were authorised to wear the kilt and to bear arms, thus it was not difficult to find recruits. The regiment was then officially known as the 42nd Regiment of Foot. The Grants of Glenmoriston sided with the Jacobites and fought at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745 and are credited with winning the day due to their timely reinforcement. 850 of the Grants of Glenmoriston fought at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Highland Clearances Clan Grant was one of the few clans not to be affected by the Highland Clearances. The 'Good Sir James' Grant (Clan Chief from 1773-1811) built the town of Grantown-on-Spey for the purpose of establishing a textile industry in the north, and for the expressed purpose of providing for his clansmen to keep them from emigrating. While other Highlanders were emigrating in the face of the changes that were sweeping away the old Highland way of life, Sir James Grant was busy building an entire new Highland town to provide for his Clan. Grantown-on-Spey is a monument to Sir James's loyalty to his clansmen. Castle Castle Grant was the seat of the Chief of Clan Grant. Ballindalloch Castle was owned by the Macpherson-Grants from the middle of the 16th century. Clan Chief It is theorized that Aulay Grant (Olav or Alan Grant) was the earliest Chief of the Clan Grant, though Gregory Grant (1214-1249 A.D.) is the first for which there is any reference. The current Chief of Clan Grant is Sir James Patrick Trevor Grant of Grant, Bt., 33rd Hereditary Chief of the Clan Grant. The Arms of Baron Strathspey as matriculated by the 32rd Chief in 1950. Gules three antique crowns Or in the dexter canton Argent a saltire Azure surmounted of an inescutcheon Or charged with a lion rampant within a double tressure flory counter flory being the addition of a Nova Scotia as a baronet. Clan Profile Motto: Stand Fast (It is said to come from the Norse King Haakon who was ambushed by his enemies and, having no weapon to hand, tore a tree from the earth in order to defeat his attackers. 'Stand Fast' then became the motto of Haakon's family. Haakon Magnus is the 'Name Father' of Clan Grant.) . Slogan: 'Craigelachie!' Crest: An image of a burning hill. (The burning hill represents 'Craigelachie', the rallying point for the Grants. When signal fires were lit upon the summit of Craigelachie, or 'The Rock of Alarm', members of the clan would gather there in order to organize for an attack or defense.) Pipe Music: 'Craigelachie' Gaelic Names: Grannd (Surname), Granndach (Singular), Na Granndaich (Collective). Clan Tartans The official tartan for the Grant clan is the '1860 sett', which was declared official by Lord Strathspey, chief of the clan. The 1860 sett is used to define both the Ancient and the Modern colours, the Ancient colours being lighter and less sharp (for example, the red of the modern colours is more orange for the ancient colours). Modifications of the official tartan are recognized for Grants of specific regions: the Grants of Ballindalloch and the Grants of Rothiemurchus. There is also a Hunting tartan for the Grant clan, which is common with the Black Watch's tartan. In 1725 the government called up the Grants among three other clans to form six regiments of non-Jacobite highlanders. These regiments were given a tartan to wear. This tartan had a green and black sett was used in the military (and still is today by the Black Watch) and for hunting, as the name implies. Due to the green and black colours of the hunting tartan, one wearing a kilt with such a design would be able to blend in with his surroundings. The green and black sett was adopted by some clans as their official tartan. Others, such as the Grants, adopted it purely as a hunting tartan, opting for a brighter and more colourful official tartan. Grant (Modern) Grant (Ancient) Grant (Hunting) Clan Septs A sept is a split in a Scottish clan. Due to either peaceful splits or conflicts of various types and degrees, a member of a clan would leave to form their own family or clan. Some septs were not related to the ruling clan but lived in the territory for mutual protection. The known and accepted septs of the Grant clan are: Allan Allen Bisset or Bissett Bowie Buie Gilroy MacAllan MacGilroy or McGilroy MacIlroy or McIlroy MacKerran or McKerran MacKiaran or McKiaran MacKessock or McKessock Pratt Suttie

Gregor or MacGregor

Clan Gregor, or Clan MacGregor, is a Highland Scottish clan. Outlawed for nearly two hundred years after losing their lands in a long power struggle with the Clan Campbell, the Clan Gregor claims descent from Constantin and wife and cousin Malvina, first son of Doungallas and wife Spontana (daughter of a High King of Ireland) and grandson of Giric, the third son of Alpín mac Echdach, the father of Kenneth MacAlpin, the first King of Scotland, a descent which is proclaimed in the motto, 'S Rioghal Mo Dhream, translated as Royal is my Race. Origins of the clan A Victorian era, romanticised depiction of a member of the clan by R. R. McIan, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845. The Clan Gregor is believed to have originated in Scotland during the 800s. The MacGregor's suggest that they take their name from Gregor (derived from the Latin 'Gregorious' and the Late-Greek 'Gregorios' which means 'Alert, Watchful, or Vigilant'. Gregor is said to be a son of the Scottish king Alpin II Mac Eochaidh and younger brother of Kenneth MacAlpin, the now famous Scottish king who first united Scotland in A.D. 843.Alpin II was the son of Eochaidh VI 'the Poisonous', High King of Scots, by his marriage to his cousin, the Pictish Princess Royal, and thus had claims to the Scottish and Pictish Thrones. Alpin was defeated and allegedly beheaded in his attempt to gain the Pictish Throne. His son, Kenneth, was successful, taking advantage of Viking harassment of the Picts from the east. While there is no surviving concrete record of a younger 'Prince Gregor', the Gregg Family website claims that an ancient Latin record of the Alpinian family mentions a Gregor who was a commander in the army of Kenneth Mac Alpin. Kenneth had a least one other known brother, Donald, who succeeded him as king of Scots. Unfortunately, most of the early public records of Scotland were destroyed by order of the English King Edward Plantagenet, during his occupation of Scotland at the end of the 13th century. It was not unusual for the Mac Alpin kings to give Latin or Scandinavian names to their sons. Typical examples are Constantine-named after the famous Roman Emperor, and Indulf-named after a Viking leader. Gregor would probably have been named after the famous Pope Gregory 'the Great'(Gregorius). The Y-chromosomal data supports the Alpinian royal claim as the hierarchical family Y-DNA is consistent with that of the other clans claiming similar descent. The data supports descent from the Dalraidic kings. Many historians have suggested the clan descends from Griogair, son of Dungal, who is said to have been a co-ruler of Alba, an area of north central Scotland, between AD 879 and 889. The Y-DNA data does not support this second contention. Wars of Scottish Independence By tradition in the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Gregor fought at the Battle of Bannockburn under chief Malcolm MacGregor. However most historians agree that the first certain Chief was Gregor 'of the Golden Bridles.' Gregor's son, Iain Camm ('of the One-Eye') succeeded as the second Chief sometime prior to 1390. The MacGregors suffered a reversal of fortune when the Scottish king, Robert the Bruce, granted the barony of Loch Awe, which included much of the MacGregor lands, to the chief of Clan Campbell. The Campbells ejected the unfortunate MacGregors from these lands, forcing them to retire deeper into their lands until they were largely restricted to Glenstrae. The MacGregors fought the Campbells for decades and were eventually dispossessed of all their lands. Reduced to the status of outlaws, they rustled cattle and poached deer to survive. They became so proficient at these endeavours many other clans would pay them not to steal their cattle as they exhausted other means of stopping them. The taking of Castle Grant in the 14th century; Originally a Clan Comyn stronghold, Clan Grant traditions tell us that the castle was taken from the Comyns by a combined force of the Grants and MacGregors. The Clan Grant and Clan Gregor stormed the castle and in the process slew the Comyn Chief - and kept the Chief's skull as a trophy of this victory. The skull of the Comyn was taken as a macabre trophy and was kept in Castle Grant and became an heirloom of the Clan Grant. (In the late Lord Strathspey's book on the Clan, he mentions that the top of the cranium was hinged, and that he saw documents kept in it.) Clan tradition predicts grave things if the skull ever leaves the hands of the family - prophesying that the Clan would lose all of its lands in Strathspey. 16th century & clan conflicts Iain of Glenstrae died in 1519 with no direct heirs. This plunged the Clan Gregor into disarray as the powerful Campbells meddled with succession and asserted claim to the last remaining MacGregor lands. In 1560, the Campbells dispossessed Gregor Roy MacGregor, who waged war against the Campbells for ten years before being captured and killed. His son, Alistair, claimed the MacGregor chiefship but was utterly unable to stem the tide of persecution which was to be fate of the 'Children of the Mist.' Argyle and his Clan Campbell henchmen were given the task of hunting down the MacGregors. About sixty of the clan made a brave stand at Bentoik against a party of two-hundred chosen men belonging to the Clan Cameron, Clan MacNab, and Clan Ronald, under command of Robert Campbell, son of the Laird of Glen Orchy. In this battle, Duncan Aberach, one of the Chieftains of the Clan Gregor, his son Duncan, and seven other MacGregors were killed. But although they made a brave resistance, and killed many of their pursuers, the MacGregors, after many skirmishes and great losses, were at last overcome. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Gregor fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 1547. In 1558 a deadly feud took place between the Clan MacLaren and the Clan Gregor when the MacGregors were accused of killing 18 MacLarens men along with their whole families and taking possession of their farms. This incident was not investigated until 1604 when the MacGregors were on trial for slaughtering many men of the Clan Colquhoun. However the MacGregors were cleared of doing anything against the Clan MacLaren. In 1589 John Drummond of the Clan Drummond was appointed Royal Forester of Glenartney. It was in this post that he had the ears of some of the Clan Gregor (one account says MacDonalds) poachers cropped. Clan Gregor swore revenge and attacked Drummond and chopped off his head. They then proceeded to John's sisters residence, burst in, and demanded bread and cheese. The MacGregors then unwrapped John's head and crammed its mouth full. The feud between the two clans lasted for over a century 17th century & clan conflicts The grave of Rob Roy MacGregor, his widow and sons. The Battle of Glen Fruin took place in 1603 where the MacGregors were victorious, defeating five hundred Clan Colquhoun men, three hundred of whom were on horseback, by four hundred MacGregor men at Glen Fruin. Over two hundred of the Colquhoun men were lost when the MacGregors, who had split into two parties, attacked from front and rear and forced the horsemen onto the soft ground of the Moss of Auchingaich. It meant the proscription of the Clan Gregor. It wasn't until the eighteenth century that the enmity between the clans was laid to rest when, at Glen Fruin on the site of the massacre, the chiefs of the Clan Gregor and Colquhoun met and shook hands. The MacGregors were formally banished in 1603 by King James VI who made it a capital offence to bear the MacGregor name. From this period comes the Clan Gregor's most famous historical figure, Rob Roy. The dispossessed MacGregors rustled cattle and poached deer to survive. When John Drummond, the king's forester, was murdered after hanging some MacGregors for poaching, the chief of the Clan Gregor, Alistair of Glen Strae was condemned by the Privy Council. In April 1603, King James VI issued an edict proclaiming the name of MacGregor 'altogidder abolisheed', meaning that those who bore the name must renounce it or suffer death. Alistair MacGregor of Glen Strae was then captured, having sought protection from the Chief of the Campbells to go to London to beg clemence from James the VI, who had recently claimed the English throne. The Campbells gave him safe passage to the borders, but arranged in advance for soldiers to capture him on the English side, and return him to Edinburgh to stand trial. He, along with eleven of his chieftains, was hanged at Edinburgh's Mercat Cross, or, alternatively in the Edinburgh Tollbooth, the site of which is now marked by the Heart of Midlothian. He was hung one ell higher than his relatives, to distinguish his rank. in January 1604. Clan Gregor was scattered, many taking other names, such as Murray, King, or Grant. They were hunted like animals, flushed out of the heather by bloodhounds. Persecution of the MacGregors continued until 1774 when they were permitted to be reestablished. The Clan MacThomas spent much of their time breeding cattle and fighting off those who tried to rustle them. One of these incidents in 1606 is remembered as the Battle of Cairnwell. A force of around 200 men from the Clan Gregor and some Catarans made off with around 2,700 of the MacThomases cattle. The MacThomases eventually caught up with their enemies and defeated them but not before they had butchered most of the MacThomases cattle out of pure spite. This caused much financial damage to the MacThomases with some of the clansmen being completely ruined. The Earl of Glencairn was in Rannoch in 1653 looking for support for Charles II. He raised the Clan Gregor from the Isle of Rannoch. He would have no difficulty recruiting them because one of their opponents was the Earl of Argyll, a Campbell, one of their hereditary enemies. Alexander, the 12th chief of the Clan Robertson led his men from Fea Corrie. Both forces met above Annat and marched up the old path to Loch Garry. History informs us that the leaders quarrelled so much amongst themselves that the Cromwell General, General Monk had little difficulty in winning the ensuing Battle of Dalnaspidal. 18th century & Jacobite uprisings In the 18th Century during the early Jacobite Uprisings men from the Clan Gregor fought at the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719 led by their chief Rob Roy who was wounded. During the 1745 to 1746 uprising the Clan Gregor who were under the Duke of Perth fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1715 and the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Persecution of the MacGregors did not end until 1774. Clan profile Clan crest, badge, motto, slogan and pipe tune MacGregor tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum, in 1842. Clan Crest: A lion's head erased proper crowned with a five-pointed antique crown. Clan Badge: Scots Pine. Clan Motto: 'S Rioghal Mo Dhream (translation from Gaelic: Royal is My Race). Clan Slogan: Ard Choille! (translation from Gaelic: The woody height!). Pipe tune: Ruaig Ghlinne Freoine (translation from Gaelic: The Chase (or Rout) of Glen Fruin). Tartan The MacGregor tartan was first published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. When the name MacGregor was again made legitimate in 1775, John Murray was recognized as chief of the clan, and in 1795 he became known as Sir John Murray MacGregor. It is believed that the chief adopted the tartan at the time of the visit of George IV to Edinburgh in 1822, by then the tartan had been in production by Wilsons of Bannockburn, with the name of MacGregor-Murray. Clan chief Sir Malcolm Gregor Charles Mac Gregor of Mac Gregor, 7th BT, of Lanrick and Balquhidder, 24th Chief of Clan Gregor. His Gaelic designation is An t-Ailpeineach, a name which bears testimony to the Clan's traditional descent from Siol Alpin. Full chief list. Castle Meggernie Castle Septs of Clan Gregor The accepted Septs of Clan Gregor include the following names: Alpin Dochart / Doughart Fletcher Greer / Grier Gregg Gregor Gregorson Gregory Gregson Greig Grewer Grierson Grigg Grigor Gruer King MacAdam Macaldowie MacAlpin Macara Macaree MacChoiter MacConachie MacCrowther MacEan MacEwin MacGregor MacGrigor MacGrowther MacGruder Macilduy MacLeister MacLiver MacNay MacNee MacNeice MacNeish MacNie

Grierson

Clan Grierson is a lowland Scottish clan. The surname Grierson is a patronymic form of the medieval Scottish personal name Grier which is a form of the personal name Gregory. It has been speculated by some that they may descend from the same line as Clan Gregor, however this is refuted by others. Gilbrid MacGregor was given a charter of the lands of Dalgarnock in Dumfriesshire, by the Earls of March. The principal seat of the Griersons was Lag, which was obtained in about 1408. Until his death on March 24, 2008, the chief of Clan Grierson was (Sir) Michael John Bewes Grierson of Lag, 12th Baronet. The chief had represented the clan at the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. The crest badge of clan member of Clan Grierson contains the Latin motto: HOC SECURIOR.

Gunn

Clan Gunn is a Scottish clan associated with northeastern Scotland, including Caithness and Sutherland as well as the Orkney Islands.The clan's origins stretch over the sea to Norway, and the Clan Gunn themselves claim descent from the legendary Sweyn Asleifsson, the so-called 'Ultimate Viking', the progenitor of the clan, and through his grandson Gunni, considered to be the 'namefather' of Clan Gunn. History Origins of the clan The origin of the name Gunn is Norwegian. The word 'Gunni' in the Old Norwegian language means 'War' or 'Battle'. The clan's origins stretch over the sea to Norway, and they claim descent from the legendary Sweyn Asleifsson, the so-called 'Ultimate Viking', the progenitor of the clan, and through his grandson Gunni, considered to be the 'namefather' of Clan Gunn. They gained their land in Caithness and Sutherland through marriage to Ragnhild, from whom they can claim Celtic descent, and later expanded those lands through conquest. However, the Gunns were never a large clan, and soon found themselves in conflict with several more powerful neighbours, such as the MacKays and the Keiths. The clan concluded a peace treaty with the latter of these in the year 1978, officially bringing to an end a feud dating back more than five hundred years. Those who did stay in the traditional boundaries were among the line descended from a younger son of George Gunn, Robert Gunn, who was the progenitor of the Robson Gunns of Braemore, though it is not clear how these names came to pass. One theory points to the Norse and Celtic origins of the Clan, using suffixes to denote the order of male children; with 'in being second son'. It is a difficult line to track as Gunn and other names of this line are used interchangeably in old text. Other branches remained as well moving to the Strath of Kildonan and other locations in Caithness. The Westford Knight It is widely believed that a member of Clan Gunn was among the party of Henry Sinclair, a Scottish Earl whom some believe to have made a voyage to the New World in 1398, traveling to Nova Scotia and New England. This individual is believed to have perished on this expedition and is also known as the Westford Knight. Often, it is claimed that the knight is Sir James Gunn, who reportedly traveled with Sinclair. There is no documentary evidence to support this theory. 15th century & clan conflicts Battle of Blare Tannie, 1464, Fought between the Clan Keith, assisted by the Clan MacKay against the Clan Gunn. The inhabitants of Caithness assembled an army and met the MacKays and Keiths at a place in Caithness called Blair-tannie. There ensued a cruel fight, with slaughter on either side. In the end the Keiths and MacKays had the victory by means chiefly of John Mor MacIan-Riabhaich (an Assynt man), who was very famous in these countries for his courage shown at this conflict. Two chieftains of Caithness were slain. Angus MacKay would later be defeated by Clan Ross. Battle of Champions, 1478, Fought between twelve men of the Clan Gunn and twenty four men of the Clan Keith where the chief of Clan Gunn was killed (reputedly, the agreement was for 'twelve horse' of each clan to meet and parley, and the Keiths arrived with two men on each horse). The chief of the Clan Keith was also soon after killed by the Gunns in a revenge attack at the chapel of St. Tears. In another account, one hundred years after the events at St. Tears, William MacKames, grandson of George Gunn, ambushed the Keith chief, his son and ten of their retainers as they were traveling. The Keiths, fully anticipating death, asked time for prayer. William is supposed to have responded 'Your father interrupted my grandfather at prayer in God's house (St. Tears), and I will grant you no time for such devotion since it was denied to my grandfather's men.' The death of George Keith and his son, at the hands of the Gunns, extinguished the male line of Clan Keith. It was around this time a large majority of the Gunns, under James Gunn, removed from Caithness into Sutherland. 16th century & clan conflicts Alistair Gunn, son of John Robson, chief of the clan, had become a man of much note and power in the North. He had married the daughter of John Gordon the Earl of Sutherland and for this reason 'he felt entitled to hold his head high amongst the best in Scotland'. His pride, or perhaps his loyalty to the Earl of Sutherland, led to his undoing when in 1562, he led Gordon's retinue and encountered James Stewart, Earl of Moray, and his followers on the High Street of Aberdeen. The Earl was the bastard half-brother of Mary, Queen of Scots as well as the son-in-law of William Keith, 4th Earl Marischal, the head of Clan Keith. It was the custom at the time to yield thoroughfares to the personage of greater rank, and in refusing to yield the middle of the street to Stewart and his train, Alistair publicly insulted the Earl. Stewart soon afterwards had him pursued to a place called Delvines, near Nairn. There he was captured and taken to Inverness, and following a mock trial, he was executed. Battles of Allt Camhna and Leckmelm, 1586, involving the Clan MacKay, Clan Gunn, Clan Sinclair, Clan Sutherland and Clan MacLeod. At Allt Camhna the Clan Gunn was victorious but they defeated shortly afterwards by a massive force at Leckmelm. 17th century & Civil War The most notable of the Gunns after the differentiation of the Clan was Sir William Gunn, who fought under Charles I, and was knighted by him. After Charles' cause failed, William crossed to Europe, and served in the army of the Holy Roman Empire, became an imperial general and married a German baroness. Much of the clan, however, had to forfeit their lands due to debt at about this time. The Gunns of Killearnan were fortunate enough to obtain new land at Badenloch. 18th century & Jacobite uprisings Unlike some highland clans, the Gunns did not rise under the standard of the Stuarts during the Jacobite rebellions, and indeed supported the government in the conflict of 1745 along with other highland clans such as Clan Munro, Clan Campbell, Clan MacKay, Clan Sutherland and Clan Ross. The Clan Gunn came out for the government, led by the MacKeamish. There were about 120 men under arms. They were attached to the Earl of Loudon's regiment. The Clan Gunn did not fight at Culloden; however, a few Gunns, who were with the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden and elsewhere, were captured and transported after the rebellion ended. 18th to 19th century The eighth MacKeamish, who was William Gunn, son of Alexander of Badenloch, was killed fighting in India in 1780. Upon his death the chiefship passed to his brother, Morrison Gunn, the ninth MacKeamish, who was also serving with the British army. Unfortunately Morrison died in Gibraltar in 1785 before he could assume the office of chief in any meaningful way. Both these chiefs died without issue, resulting in the extinction of the direct male line of Donald Crotaich, the sixth MacKeamish. Some confusion was created in 1803 when the Countess of Sutherland, on whose lands the remnants of the clan resided at the time, decided that the heir to the chiefship should be found. A sheriff's court was held on May 31st, 1803 in Thurso to hear arguments from various claimants. The jury at this court finally decided that Hector Gunn, great grandson of George Gunn of Borrobol, the brother of the sixth MacKeamish, was heir male, which he was. However they or someone else then proceeded to declare him chief of the clan, which they had no authority to do, as this decision can only be made by the Lyon Court, which was not consulted in the matter. Hector died almost immediately afterward. Hector's son, George, was a protégé of the Countess, who had purchased a commission for him in the Royal Marines. In 1814, George was declared chief by someone, nobody seems completely sure who, but it was not the Lyon Court. It is probable that he simply assumed the role of chief due to the erroneous belief that his father was chief. It is doubtful that George Gunn of Rhives (Rhives being the estate given to him by the Countess, who appointed him as an under factor at Assynt and later head factor at Dunrobin) was ever accepted as chief by many of the clan. The end of the clan system in 1746 had removed most feelings of loyalty and even kinship to the chief amongst the Highland clans, and the Clearances (forced removal from their lands) had created bitterness toward anyone in authority. Gunn of Rhives died in 1859 and his two sons not long after. The simple fact is that neither Hector nor George were legally chief of the clan because they were not declared so by the Lyon Court. However, the story of their appointments to be chief has crept into several authoritative works without a nod toward the legality of it. In legal and genealogical terms, the office of chief of the Clan Gunn became vacant with the death of Morrison Gunn in 1785 and remains vacant today, although the heir, through the female line, has been identified. He is William Sinclair Gunn of Inverness, Scotland. To date William has made no move to become chief, and the clan continues to be ably led by an appointed Commander, Iain Alexander Gunn Of Banniskirk. Present day Today, the Gunns are a widespread family with roots at home, Canada, the US, New Zealand, Australia, and around the globe. This is attributed to the diaspora that took place during the Highland Clearances in Caithness and Sutherland. If you visit today you can see the old crofts that were burned at this time. Efforts have been made to reunite the Clan with societies in North America, New Zealand, Australia and Scotland. A museum of the Clan's history has also been established at Latheron in Caithness. In 1978, following efforts by American members of both clans, the Commander of Clan Gunn and the Chief of Clan Keith signed a 'Bond and Covenant of Friendship' officially ending the feud between their respective clans. The treaty was signed at the site of the battle of St. Tears five hundred years before, and is celebrated by members of both clans at Highland games and other Scottish cultural gatherings wherever they meet. Castles of Clan Gunn Dirlot Castle: - OS map reference ND 126486. The base of a small tower built by the Cheynes in the 14th century, or the Gunns in the 15th, lies on a rock above the river Thurso in a lonely position far inland. On the summit of a crag by the western bank of the River Thurso in a remote and barren area south of Halkirk, are foundations of a tower built by Donald Cheyne. It measures 9.5m by 6.5m with walls 1.6m thick. It had a courtyard on the south-east, measuring 13m by 7m, which had only a parapet to defend it. In 1464, Dirlot was held by George, chief of the Gunn clan, but it was held by Alexander Sutherland at the time of his execution in 1499, for killing Alexander Dunbar. The castle was subsequently granted to the Clan MacKay by King James IV of Scotland. Clyth Castle or 'Gunn's Castle': - OS map reference ND 307386. In a difficult to access site on a rock by the shore are the foundations of a tower built about 1500 by the Gunns. A rock which is almost an island at high tide has sheer cliffs on all sides except to the west, where there is a steep slope up from the beach. At the summit was a wall near the remains of which are footings of a tower house, measuring 11.3m by 7m, with walls about 1m thick. Halberry Castle: - OS map reference ND 302377. At the neck of a coastal promontory is the base of the 15th century tower house of the chief of the Gunns. This site has a long narrow sea inlet isolating it from higher ground on the mainland. Across the neck is a ditch, 10m wide and 2m deep, which presumably one had an inner wall or bank and stockade. Close behind the ditch are grass-covered foundations of a tower house, measuring 13.5m by 8.3m. It was probably in existence by the mid 15th century, when George, chief of the Gunn clan had a residence there. Clan Profile Gaelic Name: Guinne (Surname) Motto: Aut Pax Aut Bellum; translated literally as 'Either peace or war', colloquially translated as 'In peace and war.' Slogan: Clyth Pipe Music: 'The Gunn's Salute' Plant Badge: Juniper. Commander Iain Alexander Gunn of Banniskirk was appointed Commander of Clan Gunn, by commission of Lord Lyon on June 9, 1972. Coat of Arms and Crest Coat of Arms There are no arms for Clan Gunn. In Scotland arms are granted to individuals, not families. No arms for a chief of Clan Gunn have been located in any registry of arms in Great Britain. The Lyon Court has recently identified William Sinclair Gunn of Inverness as the heir to the chiefship of Clan Gunn. If Mr. Gunn petitions to be named chief and is, then the Lyon Court will design his arms at that time. A coat of arms was noted by Robert Ronald McIan in his The Clans of The Scottish Highlands, published in London by Ackermann and Co., 1845; 'The coat armour is arg., a galley of three masts, sails furled and oars in action, sab., displaying at the mast-head, flags, gu., within a bordure az. On a chief of the third, a bear's head of the first, muzzled of the second, between two mullets of the field.' We do not know whose arms Mr. Logan, the author of the text of this book, is describing. It is certain that they were not the arms of the Chief of the Clan Gunn, as no such arms have been found, nor was there a chief in 1845. R. R. McIan was the illustrator of The Clans of The Scottish Highlands, but the text was the work of Mr. James Logan, though the book is billed as belonging to McIain. The work is fanciful in many ways, as Victorian 'histories' tended to be at times. Commercial websites offer items depicting the arms as a variant of this, although if the arms belong to someone then, strictly speaking, to do so is a violation of Scottish law. Crest A crest badge is pictured above right. The description of the crest on the personal arms of Iain A. Gunn of Banniskirk, Commander of the Clan Gunn differs, being: A dexter cubit arm attired in the proper tartan of Clan Gunn, the hand Proper grasping a basket-hilted sword blade Gules, hilted Argent. This description is of the crest on the personal arms of Banniskirk, not the badge worn by clanspersons. Banniskirk also has a badge, which appears on his guidon and is described as: Within a chaplet of juniper an arm naked, the hand Proper grasping a basket-hilted sword, blade Gules, hiited Argent. Tartan The Gunn tartan is common in 'weathered', 'ancient', 'muted' and 'modern' colourings. Septs of Clan Gunn Anderson, (Mac)Andrew(s) Cro(w)ner, Cruner, Kroner George(son), MacGeorge Henderson(s), Henry, Inrig, (Mac)Enrick(s) Jam(i)eson, James Johnson, Jonsson MacComas, MacKeasmish, MacHamish, McAmis, McCamish MacDade, MacDavid, Davidson McCorkell (Mac)Kean(e) Magnus(son), (Mac)Manus, (Mac)Main(s), Manson, Mann More Ne(i)lson, (Mac)Neal Rob(i)son, Robinson, Robbins Sand(i/er)son Swan(son), Swenson, Svenson, Sveinsson Swann(ey) (Mac)William(s), Williamson, Wil(l)son, Wyl(l)ie

Guthrie

Clan History Origins of the Name The name Guthrie almost certainly derives from the barony of the same name near Forfar. Other theories are that it is a corruption of Guthrum, which was the name of a Scandinavian Prince. Wars of Scottish Independence The first of the name Guthrie on record in Scotland was one Squire Guthrie in 1303 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. had been sent to France to request the return of William Wallace, who had retired there having resigned the guardianship of Scotland. He was successful as William Wallace did indeed return to Scotland. However Wallace was later captured and executed by the English. The Guthries of Guthrie received their estates by a charter from King David II of Scotland between the years 1329 and 1371. 15th Century In 1457 Sir David Guthrie of Guthrie was Armour- Bearer to King James III of Scotland and the Sheriff of Forfar; he became Lord Treasurer of Scotland in 1461 and continued in this office until 1467 when he was appointed Comptroller of the Exchequer. In 1468 he obtained a warrant under the Great Seal to build Guthrie Castle near Friockheim in Angus, which remains standing to this day. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars In the 16th Century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Guthrie fought at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, against the English where Sir David Guthrie's eldest son Sir Alexander was killed. The Guthries were supporters of the young King James VI of Scotland against his own mother Mary, Queen of Scots who had been portrayed as a challenge to his authority as King. It was around this time that Alexander Guthrie was murdered following a feud with the neighboring Gardynes which continued until 1618. 17th Century & Civil War The Guthries were religious leaders in the time of Martin Luther. They were also supporters of Presbyterianism against the Roman Catholic church and were ready to back up their beliefs with their lives. In 1640 during the Bishop's Wars the position of Bishop of Moray was held by a Guthrie at the fortified seat of Spynie Palace. However during the year of 1640 the palace was laid siege to by General Robert Monro (d. 1680) of the Clan Munro and Bishop Guthrie was forced to surrender. The bishops third son Andrew followed the campaign of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. He met a similar fate, after being taken prisoner at the Battle of Philiphaugh he was transported to Edinburgh and beheaded by Edinburgh's infamous 'Maiden' A smaller version of the French guillotine. This macabre device is still on display in Edinburgh's Museum of Antiquities. However James Guthrie was a minister, ordained minister of Lauder in 1638 and unlike other Guthries he supported the Covenanters. When he moved to Stirling in 1649 he preached openly against the king's religious views. The Church of Scotland stripped him of his office but he carried on unperturbed until his arrest in 1661, after a swift trial he was executed later that year. James 'the Martyr'Guthrie James 'the Martyr' Guthrie was a Guthrie who was executed for his beliefs in Edinburgh in 1661. He was described by Oliver Cromwell as 'The little man who refused to kneel'. The Chief in the 19th Century Lieutenant Colonel Ivan Guthrie of Guthrie was the last chief of Clan Guthrie to live at Guthrie Castle. Born in 1886 he became a distinguished soldier, commanding the 4th Battalion the Black Watch and was awarded the Military Cross. Clan Chief The current chief of Clan Guthrie is Alexander Guthrie of Guthrie 21st of that Ilk who lives between Italy and England. Following the sale of Guthrie Castle out of the family, the clan seat is know generally seen as being Torosay Castle on the Isle of Mull. Branches of Clan Guthrie Although the Guthries of Guthrie were the main line of the family many off-shoots existed, some of them mentioned in an old rhyme: 'Guthrie o' Guthrie And Guthrie o' Gaigie Guthrie o' Taybank An' Guthrie o' Craigie' An old tale without substance gives an alternative derivation for the name. One of the early Scottish Kings had taken shelter, along with two attendants, in a fisherman's hut. The King, knowing his attendants would be hungry, asked the fisherman to prepare two fish for them, but the fisherman offered to feed the king as well and 'gut three'; and so, the legend insists, the name stuck.

Haig

Origins The first known person of the name was Petrus de Haga, who is mentioned in documents from 1162. However, the Clan Haig are traditionally said to descend from Druskine, the King of Picts, who was killed at the Battle of Camelon by Kenneth, the King of Scots, in 839. His son, Hago, escaped to Norway and it was his descendant, Petrus de Hago, who served with the Viking forces of King Harald IV of Norway. Hago, who was shipwrecked off Eyemouth, befriended the Earl of March. He later married the Earl's daughter and the Earl gave him the lands of Bemersyde near Dryburgh in Roxburghshire, Scotland. The Haigs became the Barons of Bemerside and rapidly gained a position of some influence in the area. Their signatures are on the Ragman Rolls of 1296 swearing allegiance to King Edward I of England. Wars of Scottish Independence In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Haig fought alongside William Wallace against the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1296. The next chief and sixth Laird continued this support by fighting alongside King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 and the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333, where he was killed. 15th century & clan conflicts Chief Gilbert Haig opposed the powerful Clan Douglas. Gilbert's son James supported King James III of Scotland. After the King was murdered in 1488 he fled into hiding before making peace with King James IV of Scotland. 16th century & Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, chief William Haig led the Clan Haig at the Battle of Flodden Field, where he was killed in 1513. His son, the 14th Laird of Bemeryside was able to effect some revenge for his father's death when he captured Lord Evers, an English commander at the Battle of Ancrum Moor in 1544. Evers later died at Bemeryside and was buried at Melrose Abbey. 17th century Chief William Haig, the 19th Laird was the King's Solicitor for Scotland during the reign of James VI and Charles I. The twenty-first Laird, Anthony Haig was persecuted for his membership of the Society of Friends and suffered a long period of imprisonment. Four sons of the chief were killed while fighting in the service of the King of Bohemia between 1629 and 1630. Tower of Bemersyde The Tower of Bemersyde was originally built in 1535 when its principle purpose was defense. It was improved in 1690 when large windows and fireplaces were introduced. The house was extended in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In 1960 further alterations were carried out by the present chief to improve the overall design and proportions of the house. Clan chief The current chief of Clan Haig, George Alexander Eugene Douglas Haig the 2nd Earl Haig, who was page of honour to George VI at his coronation in 1937, is a distinguished artist and an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.

Haldane

Origins of the Clan It is believed that the name 'Haldane' originates from a phrase meaning 'Half-Dane'. It is an ancient Scottish name dating back to around the 12th century with the manor of Haldane being granted to the family around this time by William the Lion. A cadet branch of the family are reported to have settled in the area of Scotland known as Strathearn. The lands they acquired were part of the larger barony of Gleneagles. Almer de Haldane was a Scottish noble whose signature is found on the Ragman Rolls of King Edward I of England in 1296. 14th Century & Wars of Scottish Independence Almer de Haldane later sided with King Robert the Bruce of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence against the English. The Haldane territory soon increased greatly when Sir Simon de Haldane married Matilda de Arnot. Sir Simon had already received the lands of Bardrill in Strathearn in 1312 but the union also gave him control of more land in the Earldom of Lennox. 15th Century In 1482 Sir John Haldane, third of Gleneagles handed over lands in Perthshire, Stirlingshire and Fife to the Crown, turning this into the free barony of Gleneagles. Sir John was not intending to resign his property altogether as through his marriage to Agnes, daughter of Murdoch Menteith of Rusky he had a legitimate claim the earldom of Lennox. The title was contested between himself and John Stewart, Lord Darnley. The dispute appears to have come to a surprisingly amicable settlement for the time when, after a long legal battle Darnley retained the title and Sir John received a quarter of the lands. 16th Century & Anglo Scottish Wars Sir James Haldane was Governor of Dunbar Castle. His son was responsible for erecting lands in Lennox and Perthshire that were not already part of Gleneagles into the barony of Haldane in 1508. However his son was killed when the Clan Haldane fought at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1585 Stirling Castle was under siege by supporters of the Earl of Angus and many other Protestant noblemen. The Haldanes were part of the force calling for the repealing of the banishment of these nobles. The chief of Haldanes brother was killed in battle along with William Stuart, colonel of the Royal Guard. He was reportedly shot by Sir William's servant. 17th Century & Civil War The eleventh Laird, Chief Sir John Haldane was knighted by King Charles I in 1633. However during the Civil War supporterd the Covenanters. He was killed when he led the clan at the Battle of Dunbar (1650). 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings Throughout the 18th century and the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Haldane supported the British Government. General George Haldane, son of the sixteenth Laird was a professional soldier who led the clan against the French at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743 and the Battle of Fontenoy in 1745. General George Haldane also led the clan in fighting against the Jacobites. During the 1745 to 1746 Jacobite rebellion he served under the Duke of Cumberland. GEORGE COCKBURN HALDANE, 18th of GLENEAGLES (b. 1729 - d. 02.03.1799) married Bethia DUNDAS in 1766 (mcrt. 06/09.05.1766) daughter of THOMAS DUNDAS of FINGASK AND CARRONHILL. George Cockburn was the only son of Charles Cockburn of Sandybed by his wife Margaret Haldane (second daughter of John Haldane, 14th of Gleneagles by his second wife Helen Erskine), upon his succession to GLENEAGLES he took the name HALDANE for life. George Cockburn HALDANE had one surviving child by his marriage to BETHIA DUNDAS. The child was christened JANET COCKBURN HALDANE, and as sole heiress, was widely known as MISS HALDANE OF GLENEAGLES (see Sir WALTER SCOTT, 1822). She married at Edinburgh, on the 9 January 1801, Captain Charles Dallas, of the ancient House of Dallas of Cantray, Budgate, St. Martin's & North Newton, (b. 1766-d. 1855) later Brigadier-General and last British East India Governor of St. Helena. The marriage was productive of seven children - four boys and three girls, all of whom travelled to St. Helena with Brigadier General Dallas and his Lady, where they lived first at Plantation House and then at Longwood, Napoleon's residence. The eldest son, CAPTAIN THOMAS DALLAS of the Bengal Army (b.1801; drowned at sea 1857) took HALDANE, the surname of his mother and his maternal grandmother, for life, though he never succeeded to GLENEAGLES. Upon the death of GEORGE COCKBURN HALDANE on 2nd March 1799, the estate passed to his only son by his second marriage to MARGARET DRUMMOND, daughter of the 5th Viscout Strathallen. This son, GEORGE AUGUSTUS HALDANE, however, died unmarried on 26th October 1799, only months after the death of his father, the 18th of Gleneagles. 19th to 20th Century GLENEAGLES then passed to a cousin of the COCKBURN-HALDANE'S, not to CAPTAIN THOMAS DALLAS HALDANE, grandson of the 18th of GLENEAGLES and eldest son of JANET HALDANE OF GLENEAGLES and BRIGADIER-GENERAL DALLAS. DALLAS-HALDANE had changed his surname, in all probability, in anticipation of the inheritance. He was later drowned at sea. His cousin, who received GLENEAGLES, was Adam Duncan of Camperdown, son of HELEN HALDANE, younger sister of the aforementioned MARGARET HALDANE who married CHARLES COCKBURN. HELEN HALDANE (d. May 1777) married Alexander Duncan of Lundie and their son, Adam, succeeded to Gleneagles on the death of his cousin, George Augustus Haldane, in 1799. ADAM DUNCAN sold a great portion of the estate to pay debts and so the Gleneagles estate, once very large and prominent, fell to the small size remaining today. The famous Admiral Adam Duncan, Viscount Duncan of Camperdown, a cousin of the eighteenth Haldane of Gleneagles inherited the lands in 1820 and his son who inherited his title in 1831 also took the surname Haldane. The Gleneagles estates returned to a Haldane, James Chinnery-Haldane in 1918 when the fourth Earl of Camperdown gave over his rights to these lands. One of his sons Brodrick became a famous Portrait photographer, whilst his other son carried the chiefship until his death in 1994 when this passed to his nephew Martin. Clan Chief The current chief of Clan Haldane is Martin Haldane of Gleneagles.

Hamilton

The House of Hamilton is a Scottish family who historically held broad territories throughout central and southern Scotland, particularly Ayrshire, Lanarkshire and the Lothians. The Hamiltons were a lowland family, and were never organised as a clan in the Highland, Gaelic sense. However, modern usage tends to ascribe clan status to all Scottish families. The family is descended from Walter fitz Gilbert of Cadzow, an Anglo-Norman comrade of Robert the Bruce, and rose in power to be the leading noble family in Scotland, second only to the royal House of Stewart, to whom they were closely related. Members of the family have held a number of titles in the peerages of both Scotland and Great Britain, the principal title being Duke of Hamilton, the Duke himself being the senior representative of the family. Origins of the House 'Chief among the legends still clinging to this important family is that which gives a descent from the House of Beaumont, a branch of which is stated to have held the manor of Hamilton, Leicestershire; and it is argued that the three cinquefoils of the Hamilton shield bear some resemblance to the single cinquefoils of the Beaumonts. In face of this it has been recently shown that the single cinquefoil was also borne by the Umfravilles of Northumberland, who appear to have owned a place called Hamilton in that county. It May be pointed out that Simon de Montfort, the great earl of Leicester, in whose veins flowed the blood of the Beaumonts, obtained about 1245 the wardship of Gilbert de Umfraville, second earl of Angus, and it is conceivable that this name Gilbert may somehow be responsible for the legend of the Beaumont descent seeing 'that the first, authentic ancestor of the Hamilton-, is one Walter FitzGilbert. He first appears in 1294-1295 as one of the witnesses to a charter by James, the high steward of Scotland, to the monks of Paisley; and in 1296 his name appears in the Homage Roll as Walter FitzGilbert of 'Hameldone.' Who this Gilbert of 'Hameldone' may have been is uncertain.' This new feudal family, house, like a number of other immigrants to Scotland, started to imitate somewhat the traditional local tribal structure. The chief's extended family, and some allies and dependents, became a 'clan' which organized itself to defend and protect its people and property against strangers and outsiders. It is likely that most or all landed property was regarded as possession of the extended family, not any individual. It is highly probable that the 'clan', in common with a number of other Scots names, was not limited to agnatic descendants of someone ('founder' or 'ancestor'), but encompassed an extended family, including those cognatic lineages who subscribe to 'clan' leadership. It is also possible that some families (allies, dependents) were 'adopted' into the 'clan', without a genealogical relationship with it originally. Such of course became usually within a couple of generations relatives, as marriages (and children issuing from such having blood of both) took care of that. The Hamiltons' new lands lay at the interface between the Britons of Strathclyde, (a recently defunct Brythonic Kingdom), the Kingdom of Scotland (predominantly Gaelic) , as well as the Germanic lands of Northumbria. In the early period, the chieftaincy of the FitzGilberts probably alternated between septs. However, seemingly in late 15th century, one primogeniture line appears to have consolidated its position of chiefs of the Hamilton to the extent that James Hamilton, 1st Lord Hamilton married a daughter of King James II, Princess Mary Stewart. From that lineage, the heads of the House of Hamilton descend. These now patrician Hamiltons appear to descend in male line from a Jutish-Anglo-Saxon stock. Their common ancestor (group B in source material) started an agnatic line encompassing most of today noble families Hamilton. Then there are a clear bunch of 'plebeian' Hamiltons (groups A and some others) who clearly are not male-line descendants of the ancestor of the patrician Hamiltons, nor anyone in male line with that within the last millennium or two,but whose origin is from quite same areas. They are obviously descendants of Jutish-Aglo-Saxon allies, friends, dependents and cognatic relatives of the leader dynasty. As an evidence of 'the other half' of the origin of the clan Hamilton coming from Gaelic stock, there are also a number of (mostly plebeian) families descending in male line from several ancestors who obviously were Celtic in first millennium CA (groups E to J and M to O). That branch of Clan Hamilton to which the today Swedish barons and counts Hamilton belong, is one of such. The DNA studies reported by Hamilton National Genealogical Society, Inc. (HNGS) support the understanding that medieval Scottish clan was not a construct of people with agnatic line between each others, but a societal phenomenon of forming an extended family, and a protection caucus, between families who only partially were originally related to each others through anything else than defence alliance. See also: Y-DNA results of variety of families bearing Hamilton surname Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Hamiltons initially supported the English and Fitz Gilbert Hamilton was governor of Bothwell Castle on behalf of the English. However he later came across to Robert the Bruce's side and was rewarded with a portion of land which had been confiscated from the Clan Comyn/Cumming. Among his new property was the Barony and lands of Cadzow which in time would become the town of Hamilton. In 1346 the Hamiltons fought for King David II of Scotland at the Battle of Neville's Cross. Sir David Hamilton was captured and not released until a large ransom was paid. 15th Century In the 15th century the Hamiltons gained more royal support when in 1474 James the 1st Lord Hamilton married Princess Mary, the daughter of King James II of Scotland. Their son was made the Earl of Arran and stood next in line for the throne. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars During the 16th century the Hamiltons made their home on the Island of Arran in 1503 and for most of that century a Hamilton was close to inheriting the Crown. The 2nd Earl of Arran was heir to the throne both of King James IV of Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots. As Mary's regent he enjoyed her wealth and was bribed into allegiance with both England and France. In 1545 the Earl led his men into battle at the Battle of Ancrum Moor where they helped to defeat the English during the Anglo-Scottish Wars.He died Arran's eldest son James, was a commander in the Scots Royal Guards of François II of France. A possible suitor of the widowed Mary, he eventually lost his mind at the age of 26 and was confined for the remaining 47 years of his life. Arran's third son John was made Marquess of Hamilton in 1599 and was keeper of Edinburgh and Stirling Castles. His son James succeeded in 1604 to his father's titles, and in 1609 to his uncle's. Previously, in 1587 Arrans brother Claud had been made first Lord Paisley. Paisley had fought at the Battle of Langside, but descended in later years into insanity. His son James had been created Baron Abercorn in 1603, and in 1606 Earl of Abercorn, Lord Paisley, Hamilton, Mountcashell and Kilpatrick for his assistance to King James VI at the Union of the Crowns. Abercorn predeceased his father, and his son James, Master of Abercorn succeeded to his fathers titles in 1618. He had already been made Baron Hamilton of Strabane in the Peerage of Ireland in 1617. Claud, Lord Paisley died in or around 1621 and his grandson inherited his Lordship of Parliament. The Irish title came with significant property in Co. Tyrone, Ulster, and this branch of the family is now represented by James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn. The Abercorns although a junior branch of the family are the heirs male to the chieftancy. Civil War The Hamiltons under the third Marquess of Arran supported King Charles I during the Civil War. The Marquess was made Duke of Hamilton in 1643. He was beheaded with his King in London in 1649. William Hamilton the second Duke was killed at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. Seat of the Chief Hamilton Palace , Hamilton, South Lanarkshire had been the Family's Seat from 1695, built by Duchess Anne, and her husband William Douglas, 3rd Duke of Hamilton. It had the distinction of being the largest non-royal residence in Europe, reaching its greatest extent under the 10th and the 11th Dukes in the mid nineteenth century. However, excessive subsidence of the palace, (by the families own mines!) caused its condemnation and demolition in 1921. The 13th Duke then moved to Dungavel House, near Strathaven. It was here that deputy-führer Rudolf Hess was aiming for during his doomed peace mission, to see the Douglas, 14th Duke of Hamilton in 1941. In 1947, Dungavel was sold to the coal board, and then on to the government, who turned it into an open prison. Currently, it is the site of a controversial holding centre for asylum-seekers. The family moved to Lennoxlove House in East Lothian, where today it remains the residence of the Angus Alan Douglas-Hamilton, the 15th Duke. Other Properties Brodick Castle, Brodick, Isle of Arran Cadzow Castle, Hamilton, Lanarkshire Chelsea Place, London Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh Kinneil Castle, Bo'ness, West Lothian Lochranza Castle, Lochranza, Isle of Arran Redhouse Tower, Longniddry, East Lothian

Hannay

Origins of the Clan The name Hannay may have originally been spelt Ahannay, possibaly deriving from the Gaelic word 'O'Hannaidh' or 'Ap Shenaeigh'. The family can betraced back to Galloway in South-West Scotland. The name 'Gillbert de Hannethe' appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296, submitting to King Edward I of England. The Hannay's lands of Sorbie in Wigtownshire were reportedly acquired by the same Gillbert de Hannethe. Unlike many Scottish nobles and clans the Clan Hannay did not support Robert the Bruce but instead supported John Balliol because he was more local to them through his descent from the Celtic Princess of Galloway. 15th & 16th Centuries In 1488 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn. Later in 1513 the Clan Hannay fought at the Battle of Flodden Field which was part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1532 Patrick Hannay was acquitted of the murder of Patrick McClellen as he had killed him in self defense. James Hannay, the Master Gunner in the reign of James V led the clan at the Battle of Solway Moss in 1542 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 which were part of the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The family began to spread and a tower built at Sorbie in 1550 which commanded views their ever increasing territory. 17th Century Patrick Hannay had a distinguished military career and was patroned by Queen Elizabeth of Bohemia, daughter of James VI and sister of Charles I. After the death of Queen Anne who was the wife of James VI in 1619 Patrick Hannay composed two eulogies and in return had many published on his own death, one of which said: 'Go on in virtue, aftertimes will tell, none but Hannay could have done so well'. Sir Patrick (3rd) Privy Councillor of Ireland, and Master of the Chancellery in Ireland, died at sea in 1625. Possibly the best known Hannay was James Hannay, the Dean of St Giles' in Edinburgh who had the claim to fame of being the target of Jenny Geddes' stool. In an infamous incident in 1637 the Dean had began to read the new liturgy when with a cry of 'Thou false thief, dost thou say Mass at my lug?' was heard and a stool came flying from the congregation, thrown by an incensed Jenny Geddes. The incident began a full scale riot which took the town guard to control. Sir Robert Hannay of Mochrum was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia In 1630, and from the Sorbie roots the Hannays of Grennan, Knock, Garrie and Kingsmuir also evolved. Clan Conflicts The fortunes of the original Hannays of Sorbie were seriously dented in the seventeenth century when a long running feud with the powerful Clan Murray of Broughton resulted in the Hannays being outlawed. The clan has also had previous feuds with the Clan Kennedy and Clan Dunbar. After the feud with the Clan Murray the famous tower at Sorbie fell into disrepair and was lost along with the neighbouring lands around 1640. Many Hannays moved to Ireland, in particular Ulster and the name can still be found there and in many surrounding counties, particularly in the form 'Hanna'. Another form of the name, 'Hannah', is particularly common amongst the descendants of those that remained in Scotland. Another variation of Hannay is 'Hanney'. In Oxforshire, England, there are two villages called 'East Hanney' and 'West Hanney'. Yet another version of Hannay is 'Hanner'. Although less common, Hanner, like Hanna, is found amongst the decendants of those who moved to Ireland. Clan Chief Sir Samuel Hannay, who had served within the Habsburg Empire. He returned to Scotland having amassed a considerable wealth and built a great mansion house which was said to be the inspiration for Sir Walter Scott's novel, Guy Mannering. Sir Samuel's baronetcy became dormant on his death in 1841 and the estates passed to his sister, Mary, then further to her nephew, William Rainsford Hannay, on her death in 1850. From this direct line comes the present chief Hannay of Kirkdale and of that Ilk. One branch of the family begun by a younger son of the Sorbie Hannays, Alexander Hannay took lands at Kirkdale, by Kirkcudbright. The line established by his son John Hannay of Kirkdale is now recognised as the chiefly one. The clan has not forgotten it's roots as in 1965 the old tower was handed over to a clan trust for its preservation. In 2006 it was placed in the care of Historic Scotland.

Hay

Origin of the name The family name is derived from that of several villages called La Haye in the Cotentin peninsula of Normandy, France. The word, haye comes from haia, a hedge, which in modern French is haie. It can also mean stockade, but it may have been used here because this part of Normandy is characterized by centuries-old interlocking hedgerows. Origin of the Clan Clan Hay descends from the Norman family of de la Haye (de la Haya). The progenitors of the Scottish clan were William II de la Haye and his wife, Eva of Pitmilly, a Celtic heiress. William II de la Haye was the son of William I de la Haye, who married another Norman, Juliana de Soulis Ranulf I de Soules, and therefore they cannot be considered the progenitors of Clan Hay because the family was entirely Norman, having no Scots connections. In contrast,the marriage of William de la Haye II to Eva founded a Norman-Scots family that became the Scottish clan. William de la Haye II was cupbearer cup-bearer Ranulf I de Soules to Kings Malcolm IV Malcolm IV of Scotland and William I ( William the Lion)William I of Scotland. The two Williams de la Haye are often confused in the literature, because so little is documented about William I de la Haye. Concerning the Norman family of de la Haye, Thurstin Haldup, a Norman nobleman of the first half of the eleventh century, i.e., just before the Norman conquest of England in 1066, held two baronies, one of which was La Haye du Puits in the Cotentin. On becoming a Christian, he changed his name to Richard and became known as Richard de La Haye. Richard's eldest son, Eldoun, apparently fought at the Battle of Hastings. Richard died in 1096 and was succeeded by his nephew, Robert, who was the ancestor of the Hays who became Norman barons in England. It is Robert's younger brother, Hue, who is most important to the Scottish Hays. He had a chateau near St Lo, also in the Cotentin, which was known then as La Haye Hue, but is now La Haye Bellefonde. He was also held other seigniories nearby. La Haye Hue was just across the small Soules River from the chateau of Soules, south of St Lo. This close proximity to Soules is important in the historical relationship of the Hays with the de Soulis family. Early on, the Haye-Hue family adopted for their arms, argent three inescutcheons gules(a silver shield containing three smaller red shields). These are the same arms as presently used by the Earl of Errol in Scotland and are completely different from those used by the de la Hayes of England. This is good evidence that the first recorded de la Haye in Scotland, William II de la Haye, who used these same arms, was from the Haye-Hue family. However, his genealogical descent has not yet been traced to them. The Hays were linked to the powerful Soulis family. As evidence, first, there is the close proximity of the chateaus of the two families in Normandy. Second, the Soulis name, rare in England, and the more common Hay, are both found in the records of Dover Castle in the early 13th century. Third, William II de la Haye's mother was Juliana de Soules and he was the nephew of Ranulf de Soulis, Pincerna or butler to King David I of Scotland. William II de la Haye The First Hay to arrive in Scotland was William de la Haye, who befriended King Malcolm IV and was made the 1st Baron of Erroll in 1178. Wars of Scottish Independence Slains Pursuivant, Peter Drummond-Murray of Mastrick, is the private officer of arms of the Chief of Clan Hay During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Sir Gilbert Hay, the 5th Lord Erroll, was an ally of Robert the Bruce and he and the Clan Hay participated in the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. For his service, he was made the Lord High Constable of Scotland, a title the Clan Hay continues to hold to this day, which gives them ceremonial precendece in Scotland ahead of anyone aside from the royal family. The Chieftain of the Clan Hay, known as the MacGaraidh Mor, was traditionally the Commander of the Royal Bodyguard, and this fact caused numerous Hay chieftains to die in battle while protecting their king. The 6th Earl of Erroll was killed leading the Clan Hay at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346. 16th century and Anglo Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Hay suffered very heavy casualties in the Battle of Flodden in 1513. Another Hay, also named Sir Gilbert, was a Scottish knight who fought for Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years' War. Following the Reformation, the Hays remained loyal to Catholicism and thus were allies to Mary, Queen of Scots, who appointed George Hay, the 7th Earl of Erroll, Lord Lieutenant of all central Scotland. Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll, was involved in a conspiracy with King Philip II of Spain, to overthrow Queen Elizabeth of England, convert King James VI to Catholicism and thus make Britain a Catholic stronghold. With the defeat of the Spanish Armada, however, the conspiracy came to nothing. 17th century and Civil War During the Civil War James Hay led his forces as Royalists against the Covenanters at the Battle of Aberdeen in 1644 where they were victorious. 18th century and Jacobite Uprisings Following the Act of Union in 1707, the Hays were sympathetic to the Jacobite cause. The ruins of their fortress of Slains Castle, on the northeast coast of Scotland, was a frequent meeting place for Jacobite conspirators. In 1745, the Clan Hay supported Bonnie Prince Charlie and assisted in financing his rebellion. With the collapse of Jacobotism, the Hays became loyal British subjects, and many Hays were involved in expanding the British Empire. Clan profile Clan Plant Badge: Mistletoe Gaelic Names: MacGaraidh (Surname) & Clann 'icGaraidh (Collective). Motto: Serva Jugum (Keep the yoke). Slogan: 'A Hay! A Hay!'. Pipe Music: 'Delgaty Castle'. Crest: Issuing out of a Crest Coronet, a falcon volant Proper, armed, jessed, and belled Or. Plant Badge: Mistletoe. Animal Symbol: Falcon. Arms: Argent, three escutcheons Gules Clan Chief Merlin Sereld Victor Gilbert Moncreiffe, 24th Earl of Erroll Castles Delgatie Castle, Aberdeen, Scotland was given to the Clan Hay after the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Slains Castle was owned by the chiefs of Clan Hay from 1597 to 1916. Dupplin Castle, Perth, Scotland Inshoch Castle, Inverness, Scotland Meggich Castle, Perth, Scotland Neidpath Castle, Peebles, Scotland Park Castle, Galloway, Scotland Yester Castle, East Lothian, Scotland Castle Park, Scotland. Clan Septs and Tartans One of the Hay tartans. From Vestiarium Scoticum. Clan Hay has several recognized tartans: 
The septs of Clan Hay include: Alderston Arroll Ay(e) Beagrie Constable Delgatie Erroll Garra(d) Garrow Gifford Haye(s) Hays(on) Heye(s) Kinnoull Leask(e) Leith MacGaradh MacGarra MacGarrow MacHay McArra Peebles Slains Yester Clan branches Hay of Alderston Hay of Delgatie Hay of Duns Hay of Haystoun Hay of Tweeddale

Henderson

Origins of the Clan Clann Eanruig (pronounced KLAHN YAHN-reegk) is the Gàidhlig (Scots Gaelic) name for the Scottish clan known as 'the Hendersons' in English. The words 'Scot,' 'Scots' (not scotch), 'Scottish,' and 'Scotland' derive from the Latin word 'Scotus' meaning a Celtic inhabitant of Hibernia (Ireland) at the time of the Roman occupation of southern Britannia (Great Britain), i.e., an Irishman. The Scots of Caledonia flourished and soon outnumbered their Pictish neighbors. The ancient Picts and Scots followed the Celtic custom of matrilineality. This meant that sons could not depend on their father's status, but instead had to establish domains of their own. Pictish prince Eanruig Mor mac Righ Nechtan (Big Henry the son of King Nechtan) established a distinguished family line. The descendants of Prince Henry were known collectively as "clann Eanruig" meaning the "family of Henry." The males of the clan took the surname "mac Eanruig" meaning "son of Henry," which was later translated into English variously as "Henryson," "Henderson," "McHenry," "McHendry," "MacKendrick," and such. The females of the clan took the surname "nic Eanruig" meaning "daughter of Henry." A woman normally kept her own clan surname after marriage, and she could usually depend on her clan's support in a dispute with her husband. Families could give children the clan surname of either their mother or father. Over time, the descendants of other prominent Henrys also took the family name 'clann Eanruig.' Eventually, the most prominent of these families coalesced into a single clan identity. Alliances Though a small clan, the Hendersons rose to prominence in Caithness, Glencoe, the Shetland Islands and Fordell in Fife. In Caithness, Clan Henderson associated with Clan Gunn. In Glencoe, Clan Henderson forged a close alliance with the powerful Clan Donald. A separate family grouping arose in Liddesdale and Ewesdale, being one of the smaller families of Border Reivers. The Hendersons known for their size and strength became the personal body guards of the chief of the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe. In 1692, King William III, suspecting the loyalty of Clan Donald, secretly set the Clan Campbell upon the MacDonalds and Hendersons in the Massacre of Glencoe. Standing six feet and seven inches tall, the powerful 'Big Henderson' of the Chanters was the MacDonald chief's piper and protector, and fell with the chief in the cold February night of 1692. After the Massacre, many Henderson families emigrated to Ulster ,North America and mid wales. Highland Clearances During the Highland Clearances from 1746 to 1822, many more Henderson families left Scotland for Ireland, England, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and other lands. Hendersons in the 18th and 19th Centuries Hendersons in the British colonies of North America played important roles in the drive for American independence from Britain. Patrick Henry of Virginia urged armed revolution with his cry 'I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!' Ulster-born physician James McHenry served as George Washington's Secretary of War. (The Star-Spangled Banner, the national anthem of the United States of America, depicts the British naval bombardment of Fort McHenry near Baltimore in 1814.) Hendersons loyal to the British Crown played important roles in the British settlement of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Hendersons in the Modern World In 1934, British statesman Arthur Henderson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work for world disarmament. Epidemiologist Dr. Donald Ainslie 'D.A.' Henderson led the World Health Organization's successful effort to eradicate smallpox throughout the world. Clan Chief The Chief of Clan Henderson is Alistair Donald Henderson of Fordell, an environmental engineer specialising in air pollution control who lives in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. The Chief is recognized by Lord Lyon, King of Arms, and is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs (SCSC). Clan Septs Septs and surname variations of the Clan Henderson include: d'Handresson, Eanrig, Eanruig, Enderson, Endherson, Endirsone, Enrick, Enrig, Henders, Henderson, Hendersone, Hendersonne, Hendersoun, Hendersoune, Hendery, Hendirsone, Hendirsoun, Hendirsoune, Hendrie, Hendriesoun, Hendrisone, Hendrisoune, Hendron, Hendry, Hendryson, Hendrysone, Henerson, Henersoun, Hennerson, Hennersoune, Hennryson, Henresoun, Henreysoun, Henrici, Henricus, Henrie, Henriesone, Henriesoun, Henrison, Henrisone, Henrisoun, Henrisoune, Henrisson, Henry, Henryesson, Henryson, Henrysone, Henrysonne, Henrysoun, Henrysoune, Inrick, Inrig, Kendrick, Kenrick, MacCanrig, MacCanrik, MacEanruig, MacEnrick, MacHendric, MacHendrick, MacHendrie, MacHendry, MacHenrie, MacHenrik, MacHenry, MacKanrig, MacKendree, MacKendric, MacKendrich, MacKendrick, MacKendrie, MacKendrig, MacKendry, MacKenrick, MakAnry, MakCanryk, MakHenry, McCandrie, McCanrig, McCanrik, McHendry, McHenrie, McHenrik, McHenry, McKanrig, McKendree, McKendrick, McKendry, McKinriche, M'Canrie, M'Cenrik, M'Henri, M'Henry, M'Inrig, M'Kendrig, NicEanruig, and other variants. The surname spelling variations arose from regional pronunciation differences, and sometimes perversely creative spelling. Some individuals used multiple surname spellings, and sometimes different surname forms. For example, a traveling Henderson might use the surname MacEanruig in the Scottish Highlands, Henderson in the Lowlands, McHenry in Ulster, and Henry in England. The prefixes 'Mac', 'Mak', 'MC', 'Mc', 'Mc', and 'M'' are equivalent, and are all pronounced 'mahk'. The letter following the prefix may be either capital or lower case. Some Scottish families dropped a 'Mac' prefix from their surnames during the Highland Clearances in an effort to curry favor with the Crown. After King George IV visited Scotland in 1822, some of these families resumed using a 'Mac' prefix. (The resurgent popularity of 'all things Scottish' even induced some Lowland and English families to add an incongruous 'Mac' prefix to their surnames).

Home

The Homes (pronounced and sometimes spelt Hume) are a Scottish family. They were a powerful force in medieval Lothian and the Borders. The chief of the name is David Douglas-Home, 15th Earl of Home. Origins of the Clan The origins of the clan are a matter of historical debate. Some sources maintain that William of Home (alive 1214) was son of Patrick, son of Gospatric II, Earl of Lothian. The Scots Peerage conversely indicates that this William, was the son of John de Home, son of Aldan de Home (alive 1172). In 1266 a William de Home is recorded at Coldstream Monastery with grants of land. Geoffrey de Home's name is on the Ragman Roll as submitting to King Edward I of England. However, surviving records do not clarify the relationship of these individuals. The confirmed ancestry of the Homes starts with Sir John Home of Home. His son, Sir Thomas Home of that Ilk (alive 1385), married Nichola Pepdie, heiress of the Dunglass lands. 15th Century Conflicts Chief Sir Alexander Home of Dunglass was captured fighting at the Battle of Humbleton Hill in 1402. He later followed the Earl of Douglas to France, where he was killed in 1424 fighting against the English at the Battle of Verneuil, part of the Hundred Years' War. He left three sons, from whom most of the principal branches of the family were to descend. His eldest grandson was created a Lord of Parliament, taking the title 'Lord Home' in 1473. The Sir Alexander Home was created the 1st Lord Home in 1473, he died in 1491. During his life he established the collegiate church of Dunglass, was an ambassador to England and was among those who had the blood of King James III of Scotland on their hands in 1488. 16th Century & Anglo Scottish Wars In the 16th century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Home led by Chief and 3rd Lord Alexander Home fought at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Here Alexander led the vangaurd of Scottish knights. George Home, who on several occasions led his Border spearmen against the English. On the eve of the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 he was thrown from his horse and died of the injuries that he sustained. The Home lands were occupied by the English invaders and it fell to Lord Home's son, Alexander, the fifth Lord, to retake them in 1549. Later Alexander and his brother were found guilty of treason against the Regent Albany and they were executed. Their heads were put on display on the spikes at the tollbooth in Edinburgh. In the time of Mary Queen of Scots the 5th Lord Home initially supported her. however he later fought against her at the Battle of Langside in 1568. In 1573 the 5th Lord Home was accused of treason against King James IV of Scotland and imprisoned for life at Edinburgh Castle. His son however was a strong supporter of King James IV for all of his life and accompanied the King on his journey to claim the throne of the new kingdom. His support of the King earned him a raised status from Lord to Earl of Home in 1605. 17th Century & Civil War In 1603 Queen Elizabeth I of England died without heir and King James of Scotland became King of England and Scotland in what became known as the Union of the Crowns. When James travelled to England to take possession of his new kingdom, he stopped at Dunglass, and Lord Home then accompanied him to London. In March 1605 he was raised to the title of Earl of Home. During the Civil War the Clan Home were staunch royalist supporters of King Charles I. The third Earl was a staunch supporter of Charles I, and in 1648 was colonel of the Berwickshire Regiment of Foot. When Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland in 1650 he made particular point of seizing Home's castle, which was garrisoned by Parliament's troops. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings In the 18th century during 1715 to 1716 the Jacobie Uprisings the 7th Earl of Home supported the Jacobites and ended up being imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. His brother, James Home of Ayton, had his estates confiscated for his part in the rebellion. However by the time of the second rising in 1745 the 8th Earl changed sides and led the clan in support of the British Government. The eighth Earl joined the British Government forces under Sir John Cope at Dunbar and later fought at the Battle of Prestonpans. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant General and was appointed Governor of Gibraltar where he died in 1761. Castle Wedderburn Castle was the seat of the chief of Clan Home, the Earl of Home. Fast Castle. Hume Castle, Berwickshire. Bothwell Castle

Hope

Origins of the Clan Hope is a native Scottish name. However in middle English it means 'small valley'. Another suggestion is that it derives from 'oublon', which is French for 'hop' and could be from the family de H'oublons of Picardy. The Clan Hope was a Scottish boarder family and their name is amongst those found on the Ragman Rolls giving the oath of fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296. 16th Century The principle line can be traced back to John de Hope who travelled from France with Magdalen the first wife of King James V of Scotland. John settled in Edinburgh and became commissioner for Edinburgh to the first General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1560. 17th Century John de Hopes' grandson Sir Thomas Hope was Lord Advocate as appointed by King Charles I. They became 'Hope of Craighall' after acquiring the estates of the same name in the parish of Ceres in Fife. His contribution to the Scottish legal profession was immense and his works are still referred to by Scottish lawyers today. He saw 2 sons raised to the Supreme Court Bench and was created of Baron of Nova Scotia in 1638. He also drafted the National Covenant. After his death in 1646 his eldest son took the title 'Lord Craighall'. Lord Craighall became a trusted advisor to Charles II, his advice proved particularly in his dealings with Oliver Cromwell. 18th Century The younger son of the great Sir Thomas Hope founded the Hopetoun branch of the family and settled in West Lothian. His son was lost at sea when the frigate Gloucester sank. There is a story that he died saving the Duke of York, James VII of Scotland. Sir Thomas' grandson was a young member of parliament for Linlithgow, rising rapidly to the Privy Council and by 1703 was made a peer; Earl of Hopetoun, Viscount Aithrie and Lord Hope. Around this time the magnificent Hopetoun House, one of William Adam's best known houses was built for the family In 1792 the Craighall estates were sold on by the sixth Baronet to the Earl of Hopetoun, Sir Thomas Hope. The eighth Baronet is best known for turning former plague pits in Edinburgh to the 'Meadows' park. The Earl of Hopetoun's estates grew rapidly in the 18th century with most of West Lothian, and parts of East Lothian and Lanarkshire. 19th Century The fourth Earl, who had a notable military career, particularly during the Peninsular War worked with Sir Walter Scott in welcoming George IV during his visit to Scotland in 1822. Hopetoun house being used to host a lavish reception for the Monarch. 20th Century The name John Aidrian Hope is well remembered on the other side of the world; the seventh Earl was first Governor General to the Australian Commonwealth in 1900. Two years later he was made Marquess of Linlithgow. The second Marquess was Viceroy of India from 1936 to 1943. The family still live at Hopetoun house. Clan Chief The chief of Clan Hope is Sir John Hope of Craighall, Barronet. The Chiefly line of the Hope family survive through the Baronets of Craighall. Clan Castle The seat of the Clan Hope is at Hopetoun House.

Houston

History Origins of the Clan The name is territorial in origin, derived from an old barony of the name in Lanarkshire. Hugh de Padinan, who is believed to have lived in the twelfth century, was granted the lands of Kilpeter. By about the middle of the fourteenth century, these lands had become known as Huston. Sir Finlay de Hustone appears on the Ragman Roll swearing fealty to King Edward I of England in 1296. The castle of the de Hustones was built on the site of an ancient Cistercian abbey. The family also acquired a substantial barony near Whitburn, West Lothian, where Huston House, which was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, still stands today. Sir Patrick Hustone of that Ilk, who was probably the eleventh chief, married Agnes Campbell of Ardkinglas. 16th & 17th Centuries During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, Sir Peter Huston fought with the Earl of Lennox on the right wing at Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, where he was killed. His son, Sir Patrick Huston of Huston, was a companion of James V of Scotland and Keeper of the Quarter Seal. He intrigued with Lord Lennox against the king, and was slain at the Battle of Linlithgow. The next Sir Patrick, his grandson, was knighted by Mary, Queen of Scots, and accompanied her when she visited Lord Darnley in Glasgow. The nineteenth chief was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles II in 1668. His son, Sir John, was falconer to Queen Mary and her husband, King William of Orange. 18th & 19th Centuries The fifth Baronet was a prosperous merchant who had substantial interests in United States. His son, who was educated in Glasgow, made his home in Georgia (U.S. state), and he and his brother greatly increased the family's colonial estates. They are reputed to have owned over eight thousand slaves when the thirteen American colonies broke from Great Britain and declared their independence. The Hustons renounced their Scottish titles in favour of their American wealth. From this family descended General Sam Houston, born in 1793, who fought for the independence of Texas from Mexico. He was first president of Texas and later a United States Senator. Sir Robert Houston, descended from a Renfrew branch of the family, was a prominent Victorian shipowner who was created a baronet of the United Kingdom. He is credited with developing the theory of convoys first used during the Boer War. Motto Motto: In Vicis ('In Time').

Hunter

Clan Hunter (Gaelic: 'Clann an t-Sealgair') is a Scottish clan which has its seat at Hunterston in Ayrshire. It has historical connections with both the 'Highlands' and 'Lowlands' of Scotland due to several centuries of operation in some of the formerly Gaelic speaking Scottish Islands including Arran, Bute and the Cumbraes where the Hunters also long held land. The present Chief is Madam Pauline Hunter of Hunterson Origins of the Clan Hunter The first Hunters arrived in Ayrshire in the last years of the 11th Century. They were experts in hunting and fieldcraft with generations of experience in the forests of their land of origin, Normandy, northern France. William Hunter was invited to Scotland by David I, who was himself brought up in the Norman Court. He must have had considerable skills to have been so honoured; he was responsible for providing the Scottish Court with meat and game, a position that the Hunters held throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. In papers relating to the King's Inquisition in 1116, we find mention of Williemo Venator (William the Hunter, 1st Laird) who was appointed as Royal Huntsman while his wife had the honour of serving Queen Matilda as lady-in-waiting. William put his expertise to good use in the wild forests and fens, then rich with wildlife, which surrounded the site of the timber fortress later to become Hunter's Toun. As recognition of his family's skills the title of Royal Huntsman became a hereditary appointment. Scottish Wars of Independence The Pele Tower of Hunterston sheltered the Hunters throughout the Wars of Scottish Independence from which the Hunters emerged with their lands intact despite having signed the Ragman Rolls, swearing allegiance to King Edward I of England, in 1269. Having most likely supported William Wallace and certainly Robert the Bruce, in 1374 the great King's grandson Robert II granted William Huntar (10th Laird) a charter for the lands of Ardneil 'for faithful services rendered'. The Family still possess this ancient document. For many years, the Hunters continued to serve the Scottish Crown as Royal Huntsmen and as soldiers, sometimes at great cost. Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars between England and Scotland in the 16th century John Huntar the 14th Chief died with King James IV at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, Mungo Huntar the 16th chief died for Queen Mary at the Battle of Pinkie Cleughin 1547. Clan chiefs from Clan Colquhoun, Clan Macfarlane and Clan Farquharson also died at this battle. A good clan chief was expected to lead by example, which meant being first into battle at the head of the clan. For this reason many clan chiefs died during battle. Flodden Field cost Scotland her King, 10,000 men and the flower of her nobility in her greatest military defeat. Because of the awful number of Scottish lives lost on the 9th of September 1513, this day is known in Scotland as 'Black Saturday'. Post Clan Activity As times became more settled the Hunters devoted more time to farming their extensive lands, although they still produced soldiers of distinction over the generations. Gould Hunter-Weston, husband of Jane Hunter-Weston (26th Laird) fought in India at Lucknow in 1857 and their eldest son, Aylmer (27th Laird) was a well known general in the First World War. He later became Member of Parliament for North Ayrshire. During her tenure as Clan Chief, Eleanora (28th Laird) fought in the courts, but lost, a compulsory purchase order for land at Hunterston to build a nuclear power station. The last Clan Chief, Neil Hunter of Hunterston and of that Ilk, along with his wife Sonia, Madam Hunter of Hunterston, continued the fight against industrialization. He was well known for his sailing prowess and represented the United Kingdom in two Olympic Games during which he won a silver medal. Like many Hunters before him he was in true tradition an expert in archery. The present Clan Chief, Madam Pauline Hunter of Hunterston and of that Ilk and 30th Laird and Chief of Clan Hunter. Clan Seat & Castle The seat of the chief of Clan Hunter has been at Hunterston Castle for over 800 years.

Irvine

Origins of the clan The names Erewine and Erwinne are Old English forenames and have been recorded as such since the 12th century. However as a surname it is of territorial origins from one of two places of the same name. Firstly from Irving, an old parish in Dumfriesshire and from Irvine in Ayrshire. It is the parish in Dumfries-shire which is the principal source of the name. The first person recorded of the name was Robert de Herwine who was witness to a charter in 1226. William de Irwyne, Clerk of the Register, obtained the Forest of Drum in Aberdeenshire from King Robert the Bruce in 1325 and is therefore the ancestor to the Irvines of Drum. Robert the Bruce is also said to have bestowed upon William the crest and motto used by himself. 15th century and clan conflicts The Clan Irvine were often at feud with the neighbouring Clan Keith. Both clans invaded each others' lands. In 1402 the Clan Irvine are said to have slaughtered an invading war party of the Clan Keith at the Battle of Drumoak. William's son Sir Alexander Irvine of Drum as chief led the clan at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. This is commemorated in a ballad about the battle as 'Gude Sir Alexander Irvine the much renounit Laird of Drum'. Sir Alexander de Irwine engaged in single combat or a duel with the chief of Clan MacLean of Duart who was known as 'Hector of the Battles'. After a legendary struggle both died of the wounds inflicted upon each other. 16th century & Anglo-Scottish Wars The sixth Laird of Drum and chief of Clan Irvine was rewarded by King James V of Scotland for his efforts to suppress rebels, thieves, reivers, sourcerers and murderers in 1527. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the sixth Laird's son was killed when the clan fought against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. In 1571 the Clan Irvine joined forces with the Clan Gordon in their feud against the Clan Forbes. The Clan Leslie and Clan Seton also joined the Gordons and the Clan Keith, Clan Fraser and Clan Crichton joined forces with the Clan Forbes. The feud had carried on for centuries and culminated with two full scale battles in 1571: The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. The Irvines of Bonshaw from whom the Irvines of Drum are descended are deemed to be the chief family by an act of Parliament in 1587. 17th century and Civil War Alexander Irvine the tenth Laird of Drum was a staunch Royalist and supporter of King Charles I. He was sherriff of Aberdeen and was offered the Earldom of Aberdeen, but the King was executed before the grant could be confirmed. The Clan Irvine's castle, Drum Castle became a royalist stronghold in a predominantly Covenanting district. It became an obvious target. A strong force led by General Robert Monro (d. 1680) of the Clan Munro with artillery surrounded the castle. Lady Irivine defended the castle for two days before it was surrendered in June 1640. The castle was then looted. Drum Castle was again sacked on May 2, 1644 by the Clan Campbell. A chair with Drum symbols is now in the Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, believed to have been taken from Drum either in 1640 or 1644. The tenth Laird's sons also led the clan during the civil war and both were captured: Robert, the younger son died in the dungeons of Edinburgh Castle. However his brother Alexander was set free after Montrose's victory at the Battle of Kilsyth in 1645. Soon after Drum Castle was again sacked and looted. Alexander survived the war to succeed his father as the eleventh Laird of Drum The title of 'Viscount Irvine' was created in 1631 for Henry, son of Sir Arthur Ingram from an English family who had no connection with the Irvine family in Scotland. This line became extinct on the death of the 9th Viscount in 1778. The title of Earl of Irvine was created in 1642 for James Campbell the eldest son of the chief of Clan Campbell who was the Earl of Argyll by his second marriage. However this was one of the shortest lived titles as three years later the Earl of Irvine died leaving no successors. 18th century and Jacobite uprisings During the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Irvine led by their chief, the 14th Laird of Drum supported the House of Stuart and the Jacobite cause. He led the clan at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715 where he received a severe head wound. He never recovered and died after years of illness leaving no direct heir. The chieftainship and estates passed to his uncle, John Irvine and then passed to a kinsmen called John Irivne of Crimond. The seventeenth Laird of Drum led members of the clan at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. The Laird only escaped capture by hiding in a secret room in Drum Castle. He spent several years in exile in France, before being allowed to return to his estates. 19th & 20th centuries During the 19th century, most of the Lairds of Drum worked as lawyers and served as Sheriffs in various parts of Scotland. Alexander Irvine, the 22nd Laird was badly wounded during World War I. He fought in the Grenadier Guards in France in 1916 and died in 1922. His first son took over as Laird but died aged just 33. His second son then became Laird of Drum and fought in World War II. He was in the King's African Rifles in East Africa. On his death in 1975 Drum Castle and the surrounding land passed to the National Trust for Scotland. He was succeeded by his younger brother Col. Charles Irvine M.C who also fought in World War II in the Gordon Highlanders. Clan chief The present Laird of Drum and 26th chief of Clan Irvine is David Irvine. He succeeded as chief on his father's death in 1992. After a business life in the north-west of England he returned in 1999 to live on Deeside close to the ancient family home. The clan today In 2002 the Chief of Clan Irivne entered into a peace treaty with the 13th Earl of Kintore who is the Chief of Clan Keith at an elaborate ceremony on the banks of the River Dee to end their 600 year feud. Clan castle The seat of the Irvines of Drum is still at Drum Castle. Clan septs Spelling variations and Septs of the Clan Irvine include: Ervin, Ervine, Erving, Erwin, Erwyn, Hurven, Hurvene, Hurvine, Hurwen, Hurwin, Hurwine, Hurwyn, Hurwynn, Hurwynne, Irvene, Irvin, Irvine, Irving, Irvink, Irwin, Irwine, Irwing, Irwink, Irwran, Irwrand, Irwrane, Irwrant, Irwren, Irwrend, Irwrent, Irwrind, Irwrint, Irwryn, Irwrynd, Irwynn, Irwynne, Orvene, Orvine, Orwin, Orwine, Orwynn, Orwynne, Urvene, Urvine, Urwand, Urwane, Urwant, Urwen, Urwend, Urwent, Urwin, Urwind, Urwine, Urwint, Urwyn, Urwynd, Urwynn, Urwynne, Uryn, Yurand, Yurane, Yurant, Yurend, Yurent, Yurind, Yurint, Yurven, Yurvene, Yurvine, Yurwan, Yurwand, Yurwane, Yurwant, Yurwen, Yurwend, Yurwent, Yurwin, Yurwind, Yurwine, Yurwint, Yurwyn, Yurwynd, Yurwynn, Yurwynne, Yurynd

Jardine

Origins of the clan The Clan Jardine is believed to be of French origin. The French word jardin means garden or orchard and it is presumed that the Jardine family originally came from France. Members of the Jardine family travelled with William during the Norman conquest of England in 1066. However records of the name Jardine do not appear in Scotland until 1153 with the name Wmfredus de Jardine appearing on several charters. The first mention of the name Jardine is contained in Hollingshead's Chronicles of England as one of the Normandic knights that fought for William at the Battle of Hastings (AD 1066). There is also evidence that may suggest that the Jardines were of Norse extraction that migrated to Normandy with a warrior named Rollo prior to 1066. At some point in time the name or its meaning appears to have been translated into English. Patrick de Gardinus was chaplain to the Bishop of Glasgow and there is a signature on a document from 1245 of Sir Humphrey de Gardino. To add to the confusion Jorden del Orchard's signature appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296. Later Humphery de Jardine's name appears on a charter drawn up by Robert the Bruce. Wars of Scottish Independence Unlike many Scottish clans during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Jardine are said to have fought against William Wallace and in support of the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 and the Battle of Falkirk (1298). However the Clan Jardine supported King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1311 where they helped the Scottish King defeat the English. During the 14th century the Clan Jardine settled in Applegirth in Dumfriesshire. There they built Spedlins Tower which was the family's seat until the 17th century when Jardine Hall was built on the opposite banks of the River Annan. 16th century and Anglo Scottish Wars The border region between England and Scotland was a difficult place to live. There were constant raids and incursions by both sides. Chief Sir Alexander Jardine of Applegirth led the clan when they met an advancing force of English near Carlisle in 1524 where they took hundreds of English prisoners during the Anglo-Scottish Wars. In 1547 the tables were turned when Alexander's son, the next chief, had to deal with over 5,000 English who overran the area, sacking the Jardine lands and forcing John Jardine of Applegirth to yield. John later sought assistance from the French and along with the Clan Jardine fell on their English oppressors taking many lives. The Clan Jardine also supported the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, however her scandalous marriage to Bothwell after the suspicious murder of Lord Darnley turned the Jardines along with many other Scots to support her infant son James's claim to the throne. In 1573 the King confirmed the grant of lands to Sir Alexander Jardine of Jardinefield in Berwickshire; Applegirth and Sibbaldbie in Dumfrieshire; Hartside and Wandel in Lanarkshire; and Kirkandrews in Kirkcudbright. It is recorded that he had to muster 242 men to fight for the King if required. It was these retainers who then had no surnames who became known as 'Jardine Men' and adopted Jardine as their surname 17th century A later Sir Alexander Jardine forged a link to the powerful Clan Douglas through marriage to Lady Margaret Douglas, sister of the first Duke of Queensberry. They had a son, Alexander, in 1645, who was later created a Baronet of Nova Scotia. The chief of the Clan Jardine and his family were reportedly forced to move from their seat at Spedlins Tower to Jardine Hall because of a grisly family secret; A miller had been left to starve to death in the dungeon of the tower and his ghost had driven the family from their home. 18th century The fourth Baronet was a Knight of the Sovereign Order of Malta, taking a vow of celibacy. When he died in 1790 the title passed to his brother, Sir William. Jardines also made their mark on the literary world. Reverend John Jardine, born in 1716 mixed in the intellectual heart of Edinburgh during the Scottish Enlightenment had the good fortune to be part of a society that included great Scots such as economist and writer Adam Smith, philosopher David Hume, and the painter Allan Ramsay. He was one of the founders of The Edinburgh Review. His son, Sir Henry Jardine, was one of those present when the Honours of Scotland were re-discovered in 1818. He was knighted in 1825 and later made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Clan seat The seat of the Chief of Clan Jardine is once again at Spedlins Tower. Spedlins Tower is situated by the River Annan, 4 miles (6.5km) northwest of Lockerbie. It is a 15th century building which was re-roofed and re-occupied in the 1960's. The seat of the Jardines has been at Spedlins since the late 12th Century. The tower had become a ruin after the Jardines built a new mansion, Jardine Hall nearby. Clan profile Crest: A spur rowel of six points Proper Arms: Argent, a Saltire Gules, on a chief of the last three mullets of the first pierced in the Second Motto: Cave adsum (Latin: Beware I am present) Plant Badge: Apple blossom Clan Septs Spelling variations and septs of the Clan Jardine include: Gardino, Gardin, Gardinus, Garden, Jardin, Jardane, Jerdane, Jerdone, Jarden, Jardine, Jardyne, Jarding, Jardyn, Gerden, Gerdain, Gairdner, Gardynnyr, Gardynsr, Gardnsrd, Gardinare, Gardinar, Gardenar, Gardenare, Gardnare, Gardener, Gardennar, Gardnar, Gardiner, Gardner

Johnstone

Origin of the name Johnstone comes from 'John's toun', not 'John's stone' or John's son.' Historically, 'Johnston' has been an alternate spelling of the surname. The first known person of this name was John of Johnstone, who in 1174 gave his name to the lands of Annandale in Dumfrieshire which he had been granted. His son, called Gilbert Johnstone ('Gillibertus de Johnistoun') appears on records between 1194-1214 and onwards, presumably taking his surname from the town his father had established - 'Johnstone' or 'John's toun'. Gilbert's Grandson called Sir John Johnstone was a Knight of the county of Dumfries. Sir John Johnstone signed the Ragman Roll of King Edward I of England in 1296. At this time Perth was known as St Johnston and Johnstonburn in East Lothian was then called Jonystoun. These two areas have records of the Johnstone Clan. A third area of Johnstones which came from Stephen the Clerk and Margaret the heiress of Sir Andrew Garioch used the family name of Johnston. Wars of Scottish Independence Sir John Johnstone, grandson of the aforementioned Sir John, was a highly active leader on the border and resisted the English quite well from 1377 through 1379. He fought against the English armies at the Battle of Solway in 1378. The Johnstones were also at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388. In roughly 1218, William Wallace gave the Lochmaben castle to Johnstone of Eskdale, who apparently was his kinsman. 15th century & Anglo-Scottish Border Wars It was the fighting Johnstons of the Western Borders who would become most powerful group of Johnstons in Scotland. The elder Sir John's great grandson Adam (son of the younger Sir John) was Laired of Johnston in around 1413. In 1448 Adam and the Johnstons took part in the victorious fight against the English at the Battle of Sark during the Anglo-Scottish Border Wars. Adam's son supported King James II of Scotland in putting down the Clan Douglas. They won their lands of Buittle and Sannoch near Threave Castle as a reward. John Johnstone the eldest son of Adam was progenitor of the Annandale branch and his brother Matthew who married the daughter of the Earl of Angus was progenitor of the wester Hall branch of Johnstones. John's offspring would become the main chief Johnstone family. 16th century & clan conflicts There had been a long running feud between Clan Johnstone and the Clan Maxwell. The feud came to a head on 7 December 1593 at the Battle of Dryfe Sands near Lockerbie. The Clan Maxwell army approached the Johnstone town of Lockerbie. Johnston kept most of his men hidden, just sending a handful of men out on horseback to taunt and provoke the Maxwells. The Johnstones attacked taking the Maxwells by surprise as they were attempting to ford the river Annan. The Clan Maxwell fared badly that day and their chief Lord Maxwell, who was one of the most powerful people in southern Scotland, was slain. It is said that 700 Maxwells were killed but this may have been an exaggerated number. Many were wounded by downward sword strokes known as 'Lockerbie Licks'. Later in 1608, Maxwell's loss was avenged when a meeting took place between his son, the new Maxwell chief and Johnstone himself. Maxwell killed the Johnstone chief. However Maxwell was later captured and executed by hanging. The Clan Johnstone also had a long feud with the Clan Moffat who were another Scottish border clan who were raiders and reivers, and conducted long-running feuds with their neighbours. Their greatest enemies were the Clan Johnstone. The feud climaxed with murder of the Clan Moffat chief in 1557, Robert Moffat. The Clan Johnstone then went on to burn the local church with the most important members of the Moffat family inside, slaughtering anyone who tried to escape. Thus, in one blow the powerful Clan Moffat was almost wiped out. Seventy years later all of the Moffat's lands were passed to the Johnstones due to the Moffats having massive debts. 17th century & Civil War During the Civil War, the Clan Johnstone supported the Royalist cause of King Charles. In 1633, King Charles I awarded lordship to the Johnstone chief, Sir James Johnstone, as the Lord Johnstone; ten years later Charles made him the Earl of Hartfell. After King Charles I was defeated in the Civil War, both the Johnstone chief and his eldest son were imprisoned in Dumbarton Castle and Edinburgh Castle. However, after the Stuart Monarchs returned to the throne, King Charles II rewarded the Johnstones' loyalty by granting Lord Hartfell the titles of Earl of Hartfell and Annandale, Viscount of Annan, and Lord Johnstone of Lochwood, Lochmaben, Moffatdale and Evandal. 18th century By the 1700's the Clan Chief of Johnstones had been raised from the rank of Lord to Earl of Annandale and Secretary of State. John the second of the Wester Hall branch was made a Baronet of Nova Scotia. Clan profile Johnston(e) tartan as published in 1842, in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. Clan motto: Nunquam non paratus (translation from Latin: Never unprepared). Clan badge: Red Hawthorn. Clan chief: The 11th Earl of Annandale and Hartfell, Lord Johnstone, 26th Chief of the Name and Arms of Johnstone, 11th Hereditary Steward of Annandale and 11th Hereditary Keeper of Lochmaben Palace.

Keith

Origins of the Name A Scottish warrior slew the Danish General Camus at the Battle of Barrie in 1010 for which King Máel Coluim II of Scotland dipped three fingers into the blood of the slain and drew them down the shield of the warrior. Thereafter the warrior was named Marbhachir Chamius or Camus Slayer. Ever since then the Chief of the Clan Keith has borne the same mark of three red lines on his arm. Máel Coluim's victory at the Battle of Carham in 1018 brought him into outright possession of the lands of the Lothians and the Merse. The Keiths derive their name from the Barony of Keith, Humbie, East Lothian, said to have been granted by the king to Marbhachir Chamius for his valour. Wars of Scottish Independence The office of Earl Marischal and later Knight Marischal of Scotland, was hereditary in the Keith family until the 18th.c. It may have been conferred at the same time as the barony, since it was confirmed, together with possession of the lands of Keith, to Sir Robert Keith by a charter of King Robert the Bruce, and appears to have been held as annexed to the land by the tenure of grand serjeanty. Sir Robert Keith commanded the Scottish horse at Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 and was killed at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. His grandson, also Robert Keith, was killed at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346. At the close of the 14th century Sir William Keith, by exchange of lands with Lord Lindsay, obtained the crag of Dunnottar in Kincardineshire, where he built Dunnottar Castle, which became the stronghold of the Clan Keith. He died in about 1407. The Castle is on a cliff-top, south of Stonehaven. 15th Century & Clan Conflicts The Clan Keith were often at feud with the neighbouring Clan Irvine. Both clans invaded each others' lands. In 1402 the Clan Irvine are said to have attacked and defeated an invading war party of the Clan Keith in what was known as the Battle of Drumoak. In 1430 a later Sir William Keith was created Lord Keith, and a few years afterwards Earl Marischal, and these titles remained in the family until 1716. Battle of Blare Tannie, 1464, Fought between the Clan Keith, assisted by the Clan MacKay against the Clan Gunn. The inhabitants of Caithness assembled an army and met the MacKays and Keiths at a place in Caithness called Blair-tannie. There ensued a cruel fight, with slaughter on either side. In the end the Keiths and MacKays had the victory by means chiefly of John Mor MacIan-Riabhaich (an Assynt man), who was very famous in these countries for his manhood shown at this conflict. Two chieftains and leaders of the inhabitants of Caithness were slain. Angus MacKay would later be defeated by Clan Ross. Battle of Champions, 1478, Fought between twelve men of the Clan Gunn and twenty four men of the Clan Keith where the chief of Clan Gunn was killed. The chief of the Clan Keith was also soon after killed by the Gunns in a revenge attack. 16th Century & Clan Conflicts In 1571 the Clan Keith joined forces with the Clan Forbes in their feud against the Clan Gordon. The Forbes were also joined by Clan Fraser and Clan Crichton. The Gordons were also joined by Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton. The feud between the Gordons and Forbes which had gone on for centuries culminated in two full scale battles: The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes's youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. William, fourth Earl Marischal (died 1581), was one of the guardians of Mary Queen of Scots during her minority, and was a member of her privy council on her return to Scotland. While refraining from extreme partisanship, he was an adherent of the Reformation; he retired into private life at Dunnottar Castle about 1567, thereby gaining the sobriquet 'William of the Tower.' He was reputed to be the wealthiest man in Scotland. His eldest daughter Anne married the regent Murray. His grandson George Keith, 5th Earl Marischal (c. 1553-1623), was one of the most cultured men of his time. He was educated at King's College, Aberdeen, where he became a proficient classical scholar, afterwards studying divinity under Theodore Beza at Geneva. The 5th Earl was responsible for the Tower house still extant on his ancestral lands at Keith Marischal. 17th Century & Civil War George Keith, 5th Earl Marischal was a firm Protestant, and took an active part in the affairs of the kirk. His high character and abilities procured him the appointment of special ambassador to Denmark to arrange the marriage of James VI with the Princess Anne. He was subsequently employed on a number of important commissions; but he preferred literature to public affairs, and about 1620 he retired to Dunnottar, where he died in 1623. He is chiefly remembered as the founder in 1593 of the Marischal College in the university of Aberdeen, which he richly endowed. From an uncle he inherited the title of Lord Altrie about 1590. William Keith, 7th Earl Marischal (c. 1617-1661), took a prominent part in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, being at first a leader of the covenanting party in northeast Scotland, and the most powerful opponent of the Clan Gordon and the Marquess of Huntly. He cooperated with James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose in Aberdeenshire and neighbouring counties against the Gordons. With Montrose he signed the Bond of Cumbernauld in August 1640, but took no active steps against the popular party till 1648, when he joined the Duke of Hamilton in his invasion of England, escaping from the rout at Preston. In 1650 Charles II was entertained by the Marischal at Dunnottar; and in 1651 the Scottish regalia were left for safe keeping in his castle. In 1651 the Royalists at the Battle of Worcester were commanded by Colonel Keith. Taken prisoner, he was committed to the Tower of London and was excluded from Oliver Cromwell's Act of Grace. He was made a privy councillor at the Restoration and died in 1661. Sir John Keith (died 1714), brother of the 7th Earl Marischal, was, at the Restoration, given the hereditary office of Knight Marischal of Scotland, and in 1677 was created Earl of Kintore, and Lord Keith of Inverurie and Keith-Hall, a reward for his share in preserving the regalia of Scotland, which were secretly conveyed from Dunnottar to another hiding-place, when the castle was besieged by Cromwell's troops, and which Sir John, perilously to himself, swore he had carried abroad and delivered to Charles II, thus preventing further search. From him are descended the earls of Kintore. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings George Keith, 10th Earl Marischal (c. 1693-1778), served under Marlborough, and like his brother Francis, Marshal Keith, was a zealous Jacobite, taking part in the rising of 1715 after which he escaped to the continent. Francis's brother George Keith the Earl Marischal took over as chief of Clan Keith and he led the clan when they fought at the Battle of Glenshiel in 1719. George escaped the gallows by fleeing with the Jacobites, and was exiled to Prussia, where he met up with his brother Francis Keith who wrote a narration of the battle. In the following year Francis was attainted, his estates and titles being forfeited to the Crown. He lived for many years in Spain, where he concerned himself with Jacobite intrigues, but he took no part in the rebellion of 1745, proceeding about that year to Prussia, where he became, like his brother George Keith, intimate with Frederick the Great. Frederick employed him in several diplomatic posts, and he is said to have conveyed valuable information to the Earl of Chatham, as a reward for which he received a pardon from George II, and returned to Scotland in 1759. His heir male, on whom, but for the attainder of 1716, his titles would have devolved, was apparently his cousin Alexander Keith of Ravelston, to whom the attainted earl had sold the castle and lands of Dunnottar in 1766. From Alexander Keith was descended, through the female line, Sir Patrick Keith Murray of Ochtertyre, who sold the estates of Dunnottar and Ravelston. After the attainder of 1716 the right of the Keiths of Ravelston to be recognized as the representatives of the earls marishal was disputed by Robert Keith (1681-1757), bishop of Fife, a member of another collateral branch of the family. The bishop was a writer of some repute, his chief work, The History of the Affairs of the Church and State of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1734), being of considerable value for the reigns of James V, James VI, and Mary Queen of Scots. He also published a Catalogue of the Bishops of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1755) and other less important historical and theological works. Robert Keith (died 1774), descended from a younger son of the family, was British minister in Vienna in 1748, and subsequently held other important diplomatic appointments, being known to his numerous friends, among whom were the leading men of letters of his time, as 'Ambassador Keith'. His son, Sir Robert Murray Keith (1730-1795), was on Lord George Sackville's staff at the Battle of Minden. He became colonel of a regiment (the 87th foot) known as Keith's Highlanders, who won distinction in the continental wars, but were disbanded in 1763; he was then employed in the diplomatic service, in which he achieved considerable success by his honesty, courage, and knowledge of languages. In 1781 he became lieutenant-general; in 1789, he was made a privy councillor. 19th Century From the Keith family through the female line was descended George Keith Elphinstone, Baron Keith of Stonehaven, Marishal and afterwards Viscount Keith, whose titles became extinct at the death of his daughter Margaret, Baroness Keith, in 1867. Clan Chief The current Chief of Clan Keith is James William Falconer Keith, 14th Earl of Kintore Clan Castles Keith Hall estate in Aberdeenshire is the current seat of the chief of Clan Keith. Dunnottar Castle became the seat of the chief of Clan Keith in 1639 but is now ruined. Fetteresso Castle passed from the Clan Strachan to the Clan Keith chief, Earl Marischal during the early 14th century. Clan Profile Mottos: Dexter, Quae amissa salva (What has been lost is safe), Sinister, Veritas vincit (Truth conquers), On compartment, Thay say: quhat they say: thay haif sayed: let thame say Slogan: A Keith, Veritas Vincit (also Truth Prevails) Plant Badge:White Rose Thomas Dickson of Hazelside and Symington (1247-1307) and his Dickson descendants from the Keiths In about 1306, Thomas Dickson, the Laird of Symington and Hazelside, had the barony of Symundstun, now Symington, conveyed to him as Thomas filius Ricardi, the barony of Symundstun, now Symington, in the county of Lanark, and also, he was created Hereditary Castellan or Governor of Douglas Castle by King Robert the Bruce. As such he resided in his own house except in case of war, when he left his house in charge of his dependents and himself took command of Douglas Castle. Hazelside was 10 miles from Douglas Castle in Douglasdale, Lanarkshire. This Thomas, the first Dickson on record, moreover, was evidently a person of very good standing, such as a grandson of the Earl Marischal might be expected to be, a man of wealth as well as influence, and was also a clansman of the Douglas. Two of the oldest Scottish Historians recount his deeds, Archdeacon Barbour who wrote in 1375, and Blind Harry, or Henry the Minstrel, whose metrical history was written about 1381. There are some who speak slightingly of the bard, but Major, who was born in 1405, says he was living about that time and that he recited his compositions in the presence of princes or men of the highest rank (coram principibus), and Chalmers in his Caledonia, says 'Blind Harrie, whom the Scottish Historians generally follow but dare not quote. Blind Harrie is, however, supported bt the Tower Records'. In 1295 when Douglas wished to recover his castle of Sanquhar, he applied to Thomas Dickson who was 'born to himself', i.e. relation or clansman by birth, and addresses him as 'Dear Friend', and relied so much upon him that he afterward selected him to pass through the enemy's camp of some three thousand men to bear a message to Wallace; while Barbour says he was rich in moveables and cattle, and had many friends, besides which his house could not have been a small one as it contained a private chamber where he not only concealed Douglas but also brought persons to see him without attracting notice, and the space for such a secret apartment could not have been taken out of a small house without being perceived. This Thomas Dickson also served William the Hardy's son, James Douglas, 'The Good Sir James' with the recapture of Douglas Castle in 1307. The Good Sir James (or 'Black Douglas') And His Connection With Thomas Dickson William the Hardy's son, James Douglas, 'The Good Sir James', was the first to take the epithet 'Black'. Douglas was set to share in Bruce's early misfortunes, being present at the defeats at Methven and Dalrigh. But for both men these setbacks were to provide a valuable lesson in tactics: limitations in both resources and equipment meant that the Scots would always be a disadvantage in conventional Medieval warfare. By the time the war was renewed in the spring of 1307 they had learnt the value of guerrilla warfare - known at the time as 'secret war' - using fast moving, lightly equipped and agile forces to maximum effect against an enemy often locked in to static defensive positions. His actions for most of 1307 and early 1308 were local rather than national in nature, confined for the most part to his native Douglasdale. Nevertheless, he was soon to create a formidable reputation for himself as a soldier and a tactician. While Bruce was campaigning in the north against his domestic enemies, Douglas used the cover of Selkirk Forest to mount highly effective mobile attacks against the enemy. He also showed himself to be utterly ruthless, particularly in his relentless attacks on the English garrison in his own Douglas Castle, the most famous of which quickly passed into popular history. Barbour dates this incident to Palm Sunday 1307, which fell on 19th March. Thomas Dickson (1247-1307) the Laird of Symington and Hazelside, Lanarkshire, Baron of Symington, and Governor of Douglas Castle, the son of Richard or Dick de Keith, who was a son of Hervey de Keith, Great Marischal of Scotland, who died in 1249, and Margaret his wife, the daughter of the 3rd Lord Douglas. Their grandson Thomas was born in 1247, he was second cousin of William 7th Lord Douglas, father of the good Sir James Douglas, eighth Lord, to whom Dickson was certainly a trusty friend. In the recovery of Douglas Castle, Thomas Dickson and his small troop were hidden until the morning of Palm Sunday, when the garrison left the battlements to attend the local church. Gathering local support he entered the church and the war-cry 'Douglas!' 'Douglas!' went up for the first time. Some of the English soldiers were killed and others taken prisoner. Thomas Dickson was killed fighting several English in St Bride's Kirk, on 19th March 1307, and was buried in an elaborate tomb close to St Brides in the churchyard. His descendants bare the Keith Arms of 'Pallets Gules' with the Douglas 'Mullets Argent' to shew their descent from the Keith and Douglas families, with the motto 'Fortes Fortuna Juvat'. His eldest son and heir was Thomas Dickson there were other sons also. From Thomas Dickson of Hazelside and Symington (1247-1307) descends the Dickson Clan/Family, many have been illustrious especially in the armed services and descendants are to be found in America, Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and Sweden. 
The Dickson Coat of Arms Family Motto: 'Fortes Fortuna Juvat' (Fortune Favours the Brave) Early Family Arms: ' Three Pallets Gules with Three Mullets Argent ' Crest: 'A sword in bend proper' Clan Septs and Tartans The same sett is used in dark (Modern) and light (Ancient) colours. Austen Austin Cate(s) Dickson Dix(s)on Dick Falconer Faulkner Harvey Hackston Haxton Hervey Hurrie Hurry Keath Keech Keeth Keyth, Kite Lumgair MacKeith Marshall Ouston Urie Urry

Kennedy

Origins of the name There are two origins of the Kennedy surname: one Scottish and the other Irish. The most commonly known Kennedy family is the Irish one made famous by the late U.S. President John F. Kennedy, whose ancestors came from County Wexford. Irish Kennedy The Irish Kennedys takes their name from Kennedy, the nephew of High-King Brian Boru (1002-1014). Kennedy is an anglicised form of the Irish 'Ó Cinnéide'. The name Cinnéide first used by Brian Boru's father Cennétig mac Lorcáin, King of Thomond, in the tenth century AD. (Brian Boru was an Ard Rí or High King of Ireland). His grandson became known as Ó Cinnéide which is Irish for grandson of Cinnéide. The Kennedys did not descend directly from Brian Boru, but from his brother. Cinnéide is Irish Gaelic for helmeted head. The original Cinnéide was apparently the first Irishman to wear a helmet in battle against the vikings. This is remembered in the Kennedy coat of arms which features three helmets. This Irish Kennedys were the left hand of the powerful Dál gCais Tribe of Thomond, headed by the O'Briens. They resided in far eastern Clare, northern Limerick, Mayo, and northern Tipperary in an area called Ormond. Two groups of Kennedys occupy Ireland: One is Irish and the other is Scots. Therefore, many confuse the two families and the lands they are from. Origin of the Irish Kennedys The Irish Kennedys were a member of the Dál gCais or 'Dalcassian sept.' Originally seated in Glemor, near Killaloe in Co. Clare, they migrated across the river Shannon to Ormond in Co. Tipperary following pressure from other septs in the region (mainly the O'Briens and the McNamaras).They soon grew in power to become Lords of Ormond from the 11th - 16th centuries. The Annals of the Four Masters described them in 1300 to be 'the undisputed Lords of Ormond'. Placenames such as Coolkennedy and Garrykennedy in Upper Ormond and Killokennedy in Thomond are indicative of their longstanding presence in the region. The sept split into three branches, the chiefs of which were referred to by their hair colours: don (brown), fionn (blond), and rua (red). St Ruadhan of Lorrha was the special protector of the Kennedys of Ormond. Around 1600, a branch of the sept migrated to Co. Antrim where many Kennedys are still found today, although some may be of Scottish origin. According to Daithi O'hOgain (Associate Professor at University College Dublin), some Irish Kennedys are directly descended from Brian Boru: 'The name Cinneide also continued in the direct O'Brien line. For instance, a branch of the family descended from King Donnchadh, son of Brian Boru, settled in Aherloe in south Tipperary, one section of which had the name Cinneide as a surname. Another Cinneide O'Briain, grandson of the same Donnchadh, was a strong opponent of his kinsman, King Toirdhealbhach, and on this account he was assisted by the Connacht king, Aedh O'Ruairc of Breffny, to set up a kingdom of his own on the Meath-Cavan border. This little kingdom was broken up by Toirdhealbhach's army in 1080, and Cinneide O'Briain himself was slain in 1084 at the Battle of Monecronock, near Leixlip in Count Kildare. The connection with the O'Rourkes of Breffny did not end, however, for some people bearing the name Cinneide settled in that area of County Leitrim. These were known by the synonym Muimhneach ('Munster-man'), which is anglicised as the surnames Mimnagh and Minnagh.' (O'hOgain D. (2003) 'Kennedy O'Cinneide', Gill & Macmillan, Dublin pp40-1). Scottish Kennedy Their home territory is in southwestern Scotland, in Ayrshire, where they were a power house. Originally they came from the western isles and are of Celtic-Norse stock. In the fifteenth century, one Ulric Kennedy fled Ayrshire to the highlands for refuge where he was granted protection under the Chief of Clan Cameron. From this Highland branch, Kennedys settled on the Isle of Skye. A branch also was established in northeast Scotland, at Aberdeen. To add to the confusion, there are the Kennedys of Northern Ireland. The majority of the Kennedys who settled in Northern Ireland are of Scottish origin from the territories of Galloway and Ayr just across the Irish Sea some 20 miles away. Many Scottish Kennedys were planters in Ulster (the province of Northern Ireland), and many Scots went to Dublin and mingled with the Irish clan. Because of this confusion, the Scottish Chief of Kennedy is willing to recognize all Kennedys as part of the clan/family. Origin of the clan The Scottish Kennedy clan originated in Carrick in Ayrshire. The clan was one branch of the Celtic Lords of Galloway. Wars of Scottish Independence The Clan Kennedy supported King Robert I of Scotland before and through the Wars of Scottish Independence and were rewarded. Around 1360 John Kennedy became owner of lands at Cassillis and in 1457 his descendant, Gilbert, was created Lord Kennedy. Gilbert's younger brother James was Bishop of St Andrews and founder of Scotland's first university, the University of St Andrews. Anglo Scottish wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Kennedy led by their Chief who was the 1st Earl of Cassillis fought at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where the Chief was slain. 17th & 18th centuries The death warrant of Scotland's first Protestant martyr, Patrick Hamilton, was signed, under pressure, by the 3rd Earl, Gilbert, when twelve years old. He was poisoned at Dieppe and the Earldom went to another Gilbert, celebrated for roasting the Abbot of Crossraguel slowly over a fire to gain his land. The Abbot was saved by the Kennedys of Bargany but not before being horribly crippled. In 1775 the 10th Earl of Cassillis was David, who commissioned Robert Adam to build the stunning Culzean Castle. The half gothic, half classical masterpiece looks across the Firth of Clyde to the Ailsa Craig and was offered for use as a retreat to Eisenhower in gratitude for his war achievements. Modern day presence Kennedy is the 16th most common surname in Ireland with ~20,000 bearers, in the USA it is the 137th most common surname with ~185,000 bearers, in England & Wales it is the 168th most common surname, and in Scotland it is the 58th most common surname. In the USA some of most famous Kennedys belong to the Kennedy Family. Castles In Ireland The Kennedys' castles in Ireland were all located near Nenagh in North Tipperary. The following castles were built by, or held by the Kennedys: Ballintotty Castle Dromineer Castle Garrykennedy Castle Nenagh Castle Lackeen Castle In Scotland Greenan Castle in Ayr in south-west Scotland. Dunure Castle in South Ayrshire, Scotland. Scottish Kennedy Family Tree Base Here is the base of the family tree: 1 John Kennedy of Dunure and Cassillis M Heiress of the Carrick Earls 1.1 Sir Gilbert 1.1.1 James M Princess Mary (2nd daughter of Robert III) 1.1.1.1 Gilbert (Became Lord Kennedy in about 1457) 1.1.1.x James Kennedy (He served as High Chancellor of Scotland and was Bishop of Dunkeld, and later Archbishop of St Andrews. At St Andrews he founded St. Salvator's College in 1455 and is considered one of the founders of the University of St Andrews) 1.1.1.1.1 Hugh Kennedy of Ardstinchar (Worked for the scottish mercenaries and fought with Joan of Arc at the siege of Orly) 1.1.1.1.1.1 Sir David (Third lord of Kennedy, created Earl of Cassilis in 1509) The tenth Kennedy Earl commissioned Robert Adam to build the Culzean Castle, which became the seat of the Kennedy Clan. The twelfth Kennedy Earl was created Marquess of Ailsa Clan profile Gaelic names MacUalraig (Surname) Ceannaideach(Surname) Ceannaideach (Singular) Clann 'icUalraig (Collective) Arms Irish: Sable three helmets in profile Argent Scottish: Argent, a chevron Gules between three cross crosslets fichée Sable, all within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules. The Arms of the Marquis of Ailsa Argent a chevron Gules between three cross crosslets fitchee Sable within a double tressure flory counter flory of the second. Scottish chief The Most Hon. Archibald Angus Charles Kennedy, 8th Marquess of Ailsa Scottish septs of Clan Kennedy Cassels Cassillis Cassell Carrick Culzean Kermuck MacOurlick (Mac)Ulric(k) Moray Skye

Kerr

History Origins of the Name The origins of the name Kerr are disputed as being either: Caer (British for 'fort') Ciar (Scottish Gaelic for 'dusky') Ceàrr (Scottish Gaelic for 'left handed' - carrie handit in Lowland Scots) Mac Ghiolla Cheara (Irish language) Kjrr (Old Norse for 'marsh dweller') Asked how to say his name, Admiral Mark Kerr told The Literary Digest 'In Scotland the name rhymes with care. Since many of the family have come to England the pronunciation in this country rhymes with car, which we have entirely submitted to.' (Charles Earle Funk, What's the Name, Please?, Funk & Wagnalls, 1936.) Origins of the Clan The great Clan Kerr is well remembered in Scotland as one of the most loyal but warlike Clans of the turbulent Border territories. The Kerrs arrived in Britain after William I's conquest of England in 1066, and the Clan Kerr descend from two brothers, Ralph and John Ker, who settled in Jedburgh around 1330. The Clan soon grew and prospered, building themselves a position of influence through their sheer strength and tenacity. The Clan Kerr controlled two castles on the border with England, and were quick to fend off any intrusion by the Southerners, but were not indisposed to a quick venture across the divide whenever they fancied some prime English beef for their tables. Rival Scottish border clans included Clan Heron and Clan Scott. 15th Century By the 15th Century the Clan Kerr were considered highly important Crown vassals, and with loyalty came rich rewards. In 1451 Andrew Kerr was granted the barony of Old Roxburgh, and by 1457 had been created the Warden of the Marches. By the close of the 15th Century, the Clan Kerr held the honours of possessing the Castle and Barony of Cessford, and the Barony of Oxnam, a considerable achievement for any Border Clan. The Kerrs were often at feud with other Scottish border clans including Clan Scott and Clan Heron. They would meet for battle at a place called Bellendean. The feuding would cost the lives of both the Clan Kerr and Clan Scott Chief. 16th Century, Clan Conflicts & Anglo-Scottish Wars In 1502 the barony of Oxnam became Sir Andrew Kerr of Ferniehurst's by royal charter and he became warden of the middle marches. A few years before the Battle of Flodden Field three Englishmen killed Sir Robert Kerr, a former warden of the middle march, while he was attending a march across the Border, and his son tracked down one of the murderers and gave him what was known as 'Jeddart justice'. Clan Kerr fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field during the Anglo-Scottish Warsin 1513. The Clan Kerr's faithfulness to the Crown of Scotland continued throughout the centuries. The Kerrs fought under their chief, Sir Andrew Kerr, at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513, standing beside King James IV of Scotland in his conflict with the English armies. Once when defending one of the Border Country Castles from an English attack, it is said that the English besiegers believed the Kerrs defending were being aided by the 'devil himself', as they fought so ferociously. After the Battle of Flodden Field, some of the Leddesdale clans put themselves under the Kerr of Ferniehurst's protection, but in 1523 his castle was taken by the English after a protracted defence. The Chief Kerr of Cessford, who had worked as warden for peace and co-operation with England, was killed by a follower of Clan Scott of Buccleuch in the attempt to rescue King James V of Scotland from the Clan Douglas. Thirteen years after the Battle of Flodden Field, Sir Andrew died in defence of the infant King James V of Scotland when the royal procession was attacked on the way to Edinburgh Castle. The feud between the Clan Scott and Clan Kerr continued and in 1552 the Chief of Clan Scott of Buccleuch was killed by the Kerrs of Cessford in Edinburgh. Fighting between the two clans continued until a peace agreement was signed in 1602. Honours continued to be heaped upon the Clan down through the years, with the titles bestowed on the Kerrs including the Barony of Newbattle, the Earldom of Lothian, the Lordship of Jedburgh, the Earldom of Ancram, and the Dukedom of Roxburghe. Mark Kerr, had his lands of Newbattle and Prestongrange erected into the barony of Newbattle by a charter of 1591 17th Century, Earldoms and Lordships In 1606 Mark Kerr was created Earl of Lothian. This title failed when his son died in 1624 with a male issue also his daughter died in 1626 when giving birth to twins. Sir Andrew Kerr of the Ferniehurst line was created Lord Jedburgh in 1621. The third peerage to come to the family was the earldom of Ancram, which was bestowed upon Sir Robert Kerr who was descended from a younger son of Sir Andrew Kerr of Ferniehurst. Sir Robert of Cessford, who now spelt his surname with a single 'r', was created Earl of Roxburghe in 1616. To add to the plethora of honours showered on the family, Sir William Kerr, son of the Earl of Ancram, was granted a new earldom of Lothian in 1631. His son, Robert, who was advanced to the rank of Marquess, also succeeded to the earldom of Ancram on the death of his uncle. During the Civil War the Clan Kerr supported the Parliamentry Covenantor army of General David Leslie. In 1649 a rebellion took place in the north by the Covenantors of the Clan MacKenzie who were opposed to Leslie's parliamentry forces. As a result Leslie's forces under Colonel Kerr took the MacKenzie's Redcastle, demolished it and hanged the garrison. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings The Earls of Lothian were advanced to the rank of Marquess at the beginning of the 18th Century. At the beginning of the 17th century King James of Scotland was also made King of England in the Union of the Crowns in 1603, after Queen Elizabeth I of England died without heir. A century later in 1707 the Treaty of Union was decalred officially uniting England and Scotland. This was supported by the Kerrs. Lord Mark Kerr son of the Chief Marquess of Lothian, was a distinguished professional soldier and is reputed to have had a high sense of personal honour and a quick temper. He fought several duels throughout his military career but rose ultimately to the rank of general, and was appointed governor of Edinburgh Castle in 1745. During the Jacobite Uprisings Clan Kerr supported the British government. At the Battle of Culloden in 1746 Lord Mark Kerr's younger brother, Lord Robert Kerr, who was captain of the grenadiers in Barrel's regiment, received the first charging Cameron on the point of his Spontoon, but then a second cut him through the head to chin. He has the dubious distinction of being the only person of high rank killed on the Government side. The eldest of the brothers, Lord Mark Kerr, later the fourth Marquess of Lothian, commanded three squadrons of Government cavalry at the Battle of Culloden and survived to serve under the Duke of Cumberland in France in 1758. Castles Ferniehirst Castle is where the 12th Marquess of Lothian resides. Although the principal seat of Clan Kerr is considered to be the fabulous mansion of Monteviot. Ferniehirst Castle (sometimes spelt Ferniehurst) was built around 1470. It has been occupied in this century as a Youth Hostel for fifty years. It was built to hold the gate for Scotland and to serve as a base for military raids and cattle-lifting forays. It commands the road to Otterburn and Newcastle. Newbattle Abbey or Newbattle Castle near Edinburgh became a secular lordship for the last commendator, Mark Kerr, 1st Earl of Lothian (Ker) in 1587. Floors Castle is another great monument to the Kerr's success. Roxburgh Castle is just across the Tweed from Floors Castle. Castle Holydean was destroyed in 1276 and very little of it now remains. Left-Handed Kerrs The Kerrs have typically been associated with left-handedness; some of their buildings, such as Ferniehirst Castle, have been explicitly designed with this in mind. There is an anecdotal link between the Kerrs and left-handedness, although it is unclear whether or not present-day individuals with the surname of Kerr have a higher incidence of left-handedness than the general population. An article appearing in the BMJ circa 1972 confirmed that about 30% of those with the surname Kerr were left-handed as opposed to a background 10% of the population. However, a 1993 study found no statistically significant increase in left-handedness among people with the family name Kerr or Carr. Clan Chief The current Chief of Clan Kerr is Michael Andrew Foster Jude Kerr, 13th Marquess of Lothian Clan Profile Motto: Dexter, Sero sed serio (Late but in earnest) Motto: Sinister, Forward in the name of God Family Creed: Late but in Earnest Badge: A Kerr knot Or Plant Badge: Bog Myrtle Arms: Quarterly, 1st & 4th, Azure, the sun in his splendour Or (for the peerage of Lothian); 2nd & 3rd, Gules, on a chevron Argent, three mullets of the field (Kerr) Gaelic Names: Cearr (Surname), MacGhillechearr (Surname), Cearrach (Singular), Na Cearraich (Collective) and Clann 'icGhillechearr (Collective). The Arms of the Marquis of Lothian Clan Tartans Clan Kerr has two recognized tartans: Kerr (Modern) Kerr (Hunting) Clan Seat The 12th Marquess of Lothian resides at Ferniehirst Castle, although the principal seat of Clan Kerr is considered to be the fabulous Monteviot Mansion, Roxburgh, Scotland Branches Ker of Cessford Kerr of Ferniehurst Kerr of Linton Ker of Kersland Septs of Clan Kerr Kear Carr(e) Carrach Cessford Kar(e) Ker Mac Ghiolla Cheara Kier Linton Herriott

Kincaid

History The Kincaid surname is of territorial origin being taken from the former lands of Kincaid in the Parish of Campsie, Stirlingshire, Scotland. The lands are located just north of Kirkintilloch, in the north-west angle formed by the River Kelvin and its tributary the Glazert. The topography of the area is hilly, being on the northern edges of the Scottish Lowlands. Prominent hills in the area are called the Campsie Fells. The nearest city of some size is Glasgow. It had been thought that the placename is Gaelic in origin with suggested meanings of ceann càidhe, meaning 'at the head of the quagmire', ceann cadha, meaning 'at the head of the pass,' and ceann cath meaning 'head of the battle.' However, it is now believed that the placename is P Celtic in origin. It may have originally been Neo-Brittonic Pen ced. In 1238/9, it appeared in Latin charters in 1238/9 as Kyncaith and soon thereafter took on its current form. The origins of the family is obscure. Kincaids were in Scotland at the time of the Wars of Scottish Independence. In a 1646 birth brieve in the Register of the Great Seal of Scotland, it is recorded that the head of the Kincaid family, in the time of King Edward I of England, was made Constable of Edinburgh Castle for his valiant service in recovering of the Castle of Edinburgh from the English and his posterity carry the castle in their coat of arms in memory of this deed. The family's coat of arms can be seen today in one of the Edinburgh Castle's buildings, painted on one of the ceiling supports in the 'Armory'. The earliest mention of a Kincaid is Robert of Kincade who served on an inquest held at Stirling on 2 October 1425 which found Sir John of Halden, knight, heir to the deceased Sir Bernard of Halden, knight, his father, in the 10 merk lands of Kepdowry and Ardas in the sheriffdom of Stirling and earldom of Lennox. He is perhaps the Robert of Kincaide who was noted as squire to the powerful Patrick Lyon, Lord Glamis in a charter dated April 12, 1447. 15th century The family quickly obtained favourable positions about the royal family. John of Kyncade's wife, Jonet, received payments for nursing the Earl of March, the 2nd son of King James II, in 1456 and 1457. This John of Kyncade was likely the John of Kyncade who was keeper of Linlithgow Palace in 1461 and the John of Kincade who was receiver of Crown fermes near Linlithgowshire from June 22, 1464 to July 3, 1466. Patrick Kincaid of that Ilk was a favoured squire to King James IV. The family estates grew in the 15th and 16th century. The Kincaids gained the estates of Craiglockhart, Coates and Warriston about Edinburgh; the lands of Inchbreck, Inchbelly and Auchenreoch near their ancestral lands; and lands about Falkirk and Linlithgow. 16th century Thomas Kincaid of Coates was Constable of Edinburgh Castle from at least 1508 to March 1, 1512/1548 and was Master of Works for King James IV at least in 1511. He oversaw preparations made at Edinburgh Castle for the invasion of England in 1513, including the casting of some of the great cannons used in the Battle of Flodden Field, and obtaining metal for the building of The Michael, the largest and most powerful ship of its day. His son Thomas Kincaid of that Ilk, was a Deputy-Constable in Parliament on 11 December 1534, and a special sheriff of Dumbarton on 25 September 1549. Edward Kincaid was Sheriff-Depute of Edinburgh in 1521, at the time of the battle there referred to as the 'Cleansing of the Causeway,' and likely the Edward Kincaid who was a Sheriff of Peebles shortly thereafter. No less than seven Kincaids accompanied King James V of Scotland to France on September 1, 1536 for the King's marriage to King Francis I's daughter Madeleine de Valois. Thomas Kincaid, Edward Kincaid, David Kincaid, James Kincaid, Robert Kincaid, Thomas Kincaid, and John Kincaid were all listed as being in Lord Fleming's entourage for this great occasion. Patrick Kincaid of Leith, was Master Brewer to King James V in the 1530s and 1540s. David Kincaid of Coates was Constable of Edinburgh Castle from as early as 1541. A number of the Kincaids adhered to the royal family and got caught up in the intrigues surrounding Queen Mary I of Scotland. John Kincaid of Warriston was a relative and intended protégé of Bishop Bothwell while Alexander Kincaid, originally a servant to Adam Bothwell, was one of the Queen's half-brother's, Robert Stewart's, closest servants. William Kincaid was one of the Queen's most trusted couriers and was sent to France with her letters and directions of the Queen's party. Edward Kincaid, maltman, was a significant supplier of William Kirkcaldy of Grange's forces in the defense of Edinburgh Castle against the forces of Regent Morton in 1573. 17th century John Kincaid of Warriston was murdered by his wife's lover, Robert Weir, on July 1, 1600. Convicted for instigating the murder his wife, Lady Jean Livingstoun of Dunipace, was quickly beheaded on the 'Maiden' but the infamy of the murder was to live on in Scottish ballads. Thomas Kincaid was appointed a surgeon in Alexander Leslie's Covenanter army invading England to support the Parliamentarians and he was given command of a brigade of two regiments prior to the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644. Thomas Kincaid of Warriston suffered heavily during the civil war as subsequent invading English armies, particularly by invasions in 1650 and 1651, inflicted damages to his estates of Warriston, Heuch and Overgoger amounting to 37,000 merks Scots. It was at this time that some Kincaids immigrated to Ireland in support of the Royalists cause. Captain Alexander Kinked, Captain Robert Kinkead, Claud Kinkead and Alexander Kinkead were among the '49 officers who received grants in Ireland upon King Charles' return to power. During the witch craft paranoia of the 17th century, John Kincaid of Tranent emerged in Scotland as a 'pricker of witches' but was ultimately briefly imprisoned by the State for his excesses. 18th century to today James Kincaid of Dalgreen was a person of note accused of being active in supporting Bonnie Prince Charlie during the Scottish rebellion of 1745. Following Bonnie Prince Charlie's defeat, one Dr. Kincade emerged as a notable Jacobite of concern to the government. Following the Scottish rebellions, a number of Kincaids migrated to the United States leaving numerous posterity there today. Sir John Kincaid gained international recognition for his personal accounts of battles fought during the Napoleon War and in particular for his vivid recollections of the historic Battle of Waterloo; published as Adventures in the Rifle Brigade and Random Shots from a Rifleman. As acting adjutant at Waterloo, his battalion stood almost in the centre of Wellington's line and was engaged in the most intensive fighting of the battle. John Henry Kinkead, of Somerville, Pennsylvania was the third Governor of the State of Nevada, USA and the first Governor of the then District of Alaska, USA. The 20th century saw several Kincaids develop significant inventions. John W. Kincaid is credited with being the inventor of the first automatic locomotive stoker at Hinton, West Virginia, USA. Geoffrey R. Kinkead, of Providence, Rhode Island, USA, is credited with developing the percussion cap used in detonating hand grenades in World War I. Captain Earl H. Kincaid, of White Sulphur Springs, West Virginai, USA, was credited with inventing the Navy Static recording machine, a forerunner of radar. Flight-Lieutenant Samuel Marcus Kinkead, D.S.O., D.S.C., D.F.C., was a World War I ace and high-speed aircraft pioneer. He died on March 12, 1928, attempting to break the air speed record of 297 miles per hour in a Supermarine Napier S5 airplane at Calshot Aerodrome, Great Britain and was greatly mourned by the nation. Thomas Harold 'Doc' Kinkade, of Wyckoff, New Jersey, gained international attention for his role in the first transatlantic flights as service engineer for the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. He was most noted for preparing the Wright Whirlwind motors used in Charles Lindbergh's 'Spirit of St. Louis' and Commander Richard E. Byrd's 'America.' Admiral Thomas Cassin Kinkaid led the United States Seventh Fleet through the major sea and island battles of World War II. His most notable achievement was at the Battle of Leyte Gulf. Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid defeated a large Japanese fleet at the Surigao Strait, using only a makeshift fleet of PT boats, converted freighters, destroyers and carrier escort ships. Today the surname is a household name, thanks to the success of Thomas Kinkade, Painter of Light. His vivid scenes are cherished by the masses making his art the most sought after since Norman Rockwell. The modern family leaders In 1958 Alwyne Cecil Peareth Kincaid-Lennox succeeded to the coat of arms of his great great grandfather, John Kincaid of Kincaid, who had matriculated his Arms and Supporters on July 29, 1808. This John Kincaid of Kincaid married secondly Cecilia Lennox of Woodhead and their son, John Lennox Kincaid, became the legal representative of both the Kincaid and Lennox families upon the death of John Kincaid of Kincaid on February 7, 1832. John Lennox Kincaid Lennox had his coat of arms, the impaled arms of Lennox and Kincaid, matriculated on June 12, 1833. The Lennox and Kincaid chiefships remained intertwined until 1958 when William Mandeville Peareth Kincaid-Lennox was informed by the Lord Lyon that he could not be the Chief of two clans. As a result, his younger brother, Alwyne Cecil Peareth Kincaid-Lennox, became Chief of Clan Kincaid. He took on the name Alwyne Cecil Kincaid of Kincaid when he was recognized as Clan Chief by the Lord Lyon King of Arms on July 1, 1959. Alwyne Cecil Kincaid of Kincaid died on 3 September 1983, and was succeeded by his niece, Heather Veronica Peareth Kincaid Lennox who then became Heather Veronica Kincaid of Kincaid. She matriculated her coat of arms on 16 August 1988. Madame Heather Veronica Kincaid of Kincaid was born in Glasgow, Scotland on March 10, 1918 and was the only child of William Mandeville Peareth Kincaid-Lennox and Eva St. Clair Donald. She was twice married; first to Lieutenant-Commander Denis Arthur Hawker Hornell and secondly to William Henry Allen (Hal) Edghill. Her only child, Denis Peareth Hornell, succeeded to the chiefship of Clan Lennox and became Denis Peareth Hornell Lennox of that Ilk. Madame Heather Veronica Kincaid of Kincaid died on August 2, 1999 in Shropshire, England. Madame Heather Veronica Kincaid of Kincaid was succeeded by her grand daughter, Arabella Jane Hornell Lennox. She matriculated her coat of arms on January 26, 2001 and assumed the name Arabella Jane Kincaid of Kincaid. She is married to Giles Vivian Inglis-Jones and they have four children. The 'Clan Chief' is represented by the Clan Kincaid Society based in the United States. This group charges both annual and life membership fees, with the purpose to 'promote and foster our Scottish Heritage through our Scottish Clan'. Kincaid House & Lennox Castle Kincaid House is located on the old Kincaid lands in what is now Milton of Campsie, East Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It was the ancestral home of the Kincaids of that Ilk, with the oldest part of the house dating back to 1690. The current style of the house was designed by architect David Hamilton for John Kincaid of that Ilk in 1812. His son and heir, John Lennox Kincaid Lennox, had Hamilton design and build Lennox Castle on the ancient Lennox of Woodhead estate in the Parish of Campsie; about a mile and half west of Lennoxtown, between 1837 and 1841. The family moved there and Kincaid House was sold in 1921. It was eventually converted into a hotel and remains in use as such today. Lennox Castle was sold in 1927 and is now in a state of disrepair. Kincaid House and Lennox Castle are popular destinations for vacationing members of the Clan Kincaid. During one group tour organized by Clan Kincaid, a commemorative tree was planted outside the Kincaid House Hotel. Tartan Kincaid (22 Black, (pivot) 34 Green, 6 Red (centre), 34 Green etc.) Circa 1966. The Kincaids, being a Lowland Scots family, have no tradition of a 'clan tartan'. From 'The important point to remember is that until the 19th century, the Lowland or Border clans did not identify themselves by specific tartans, nor did they wear the kilt or play the Great Highland Pipes (although they would be familiar with the widely used Lowland or Border Pipes) but afterwards they adopted these characteristics of Highland culture as a form of clan identification, which they are happy to use to the present day.' Variations in spelling Spelling variations include: Kincade, Kincaide, Kinkaid, Kinkead, Kinkade, Kingcade, Kyncade, and Kinket. Clan Kincaid DNA Project On 4 June 2001, the Kincaid Surname DNA project was started as a means of learning more about the origins of Clan Kincaid and its various lines existing today. This is done mainly using male Y chromosome STR testing. This was the 22nd surname project with Family Tree DNA and the project has consistently ranked high in terms of number of participants. As of December 22, 2007, the project has results returned for 116 participants. Like most surname DNA projects, there has emerged more than one group of genetically related individuals. So far, the individuals have been assigned into seven groups labelled A to G. However, the bulk of participants fall within Group A; accounting for 68 individuals or over 58% of the participants. Group C is the next largest group with 19 participants. Group B and D each account for 4 related individuals while Groups E, F, and G account for 2 participants each. There are 15 particpants that returned results that are not closely related to any of individuals in Groups A to G nor to each other. The results to date suggest that the patriarch of Clan Kincaid was the ancestor of Group A participants. Y chromosome SNP testing shows that Group A participants are part of Haplogroup R1b which is dominant in western Europe. Furthermore, further testing shows that Group A participants belong to the subclade R1b1c9 (S21) subclade which is most common in the Netherland, Denmark, north Germany and southwest England. While Y chromosome DNA testing has been a great tool for sorting various lines of Kincaid, it has not shed any further light on the origins of Clan Kincaid. There are many scenarios of when and how the Clan Kincaid patriarch entered the Strathclyde area of Scotland.

Kirkpatrick

Clan Kirkpatrick is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan is recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, however the clan does not currently have a chief so recognised. The clan takes its name from the church of Saint Patrick in the parish of Closeburn in Dumfriesshire, Scotland. The first record of the clan is in the 12th century, when Ivone de Kirkpatrick was listed as a witness in a charter of the Bruce family. Later, Alexander II confirmed by charter the lands of the same Ivone. Roger Kirkpatrick was an attendant to Robert Bruce during the time when Bruce murdered Red Comyn. Kirkpatrick legend has it that the chiefly motto is derived from Bruce's killing of Comyn. When Bruce fled from the church after stabbing Comyn, Kirkpatrick drew his sword shouting, I'LL MAKE SICCAR, where he finished off the wounded Comyn. In 1314 the Kirkpatricks were rewarded the lands of Redburgh. Later in 1355, Sir Roger Kirkpatrick took Caerlaverock Castle and Dalwinston Castle from English forces. In 1357, Sir Robert Kirkpatrick was murdered by Sir James Lindsay in a private argument. The title passed from Roger to his Nephew, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick, who had a charter for the lands of Closeburn and Redburgh from Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany in 1409. Much later, in 1542, Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick was captured at the Battle of Solway Moss. The estate then passed to a cousin. In 1685 Sir Thomas Kirkpatrick of Closeburn was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia. The Kirkpatrick estate of Closeburn was finally sold by the 4th baronet, Sir James Kirkpatrick. Today there is no recognised chief of the clan.

Lamont

Clan Lamont is a Highland Scottish clan. Clan Lamont claim descent from Lauman who lived in Cowal in 1238. Tradition gives this Lauman a descent from an Irish prince named Anrothan O'Neill. Clan Lamont like several other clans, such as Clan MacEwen of Otter, Clan Maclachlan, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens, all claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill, who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. From this descent the clan claims a decent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century. The darkest era of Clan Lamont was during the middle of the 17th century when about 100 Lamonts were massacred at Dunoon in 1646 by their powerful neighbours the Campbells. The clan did not take part in the Jacobite Risings. In the 19th century the clan chief emigrated to Australia, where the present chief of the clan lives. The clan lives today as the Clan Lamont Society, which was formed in 1895. The society meets once a year and accepts membership from anyone bearing the surname Lamont or any of the clan's associated names. History The Red Hand of Ulster symbolises both the Irish province of Ulster and a descent from the Uí Néill. The Lamonts claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill, an Irish prince. The hand within the crest badge very likely alludes to this descent. Origins The first record of the Lamonts is found in the mid 13th century, when 'Laumanus filius Malcolmi, nepos Duncani, filius Fearchar' appears in a feudal charter conveying Kilmur and Loch Gilp and the lands of 'quas nos et antecessores nostri apud Kilmun habuerunt' to Paisley Abbey. Lauman's name appears in another charter, dated 1295, 'Malcolmus filius er haeres domini quondam Laumani'. The fact this Lauman is the ancestor of the clan is proved in an instrument in 1466 between the monastery of Paisley and John Lamont of that Ilk, regarding the lands of Kilfinan, which are specifically said to have been held by John Lamont's ancestors. From Lauman the Lamonts take their name and are styled as Mac Laomainn. It is said that before the time of Lauman, the family was known as Mac'erachar (son of Fearchar), the grandfather of Lauman, who lived around 1200. The early chiefs of the clan were described as 'The Great MacLamont of all Cowal' (Scottish Gaelic: Mac Laomain mor Chomhail uile). In 1456 a John Lamont was baillie of Cowal. Later in around 1463 the lands belonging to Lamont of that Ilk fell to the Crown by reason of non-entry, and for almost a century were held by a branch of the family known as the Lamonts of Inveria. Tradition of Highland hospitality There is a tradition of Highland hospitality and chivalry that concerns Clan Lamont and Clan Gregor. The story is supposed to take place around the year 1600. The son of the chief of Clan Lamont and the only son of MacGregor of Glenstrae, chief of Clan Gregor, went hunting together on the shores of Loch Awe. After the two men had made camp at nightfall they eventually became embroiled in a quarrel at the end of which Lamont grabbed his dirk and MacGregor was mortally wounded. The son of The Lamont then fled, hotly pursued by MacGregor's furious retainers, until losing his way he eventually made it to the house of the The MacGregor himself. On hearing that Lamont was fleeing for his life promised Lamont protection. Soon though, the old MacGregor guessed it was his own son who had been slain, but considered himself bound to the Highland laws of hospitality, saying 'Here this night you shall be safe'. With the arrival of the furious MacGregor clansman who pursued the young Lamont the MacGregor chief was true to his word and protected Lamont from his clansmen's vengeance. Later, while it was still dark, the chief had Lamont personally conducted to Dunderave on Loch Fyne and provided him with a boat and oars. 'Flee for your life; in your own country we shall pursue you. Save yourself if you can!' Years later a ragged man appeared at Toward Castle desperately seeking shelter. The man was MacGregor of Glenstrae who had been stripped of lands and possessions and was fleeing for his life. The Lamont chief remembered the honourable deed of MacGrgor and took him and protected MacGregor. The old MacGregor lived with Lamont for years until his death, and was buried in honour in the little graveyard at the chapel of St Mary on the farm of Toward-an-Uilt, where MacGregor's grave could be pointed out. The Dunoon massacre A Victorian era print of the Lamont tartan from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands by R. R. McIan, published in 1845. The darkest era of Clan Lamont was undoubtedly during the mid 17th century which ended in what is known as the Dunoon massacre. The chief of the clan during this time was Sir James Lamont of that Ilk. In 1634 Sir James represented the Barons of Argyll in Parliament, though two years later he was plotting for the Royalist cause with other clan chiefs such as, Macdonald of Sleat, Macleod of Dunvegan, Maclean of Duart, Stuart of Bute, and Stewart of Ardgowan. Though once the Earl of Argyll (the chief of Clan Campbell) found out Lamont was forced to recant his position. With the start of the following Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Lamont was sent a charter by Charles I of Scotland to crush the rebels - the Campbells. Even though the Lamont chief was a Royalist sympathiser he had no choice but to join forces with the superior forces of the Earl of Argyll. After the Covenanter loss at the Battle of Inverlochy Sir James was released by the Royalist victors and then sided with the Marquess of Montrose and actively supported the Royalist cause. Sir James Lamont of that Ilk then joined forces with Alasdair MacColla and together they invaded the lands of the Campbells. Sir James' brother, Archibald, led a force of Lamonts across Loch Long and together with MacColla's Irish contingent they landed at the Point of Strone. Their force then laid waste to large areas under Campbell control. The Lamonts were particularly brutal in North Cowal, and singled out Dunoon - the scene of an earlier massacre of Lamonts by Campbells. During the destruction their forces wrought on the Campbells, MacColla's men committed many atrocities and even the Lamonts themselves when they attacked the Tower of Kilmun. Once the tower had surrendered under promise of their lives being spared, the prisoners were then 'taken thrie myles from the place and most cruelly put to Death, except one who was in the hot fever'. Sir James Lamont ravaged the lands of Strachur, killing thirty-three men, women and children. His force destroyed much grain and drove off 340 cattle and horses. Several months later in May 1646 while the Lamonts were home at castles of Toward and Ascog they were besieged by Campbell forces seeking revenge. By June 1, 1646 the Campbells had cannon brought to shell the Lamont strongholds. Two days later Sir James Lamont, in a written agreement of quarter and liberty for himself and his followers surrendered and persuaded the other garrison at Ascog Castle to likewise laydown arms and surrender to the Campbells. Although the Campbells had agreed to the Lamonts terms of surrender, they immediately took the surrendered garrisons to Dunoon by boat. The Lamont strongholds were then looted and burnt to the ground. Sir James and his closest kin were shipped to Inverary and he was held in the dungeons of Dunstaffnage Castle for the next five years. In the churchyard at Dunoon about a hundred Lamonts were sentenced to death and executed. Thirty-six of the clan's high-ranking gentlemen were hanged from a tree in the churchyard, cut down and then buried either dead or alive in a common grave. After languishing in captivity for years Sir James Lamont was brought to Stirling Castle in 1651 to answer for his actions with Alasdair MacColla for their devastations in Argyll. Lamont was eventually spared trial though, when Charles II of Scotland led his ill-fated Scots forces into England to be later defeated at the Battle of Worcester. Lamont was finally released when the forces of Oliver Cromwell took Stirling. It has been reputed that the total damage inflicted by the Campbells upon the Lamont estates was in excess of £600,000 Scots (£50,000 sterling). Argyll himself was able to recover £2,900 Scots (almost £245 sterling) for the entertainment and lodging of the Lamont chief while in captivity. In 1662, the ringleader of the massacre, Sir Colin Campbell, was brought to justice. He stood trial, was found guilty and beheaded. Modern clan The chiefs of Clan Lamont lived at Ardlamont until the last of their lands were sold in 1893 by the 21st chief, John Henry Lamont of Lamont, who emigrated to Australia. The present chief of the clan is Peter Noel Lamont of that Ilk, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lamont., who is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. The current chief is a parish priest in Marayong (a suburb of Sydney), New South Wales, Australia. The Clan Lamont Society The Clan Lamont Society was formed in 1895 with the purpose to keep alive the values and traditions of the clan. The society meets every year and is organised by a Council consisting of the clan chief, a president, two vice-presidents, six councillors, a secretary, a treasurer, and editor of the Clan Lamont Journal. The Clan Lamont society offers three kinds of membership: Life, Annual, and Retainer. The cost of a life membership is £150, annual membership £25 and retainer membership £5. In 1906 a memorial was erected by the Clan Lamont Society at Dunoon. The memorial, which consists of a stone Celtic Cross, commemorates the many Lamonts who were killed in 1646. Every year the society lays a wreath at Dunoon to commemorate the site. The society also provides the Lamont Shield at the Cowal Highland Gathering, which is an award given to the best Juvenile (under 18) Solo piper at the games. Clan profile The 'Clan Lawmond' tartan which appeared in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum by the Sobieski Stuarts in 1845. Origin of the name The surname Lamont has several origins, though in regards to this clan it originates in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The name is derived from the medieval personal name Lagman which is from the Old Norse Logmaðr. The Old Norse name Logmaðr is composed to two elements: log which is plural of lag meaning 'law' (from leggja meaning 'to lay down') + maðr meaning 'man'. Crest badge, clan badge and pibroch Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Chief's crest: A hand couped at the wrist, proper. Chief's motto: Ne parcas nec spernas (translation from Latin: 'Neither spare nor dispose'). Clan badge: Note: there have been several clan badges attributed to the clan, Crab Apple Tree. Dryas (Latin: Octopetala) (Scottish Gaelic: Luidh Cheann). Pibroch: Spaidsearachd Chaiptein Mhic Laomainn. Clan chief Clan chief: Peter Noel Lamont of that Ilk, Chief of the Name and Arms of Lamont. Tartan Clan Lamont is closely associated with Clan Campbell and the Lamont tartan reflects this. The Lamont tartan differs from the Campbell in only that the lines centred on green are only white on the Lamont. There is a sample of the Lamont tartan in the collection of the Highland Society of London which bears the seal and signature of the clan chief dating from around 1816. Associated names The following is a list of surnames associated with Clan Lamont. Note that many of these names are also associated with other clans. Aldownie, (and Aldowny) Black Blackie Blaik Blaikie Blake Blaker Blakey Broun Brown Burden Burdon Clement Lamb Lambie Lammie Lammon Lammond Lamon Lamond Lamond Lamondson Lamont Lander, (and Landers) Lemmon Lemon Lemond Limon Limond Limont Lucas Luck Luckie, (and Lucky) Luke MacAldowie MacAlduie MacClammie, (and MacClammy) MacClement, (and MacClements) MacCluckie, (and MacClucky) MacClymont MacEaracher MacErcher MacErracher MacFarquhar MacGilledow MacGillegowie MacGorie, (and MacGory) MacGorrie MacIldowie MacIlwham MacIlwhom MacInturner MacKerchar MacKerracher MacLammie, (and MacLammy) MacLamond MacLemmon MacLemon MacLucas MacLuckie, (and MacLucky) MacLugash MacLuke MacLusa MacLymont MacMunn MacPatrick

Leask

Origins There is more than one theory as to the origin of the name Leask. One is from the Anglo-Saxon word lisse which means happy. Another is that it comes from the Norse meaning of stirring fellow. Another is that it comes from Liscus which was the name of the chief of a tribe called the Haedui. The Haedui were a tribe of Gauls as described by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars. Another theory concerns the Castle of Boulogne, once the possession of Charlemagne, at one time belonged to a family called de Lesque. William de Laskereske's signature appears on the Ragman Roll of 1296. 14th century Later William Leask was granted the lands of Leskgoroune by King David II of Scotland, son of Robert the Bruce. William was also the first known chief of the Clan Leask. The second chief was baillie of the barony of Findon. He inherited lands from Henry de Brogan, Lord of Achlowne, in 1390, later in the 1400s another branch of the family sprung up on Orkney after Jamis of Lask, younger son of Thomas de Lask of that Ilk settled there. 16th century During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the clan suffered when they fought against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. Both William, the fifth chief of the clan and his eldest son Alexander were killed. William's younger son also called William became the 6th chief of the clan. William Lesk of that Ilk, the seventh chief supported the infant King James VI of Scotland in opposition to his mother Mary, Queen of Scots after the murder of Lord Darnley and her scandalous marriage to Bothwell. 17th century Between 1615 and 1616 there appears to have been a disagreement of some sort between the Leasks and the neighbouring Clan Gordon. In all the recorded cases the Gordons appear to have been the aggressors; Adam Gordon, brother of the Laird of Gight assaulted Alexander Leask, then the son of the chief was attacked by George Gordon and finally William Leask of that Ilk was ambushed by John Gordon of Ardlogy and a party of armed men. Also in the seventeenth century the Leasks suffered terribly by investing heavily in the Darién scheme. The venture was a disaster with a vast amount of Scotland's wealth being lost which in some part led to the union of Scotland and England Alexander Leask of that Ilk, the thirteenth chief was forced to give up his estates which were taken over by Robert Cumming. The clan today In 1963, a descendant managed to buy back a portion of the family lands and established the Leask Society with the support of other prominent Leasks such as Lieutenant General Sir Henry Leask, sometime governor of Edinburgh Castle and General Officer commanding the Army in Scotland. In 1968 Moira Anne Helgesen was granted the chiefship of the clan by the Lord Lyon, where apon she changed her name and became: Madam Anne Leask of Leask. She died in April 2008 and will be succeeded in the chiefship of the clan by Jonathan Leask, who will become the 23rd chief of Clan Leask.

Lennox

Origins of the name The name Lennox in gaelic comes from the place of the same name. The clan name comes from the title of Earl of Lennox which commanded the vale of Leven between the 12th and 15th centuries. 15th century In 1424 the Clan Lennox was decimated and Iain Colquhoun of Luss of Clan Colquhoun took advatage of this to win the King's favour by capturing Dumbarton Castle from Lennox. Sir John Stuart of Darnley was created 1st Earl of Lennox of the new line by King James III of Scotland in 1473. Malcolm the fifth Earl of Lennox led Clan Lennox into England and besieged Carlisle Castle. 16th century A clan battle took place between the Clan Kincaid and the Clan Lennox of Woodhead in 1570. Henry Stuart (1545-1567) Lord Darnley and the eldest son of the 4th Earl of Lennox was the second husband of Mary Queen of Scots. He was also the father of King James VI of Scotland. The King promoted the 8th Earl of Lennox to Duke of Lennox in 1581. Clan profile Arms: Argent, a saltire between four roses Gules. Crest: Two broadswords in saltire behind a swan's head and neck all Proper. Motto: I'll defend. Plant Badge: A rose slipped Gules. Tartan Lennox District tartan: The Lennox District tartan was reproduced from two known copies of a lost portrait dating from the sixteenth century, which was claimed to be of the Countess of Lennox (mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley who married Mary, Queen of Scots). The tartan was reproduced by D. W. Stewart in his book Old and Rare Scottish Tartans published in 1893. Scottish Tartans World Register #935

Leslie

Origins The family name comes from the Leslie lands of Aberdeenshire and was to become famous in Germany, Poland, France and Russia. A Hungarian (or more likely by onomastics and typical of the times as well as later Leslie history, a Kievan of Varangian origins) nobleman, named Bartholomew arrived in the retinue of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile. Bartholomew became Chamberlain to Saint Margaret of Scotland. Bartholomew later married Malcolm III sister, Princess Beatrix of Scotland. His brother inlaw Malcolm III made him Governor of Edinburgh Castle. Sir Andrew de Lesly was one of the signatories when a letter, the Declaration of Arbroath, was sent to the Pope in 1320 asserting Scotland's independence. His son Walter died at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. 16th century During the Anglo-Scottish Wars George de Lesly was the Leslys' first Earl. His grandson, the 2nd Earl, was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and the third Earl, also George, carried out a private family vendetta on the life of David Beaton, cardinal Archbishop of St Andrews. At the trial he was acquitted. Battle with the Clan Ruthven: In 1544 the Ruthvens, who held considerable sway over Perth from their nearby Castle Huntingtower, often disputed the authority of the Clan Charteris, which led to a bitter and bloody feud. In 1544 Patrick, Lord Ruthven, was elected Provost of Perth, but at the instigation of Cardinal Beaton, who suspected Ruthven of Protestant sympathies, was deprived of the office, and John Charteris of Kinfauns was appointed in his stead. The city declined to acknowledge Charteris, and barred the gates against him. Clan Charteris, along with Lord Gray and Clan Leslie, gathered their forces and attacked the town. They were repulsed by the Clan Ruthven who were assisted by their neighbours the Clan Moncreiffe, and Charterises was forced to flee. The Ruthvens remained Provosts of Perth until William Ruthven, Earl of Gowrie, was executed in 1584. In 1552 John Charteris had been killed by the earl's heir in the High Street in Edinburgh. One of the most highly respected Leslies is said to be John Leslie, the Bishop of Ross, who was born in 1526. He was the most loyal of Mary Queen of Scots' supporters during the turbulent times of 1562. It was John Leslie who wrote for her the famous 'History of Scotland'. In 1571 the Clan Leslie joined forces with the Clan Gordon against their bitter enemies the Clan Forbes. The Gordons were also joined by Clan Irvine and Clan Seton. The Forbes were joined by Clan Fraser, Clan Keith and Clan Crichton. The feud between the Gordons and Forbes which had gone on for centuries culminated in two full scale battles: The Battle of Tillieangus and the Battle of Craibstone. It was at the Battle of Tillieangus that the 6th Lord Forbes' youngest son known as Black Aurther Forbes was killed. Legend has it that 'he stooped down to quench his thirst and one of the Gordons gave him his death blow through an open joint in his armour'. 17th century Thirty Years' War During the early part of the 17th century the Clan Leslie fought in the Thirty Years' War. General Alexander Leslie of Balgonie fought for Gustavus Adolphus, the King of Sweden. He achieved great fame across Europe for his skills in war and returned to Scotland a Field Marshal. Walter Leslie Field Marshall of the Imperials and alleged conspirator against Albrecht von Wallenstein. Civil War Commanding the Covenanters Alexander Leslie captured Edinburgh Castle with a thousand men. With the Scots Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went into England in 1640 and defeated the King's soldiers at the Battle of Newburn. For this he was created Earl of Lewis by King Charles I. General Alexander Leslie of Balgonie fought for Gustavus Adolphus, the King of Sweden. He achieved great fame across Europe for his skills in war and returned to Scotland a Field Marshal. In 1642 Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven went to Ireland and held command alongside Robert Munro (d. 1680) of the Scottish Army. They were sent to put down a rebellion of Irishmen who had killed Scotts in Ulster. 1644, Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven commanded Scottish Covenantor forces to victory over English Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644. This battle was the largest battle of the English and Scottish Civil War, and one of the most decisive. It resulted in a Parliamentarian victory, which meant that the north of England was effectively lost to King Charles for the rest of the war. During the Civil War General David Leslie was victorious commanding his Scottish Covenanters force against a Scottish Royalist force at the Battle of Philiphaugh in 1645. The Royalist army of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose was destroyed by the Covenanter army of Sir David Leslie, restoring the power of the Committee of Estates. Dunaverty Castle was a MacDonald stronghold. During the Civil War it was besiged in 1647 by Scottish supporters of Oliver Cromwell who were led by General David Leslie from Clan Leslie. The MacDonalds surrendered and then 300 of them were massacred. The castle is nothing more than a ruin now, known as Blood Rock. During the Civil War General David Leslie laid siege to the Royalist garrison at Kincardine Castle. The Castle was being held by the Chief of Clan MacNab. MacNab found that it would not be possible to maintain defense and during the night, sword in hand at the head of 300 men they cut their way through the besieging force. All made it through apart from the MacNab chief himself and one other man who were captured and sent to Edinburgh as prisoners of war. The chief was sentenced to death but he escaped and rejoined King Charles and continued to fight. MacNab was later killed at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. During the Civil War General David Leslie's Scottish Covenanter force was defeated by the Scottish Parliamentarian forces who were at this point in time loyal to the Parliament of England and Oliver Cromwell at the Battle of Dunbar (1650). David Leslie successfully commanded the Scottish Argyll Government Royalist forces at the Battle of Carbisdale (1650) where he was victorious against Scottish Royaslist forces commanded by James Graham 1st Marquess of Montrose. General David Leslie's Royalist Forces were defeated at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. Sir David Leslie who was now commanding Royalist forces, supported the plan of fighting in Scotland, where royal support was strongest. King Charles, however, insisted on making the war in England. 18th century During the Jacobite Uprisings the Clan Leslie supported the British government. The 9th Earl of Rothes now the Duke of Rothes was Vice Admiral of Scotland and governor of Stirling Castle. He commanded a British regiment of cavalry at the Battle of Sherrifmuir in 1715 where he helped defeat the Jacobites. Castles and Great houses Leslie Castle in Aberdeenshire is the setting of the Clan Leslie gatherings. Fetternear Palace in Aberdeenshire. Balquhain Castle in Aberdeenshire. Balgonie Castle was acquired by Alexander Leslie in the early 17th century. Leslie House in Fife was owned by the Leslies until 1919, when a major fire destroyed most of the house and contents. Kininvie Manor House in the Spey Valley near Rothes. Originally part of the Balquhain Leslies' estates, then purchased by the second son of the Earl of Rothes (1936), currently the home of Colonel David Leslie. Castle Leslie in County Monaghen Ulster, Ireland Built in the 17th-century, the Castle and surrounding 1000 acre estate is still a Leslie residence, and an exclusive guest house, spa and school for cuisine. In 2002 Sir Paul McCartney married Heather Mills in the Family Church just adjacent to the Castle. Earl of Rothes From 1457 the Clan Chief of Clan Leslie also held the position of Earl of Rothes. It is currently held by James Malcolm David Leslie, 22nd Earl of Rothes (b. 1958). Septs Septs of Clan Leslie include: Abernethy Bartholomew Cairney Laing Leslie Lesley Lessely Lessley Lesslie More

Lindsay

Origins of the Clan The Lindsays are descended from Danes who had come to England between the 6th and 9th centuries. After the Norman conquest of 1066 Baldric de Lindsay became a tenant under the Earl of Chester in England. In 1120 Sir Walter Lindsay was a member of the council of David, Earl of Huntingdon who became King of Scotland. Sir Walter Lindsay's successor, either his son or brother came to Scotland with the new King. William Lindsay acquired the lands of Crawford in Lanarkshire, Scotland. He gave some of his Ayrshire lands to the Dryburgh Abbey. In the 13th century Sir David Lindsay of Crawford joined King Louis IX of France on a crusade but he was killed in Egypt. One of the crusader's sons Sir Alexander Lindsay was a Knight of King Edward I of England. Wars of Scottish Independence By the end of the 13th century the Wars of Scottish Independence had begun and it caused many dilemmas for the Lindsays as they had families on both sides of the border. However Sir Alexander Lindsay's patriotism made him take the side of Scotland. The Lindsays were supporters of both William Wallace and King Robert the Bruce. His English properties were forfeited and his sons there were imprisoned. The eldest of these sons Sir David Lindsay was later among the signatories of the Declaration of Arbroath, the 1320 assertion of Scottish Independence. Sir James Lindsay fought at the Battle of Otterburn in 1388 where the Scottish defeated the English. It was Sir Alexander Lindsay of Glenesk who during John Gaunts invasion of Scotland, attacked and put to the sword the crew of one of the English ships that had landed above Queen's Ferry (South Queensferry). 15th Century & Clan Conflicts At the Battle of Arbroath in 1445 the Clan Lindsay led by the Master of Crawford advanced with over 1000 men. Their enemy was the Clan Ogilvy who were also supported by men from the Clan Oliphant, Clan Gordon, Clan Seton and Clan Forbes of Pitsligo. The Master of Crawford's father, David Lindsay, 3rd Earl of Crawford rode between the two armies in an attempt to call a truce. However, an illadvised Ogilvie, thinking that this was the start of the Lindsay's attack, threw his spear at the Earl, hitting him in the mouth and killing him instantly. So the battle began which went in the Clan Lindsay's favour. Here fell Ogilvie of Inverquharty, Forbes of Pitsligo, Brucklay of Gartley, Gordon of Borrowfield, and Oliphant of Aberdalgie, along with 500 or so Ogilvie's. However, the Lindsays lost a disproportionate amount of men, most notably the Earl himself. In 1448 Lord Lindsay of Byres gave King James III of Scotland the 'great grey horse' which would carry him faster into battle than any other horse in Scotland. Lord Lindsay himself led a force of several thousand at the Battle of Sauchieburn. During the 15th century the Clan Lindsay lost much of their land due to feuding with the Clan Ogilvy. Chief Alexander Lindsay, the 4th Earl of Crawford, also known as the Tiger Earl and Earl Beardie was badly defeated by the Clan Ogilvy and the Clan Gordon under the Earl of Huntly at Brechin in 1452. However all was not lost as Alexander Lindsay's son was made Duke of Montrose by King James III of Scotland. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars In the 16th Century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Lindsay fought at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 where their chief, the 6th Earl of Crawford was slain. The fith Lord Lindsay was one of the four nobles to whom the charge of the infant Mary Queen of Scots was committed in 1542. His son Patrick, the 6th Lord, was a fierce reformer and Lord of the Congretion. He took part in the murder of David Rizzo and challeged Bothwell to mortal combat at Carberry Hill, and at Lochleven Castle forced the Queen to then give up her crown. It was from this line that the 10th Lord was made 1st Earl of Lindsay by King Charles in the 17th century. The Lindsays later supported Mary, Queen of Scots and fought for her at the Battle of Langside in 1568. 17th Century & Civil War In the 17th century during the Civil War the Clan Lindsay were Royalist supporters of King Charles Stuart of England, Scotland & Ireland. The death of the Clan Lindsay Chief and 16th Earl in 1652 was the last of that line to be Earl of Crawford and the Earldom was passed into the hands of King Charles. However another line of Lindsays received a new title, held by John the 1st Earl of Lindsay who was also already the 10th Lord Lindsay of Byres. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings The Lindsays of Balcarres descend from a younger son of the ninth Earl of Crawford. they were created Earls of Balcarres for their services during the Civil War. The 1st Earl of Balcarres was made hereditary governor of Edinburgh Castle. His son supported the Jacobite Uprising and fought at the Battle of Sherrifmuir in 1715. The Clan Lindsay did not take part in the Jacobite Uprising of 1745 to 1746. Spellings The Lindsays are arguably the clan with the most diverse variations when it comes to spelling their name. Known spellings include: Limesay Linday Linde Lindeci Lindensay Lindesa Lindesaia Lindesaie Lindesans Lindesay Lindesaye Lindese Lindesee Lindesei Lindeseia Lindeseie Lindesey Lindesi Lindesie Lindesins Lindessay Lindessaya Lindessaye Lindessey Lindesseye Lindessi Lindesy Lindesye Lindeszey Lindey Lindiesay Lindisay Lindisin Lindissa Lindissai Lindissay Lindisseia Lindsa Lindsai Lindsay Lindsaye Lindsey Lindsseie Lindyesaye Lindyssay Lindyssey Linsai Linsaie Linsay Linsey Linsee Linsley Linzee Lyncay Lynde Lynddesai Lynddessay Lynddessaye Lyndesai Lyndesay Lyndeseia Lyndeseie Lyndesey Lyndeseye Lyndesheie Lyndeshey Lyndesie Lyndesins Lyndessai Lyndessay Lyndessaye Lyndessey Lyndessy Lyndesy Lyndesya Lyndey Lyndezay Lyndisay Lyndissai Lyndissay Lyndisseye Lyndsa Lyndsaia Lyndsaie Lyndsay Lyndsey Lyndseye Lyndsy Lyndysay Lyndyssay Lyndyssey Lynsay Lynse Lynsey Clan Castle Edzell Castle was the original castle of the Chief of Clan Lindsay which they acquired in 1358 and retained ownership until 1715. Crawford Castle Carsluith Castle Spynie Palace Lordscairnie Castle Lindsane Clan Septs Septs of Clan Lindsay include: Buyers Byers Cobb Crawford Deuchar Deuchars Downie Fotheringham Lynde Linde Lyndsay Lindsey Lyndsey Lindesey Rhind Rhynd Summers Sumner

Lockhart

Origins of the Clan The Clan Lockhart arrived in Scotland among the waves of Normans who arrived after the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The Lockharts settled in Lanark and Ayrshire where the towns of Symington and Stevenson remain to mark the past influence of Simon and Steven Locard. The exact date when the lands of Lee came into the family is not known, but 1272 is traditionally accepted. 14th Century and the Crusades Symon (Second of Lee) won fame for himself and his family in the wars against the English when he fought alongside King Robert the Bruce and was knighted for his loyal service. Simon Lockhart the 2nd of Lee accompanied 'Good Sir James Douglas' of the Clan Douglas when he took the heart of Robert the Bruce on the crusades in 1330. It was Simon lockhart who carried the key to the casket in which the heart was carried. Simon rescued the casket and heart and returned it to Scotland after James Douglas had been killed in spain. It is said, the arms of a 'heart within a fetterlock', and the name in its present form came into use. The Lee Penny During the crusades of the 14th century the Lockharts brought back a precious heirloom which has been treasured ever since. It is known as the 'Lee Penny'. At the Battle of Teba in Spain, Sir Simon Lockhart captured a Moorish Emir and received from the man's mother as part of his ransom an amulet or stone with healing powers. The Prince's mother told Sir Simon that the stone was a sovereign remedy against bleeding and fever, the bite of a mad dog, and sickness in horses and cattle. The stone is dark red in colour and triangular in shape and was later set in a silver coin which has now been identified as a four penny piece from the reign of King Edward IV. The Lee Penny is kept in a gold snuffbox which was a gift from Maria Theresa of Austria, Empress of Austria to her general Count James Lockhart in 1789. The fame of the Lee Penny spread through Scotland and Northern England and there are many recorded occasions when it was employed with apparent success. 16th Century The 7th Laird was knighted by King James IV of Scotland and in 16th century the 8th Laird was involved in a case of forgery. His son, Alan, 9th Laird, was sentenced to the block for the slaughter of David and Ralph Weir, on separate occasions, and with this family they seem then to have been in constant feud. His sentence was revoked, and he received 'remission' in 1541. 17th Century Sir George Lockhart (1630-1689) was the second son of Sir James Lockhart, Lord Lee, Lord Justice Clerk and became one of the most famous advocates at the Edinburgh Bar. He became Lord President of the Court of Session in 1685 and was M.P. for Lanarkshire in both the English and Scottish Parliaments. His knighthood was conferred in 1663 and the Carnwath and Dryden estates acquired by him in 1681. He was murdered on Easter Sunday on his way home from church by Chiesly of Kersewell and Dalry, a dissatisfied litigant. George Lockhart, Second of Carnwath (1673-1732) was a fervent Jacobite, he became Principal Agent to the exiled King James after the Rising of 1715. He was one of the Commissioners for the Treaty of Union, and the only one against it. He was one of the earliest of the agricultural improvers. He married Euphemia Montgomery, daughter of the ninth Earl of Eglinton; they had fourteen children. He died as the result of a duel. 18th Century Count James Lockhart, Nineteenth of Lee (1727-1790) was the second son of The Hunting Laird and married three times. He had through these marriages, two daughters and two sons; his son Charles succeeded him. Being the second son, employment in Britain was difficult; from his youth he showed an interest in the army. His brief life account in "Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Osterrich" says Thirst for action and an inclination for warfare led him at a very early age into military service; as a young man he was a soldier in Persia under Shah Nadir. After many years of adventures in various countries he entered the Austrian service As a soldier of fortune, James joined Maria Theresa of Austria's army at the end of the War of Austrian Succession, as a low ranking soldier. By the time of his death in 1790, he had gained a reputation for bravery, and on 17th March 1782 he was created a Count of The Holy Roman Empire by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, the grandson of Maria Theresa, the title being Count Lockhart-Wishart of Lee & Carnwath. He inherited Lee & Carnwath on the early death of his brother George. He kept a close eye and interest in the Estate, but spent the majority of his time in the service of the Austrian Royal Family where he was regarded in the highest esteem. Clan Chief The current Chief of the Clan Lockhart is Angus H. Lockhart of the Lee. Clan Castle The seat of the Chief of the Clan Lockhart is at Lee Castle.

Logan

Clan Logan is a both a Highland and Lowland Scottish clan. The clan does not have a Chief recognised by Lord Lyon King of Arms, and therefore can be considered an Armigerous clan. Today, it is thought by some that Clan MacLennan is a variant of the Highland Logan Clan. History An early Logan tartan, which has been named both a Logan, Skene and Rose tartan. The surname Logan is a territorial name, likely derived from the lands of Logan in present Ayrshire, Scotland. The earliest record of the surname is of Robert Logan who is recorded as witnessing the resignation of the lands of Ingilbristoun in 1204. Several Logans are listed as paying homage to Edward I of England in the Ragman Rolls of 1296; Phelipp de Logyn (burgois de Monros), Thurbrandus de (del counte de Dunfres), Wautier Logan (del counte de Lanark) and Andreu de (del counte de Wiggeton). Walter Logan, lord of Hartside was a sheriff of Lanark in 1301, and in 1298 had received a grant of the lands of 'Lus' from Robert Bruce. This Walter Logan appears twice on a roll of landowners forfeited in 1306 by Edward I, for supporting Robert the Bruce. The first instance of Logan has John Cromwell as the petitioner for Logan's forfeited lands, while the second instance of Walter Logan has William Mulcaster and John Bisset petitioning for his lands. In 1306 Dominus Walter Logan was taken prisoner by the English forces and hanged at Durham, in the pressense of Edward of Carnarvon (the future Edward II of England). In 1330 two Logans of note were killed in Spain while accompanying Sir James Douglas in his quest to take the heart of the dead King Robert I of Scotland to the Holy Land. Douglas and his company had been received by Alfonso XI of Castile, who campaigning against the Moors, in the Kingdom of Granada. Near the Castillo de la Estrella , Alfonso's army fought the Saracens at the Battle of Teba. During the battle Douglas observed a knight of his company surrounded by Moorish warriors, and with his remaining men attempted to relieve his countryman. As the knights were hard pressed and outnumbered by the Moors, Sir James Douglas took the silver casket containing the heart of Robert Bruce, and threw it before him among the enemy, saying, 'Now pass thou onward before us, as thou wert wont, and I will follow thee or die.' Sir James Douglas and most of his men were slain, among them Sir Robert Logan and Sir Walter Logan. The leading Logan family's principal seat was in Lastalrig or Restalrig, near Edinburgh. Sir Robert Logan of Restalrig married Katherine Stewart, daughter of Robert II of Scotland, and later in 1400 Sir Robert was appointed Admiral of Scotland. Sir Robert Logan was one of the hostages given in 1424 to free James I of Scotland from being held in England. Robert's son or grandson, John Logan of Restalrig, was made principle sheriff of Edinburgh by James II of Scotland. In 1555 Logan of Restalrig sold the superiority of Leith (the principle seaport of Edinburgh) to the queen regent Mary of Lorraine (aka. Marie de Guise). The last Logan to possess the barony was Robert Logan of Restalrig, who was described by contemporaries as 'ane godless, drunkin, and deboshit man'. Sir Walter Scott described him as 'one of the darkest characters of that dark age'. The last Logan of Logan, in Ayrshire was celebrated for both his wit and eccentricity. Logan was known for his The Laird of Logan, published after his death, which was a compilation of amusing anecdotes and puns. He had one daughter, who married a Mr. Campbell. The relationship between clans MacLennan and Logan See also: Clan MacLennan Shared tartans 'Logan'. A Victorian era romanticised depiction of a member of the clan by R. R. McIan, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845. Today both clans Logan and MacLennan share the same tartan. This tartan was first recorded in 1831 by the historian James Logan, in his book The Scottish Gaël. Later in 1845 The Clans of the Scottish Highlands was published, which consisted of text from Logan, accompanied by illustrations from R. R. McIan. This work was the first which showed the MacLennan's sharing the same tartan as the Logans. The text on the history of Clan Logan pointed to an ancient link between the Logans and MacLennans. The plate for MacLennan, shows a man from this clan wearing the Logan tartan, but no name is given to it unlike every other clan tartan shown. Given the style of writing at the time and subtleties used by both the artist and writer, this is not a surprise and allows them to pay homage to the story of the origin of MacLennan. It should also be noted, that until the early nineteenth century there were no such thing as 'clan tartans'. The founder of the MacLennans was at best the great grandson of Gilliegorm Logan (a mythical Chief of Clan Logan from circa 1372), and was far removed from the holdings of the Clan Logan. The MacLennan were subservient to clans Fraser and MacKenzie at various times. Chiefly Arms The issue of Chiefly Arms has come up as a point of contention, with the heart of the Bruce being incorporated into the Arms of the MacLennan Chief, being given as proof of relationship. This could however not be farther from the truth. The current Chief of MacLennan may have a heart in his Arms, but the recorded Arms of the Chiefly line of MacLennan were of a shield argent, three piles (long points), sable, in chief, and in base, a cross crosslet fitchee, gules. The Crest was an arm and broadsword, proper, with the Motto (same as current) Dum Spiro Spero. The Arms and Crest of the old line of MacLennan Chiefs show no regard to Logan heritage at all. The current Chief of Clan MacLennan, Ruairidh D. G. MacLennan of MacLennan, has also added to this controversy by stating that the first known of that name was Duncan MacLennan of Strathearn. Duncan is mentioned in a charter of King Alexander II in 1217 as being the Laird of Bombie, and it is through him that the MacLellans are said to have originated (by the MacLennans only). This is over one hundred years before the birth of the child of Gilligorm Logan. This history is further complicated by the mention of Lide MacLennan and his twelve hundred men in the authenticity debated Ossianic poetry, which is purported to be sixth century. St. Adomnán of Iona is also said to have recorded that they occupied Glenshiel at this time. Other sources on MacLennan, site that the clan was at Eilean Donan castle before 1263 and that the MacGillafinnens, or MacLennans, were titled Lords of Loch Erne, Tairg, and Muintir Peodachain. With all of the evidence to suggest that MacLennan are an old and proud clan, and in existence as long or longer than that of Logan, the descendantcy of the current line of MacLennan Chiefs includes none of this. They site their origin to Gille Fhinnein, grandson of Gilligorm Logan, and show no connection to any MacLennan before this time. Clan profile Logan or MacLennan tartan, as recorded by J. Logan in The Scottish Gaël (1831). Clan Crest: A passion nail piercing a human heart, proper. Clan Badge: Furze. Clan Motto: Hoc majorum virtus. (translation from Latin: This is the valour of my ancestors). Clan Slogan: Druim-nan-deur. (translation from Scottish Gaelic: The Ridge of Tears). Clan Chief: At present, the seat of Clan Chief has been dormant since the death of George Logan of that Ilk, who recorded his Arms into the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland in 1673. Tartans The most common Logan tartan today is shared by both Clan Logan and Clan MacLennan. The tartan was first recorded in 1831, in James Logan's The Scottish Gaël. An earlier Logan tartan is today usually known as a Skene tartan, though it has sometimes been known as a Rose tartan. The official state tartan of Utah is based upon this early Logan tartan, in respect of Ephraim Logan, who was the first American of Scottish descent who left a permanent mark on Utah.

Lumsden

Origins of the clan The name Lumsden derives from the old manor of Lumsden in the parrish of Coldingham in Berwickshire. The earliest known recordings of the name appear between 1166 and 1182 when the brothers Gillem (William) and Cren de Lumsden witnessed a charter by Waldeve Earl of Dunbar to the Priory of Coldingham. The lands of Lumsden are first mentioned in a charter dated 1098 of King Edgar of Scotland and his son Malcolm Canmore. Gillem and his brother Cren are the first recorded owners of the land. In 1296 Adam Lumsden and Roger de Lumsden were among the Scottish clan leaders who were force homage to King Edward I of England with both of their names appearing on the Ragman Rolls. Fourteenth century Around 1328 Gillbert de Lumsden married an heiress of Blanerne and by 1329 had received a charter for the Blanerne lands by the Earl of Angus. By the mid fourteenth century offshoots of the Lumsden clan had charters and lands confirmed to them in Conlan in Fife and Medlar and Cushnie in Aberdeenshire. Seventeenth century, Thirty Years' War and Civil War Thirty Years' War In the early seventeenth century during the Thirty Years' War the Clan Lumsden fought for the Swedish King Gustavus Adolphus in a famous unit called 'Lumsden's Musketeers'. The Civil War One of the Lumsden brothers, James Lumsden returned from the war in Europe with his men to fight in the Civil War which was taking place in England, Ireland and Scotland to support the Covenanters. They fought at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644 where King Charles I was defeated. They also fought at the Battle of Dunbar (1650) under David Leslie where the Covenanters were defeated by the Parliamentarians. James Lumsden's brother Robert defended Dundee against General Monck but he was killed on its surrender. Eighteenth century and Jacobite uprisings During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 the Chief of Clan Lumsden was Prince Charles Edward Stuart's secretary. After the Battle of Culloden the chief fled to Rome. He returned to Scotland in 1773 and was pardoned by the British government. His tartan waistcoat is preserved at Pitcaple Castle. Castles and clan seat Lumsden Castle in Blanerne was acquired in the fourteenth century and was the main clan seat. Pitcaple Castle in Cushnie, Alford and Tillycairn Castle in Cluny were also owned by the Clan Lumsden.

Lyon

Origin of the name Although Sir Iain Moncreiffe, perhaps the greatest herald genealogist, believed his family were of Celtic origin and descended from a younger son of the Lamonts, the generally accepted view is that they descended from a French family called de Leon, who came north with Edgar, son of Malcolm III, at the end of the eleventh century to fight against his uncle, Donald Bane, the usurper of the throne. Edgar was triumphant, and de Leon received lands in Perthshire which were later called Glen Lyon. Roger de Leonne witnessed a charter of Edgar to the Abbey at Dunfermline in 1105. 14th Century In 1372 Robert II granted to Sir John Lyon (called the White Lyon because of his fair complexion) the thanage of Glamis. Five years later, he became Chamberlain of Scotland, and his prominence was such he was considered fit to marry the king¹s daughter, Princess Joanna, who brought with her not only illustrious lineage, but also the lands of Tannadice on the River Esk. He was later also granted the barony of Kinghorne. He was killed during a quarrel with Sir James Lindsay of Crawford near Menmuir in Angus. 15th Century The family have descended in a direct line from the White Lion and Princess Joanna to the present day, and their crest alludes to this. His only son, another John, was his successor, and he strengthened the royal ties by marrying a granddaughter of Robert II. Sir John¹s son, Patrick, was created Lord Glamis in 1445 and thereafter became a Privy Councillor and Master of the Royal Household. 16th Century John, sixth Lord Glamis, was, according to a tradition, a quarrelsome man with a quick temper. He married Janet Douglas, granddaughter of the famous Earl Angus (also called Bell the Cat), and after his death she suffered terribly for the hatred which James V bore all of her name. Lady Glamis was accused on trumped-up charges of witchcraft and, despite speaking boldly in her own defence, her doom was preordained. She was burned at the stake on the castle hill at Edinburgh on 3 December 1540. The eighth Lord Glamis renounced his allegiance to Mary Queen of Scots and served under the Regents Moray and Lennox. He was made Chancellor of Scotland and Keeper of the Great Seal for life, and his son, the ninth Lord, was captain of the Royal Guard and one of James VIs Privy Councillors. 17th Century & Civil War In 1606 he was created Earl of Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon and Baron Glamis. His son, the second Earl, was a close personal friend of James Graham the Marquess of Montrose and was with him when he subscribed to the National Covenant in 1638. He accompanied Montrose on his early campaigns in defence of the Covenant , but despite his great affection for the Marquess, he could not support him when he broke with the Scots Parliament to fight for Charles I. Lyon almost ruined his estates in supporting the Army of the Covenant against his friend. In 1677, the third Earl of Kinghorne obtained a new patent of nobility, being styled thereafter Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Viscount Lyon, Baron Glamis, Tannadyce, Sidlaw and Strathdichtie. He paid off the debts he inherited from his father by skillful management of the estates and was later able to alter and enlarge Castle Glamis. John, his son, although a member of the Privy Council, opposed the Treaty of Union of 1707. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings His son was a Jacobite who fought in the rising of 1715 at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Tullibardine¹s regiment. He died defending his regiment¹s colours. In 1716 James, the Old Pretender. son of James VII, was entertained at Glamis. Thirty years later another king¹s son, but a much less welcome one, the Duke of Cumberland, stopped at the castle on his march north to Culloden. It is said that after he left the bed which he had used was dismantled. Among the Jacobite relics now preserved at Glamis are a sword and watch belonging to James VIII, the Old Pretender, and an intriguing tartan coat worn by him. The youngest daughter of the fourteenth Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne is the Queen Mother Likely came from the LYON charge from the coat-of-arms of Sir John de Lyon (Argent, Lion Rampant Azure, Riband Gules). Clan Chief The current Chief of Clan Lyon is Michael Fergus Bowes-Lyon, 18th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Clan Castle The seat of the Chief of Clan Lyon is at Glamis Castle in Angus, Scotland. Clan Crest Within a garland of bay leaves, a lady from the middle richly attired, holding in her dexter hand a thistle all Proper (in allusion to the alliance of Sir John Lyon with Princess Jean, daughter of King Robert II). Clan Tartans Clan Arms Quarterly, 1st & 4th, argent, a lion rampant azure, armed and langued gules, within a double tressure flory counterflory of the Second (Lyon); 2nd & 3rd, ermine, three bows stringed paleways Proper (Bowes); en surtout an inescutcheon azure, thereon a rose argent, barbed vert and seeded or, ensigned with the Imperial Crown Proper, within a double tressure flory counterflory of the Second, the said inescutcheon ensigned with an Earl's coronet Proper (the said honourable augmentation being limited to the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne and to the heirs succeeding him in his said Earldom). (For an explanation of the terms, see heraldry.) Gaelic Name Liobhunn (surname) Septs of Clan Lyon Lion(s) Lyons Lehane or Lehan

MacAlister

Origins Clan MacAlister is a branch of Clan Donald, and traces its descent from Alasdair Mor, son of Domhnall mac Raghnaill who was grandson of Somerled.Somerled is claimed as the ancestor of the MacAlisters, MacDonalds and MacDougalls. Gaelic tradition gave Somerled a Celtic descent in the male line, though a recent DNA study has shown that Somerled may have been of Norse descent. By testing the Y-DNA of males bearing the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister, and their variants it was found that roughly a quarter of MacDonalds, a third of MacDougalls, and forty percent of MacAlisters tested shared the same Y-DNA and a direct paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome found in Scotland has been regarded as showing Norse descent in the British Isles. Birth of a clan After the fall of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493, the MacAlisters seem to have formed into an independent clan of their own, and their chief, Iain Dubh (Anglicisation: Black John), lived at Ardpatrick (Ard Phadriue) in South Knapdale. Later chiefs have styled themselves as Mac Iain Duibh, (sons of Black John) in reference to him. The clan's lands were never very extensive, were located mostly in Kintyre. As early as 1481 a Charles Macallestar was made Steward of Kintyre. Later many MacAlisters were found in Bute and Arran. The principal family of the clan were the MacAlisters of Loup, and up to twenty years after the first record of Iain Dubh, Angus Macallaster of the Loupe who is called 'John Dubh's son' is mentioned. After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles, the MacAlisters of Loup attached themselves for about one hundred years to the more powerful Clan Iain Vor. The 'Laird of Lowip', the chief of the clan, appears in the General Band of 1587, in which Highland chiefs were held accountable by the Government for their tenants. In 1618 the Laird of Loup was one of the twenty barons who were made responsible for the good rule of Argyll during the absence of the Earl of Argyll. Alexander MacAlister of Loup fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie, supporting the cause of the deposed James VII of Scotland, and also at the Battle of the Boyne. Alexander was succeeded by his son, Hector, though he died without issue and was in turn succeeded by Alexander's brother, Charles. Charles married the daughter of Lamont of that Ilk. Charles, 12th of Loup, married Janet Somerville, heiress of Kennox, in 1792. In 1805 Charles assumed the name and Arms of Somerville along with his own, and from then on this family has been known as Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox. In 1846 Charles MacAlester of Loup and Kennox, was granted the right to take up Arms as Chief of the clan, by Lyon Court. Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Godfrey Somerville MacAlester of the Loup and Kennox, succeeded him as Chief of Clan MacAlister is 1903. His seat was Kennox in Ayrshire, though the seat of the clan as since been sold, and the current chief, William St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox, lives in England. Clan profile MacAlister tartan dating from the early nineteenth century. Contemporary accounts of Flora MacDonald suggest that the MacAlisters wore the MacDonald tartan at that time. Crest badge and clan badge Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Chief's crest: A dexter arm in armour erect, the hand holding a dagger in pale all Proper. Chief's motto: Fortiter. (translation from Latin: 'Boldly'). Clan Badge: Heath. Clan chiefs The current chief of the clan is William St John Somerville McAlester of Loup and Kennox, Chief of the Name and Arms of MacAlister. The chief was recognised by Lord Lyon in 1991 as being the rightful chief of the clan. The chiefs of Clan MacAlister are styled Mac Iain Duibh, in reference to Ian Dubh, whom the line of the Lairds of Loup claim descent from. Branches/Cadets The principal cadet of the MacAlisters of Loup were the MacAlisters of Tarbet, who were Constables of Tarbet Castle on Loch Fyne. The MacAlisters of Tarbet, supported William of Orange and the Government during the Jacobite Uprisings, though they were bankrupt after Culloden. Another cadet branch were the MacAlisters of Glenbarr, in Argyll. The MacAlisters of Glenbarr descend from Colonel Matthew MacAlister, who in 1796 purchased Rosshill and over the next twenty years acquired the lands of Barr and other pieces of land. By 1822 the lands of Glenbarr were over 17,000 acres (69 km²). Glenbarr is the location of the Clan Macalister Centre.

MacAulay of Lewis

The MacAulays of Lewis were sept or clan located on the Isle of Lewis in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. There is no connection between the MacAulays of Lewis and the Clan MacAulay who were centred in the Loch Lomond area, bordering the Scottish Highlands and Scottish Lowlands. Up until the turn of the seventeenth century Lewis was controlled by the Clan MacLeod of Lewis, together with two somewhat smaller clans: the Morrisons of Lewis and the less powerful MacAulays of Lewis. The MacAulays lived in the area surrounding Uig on the western coast of Lewis, and had a deadly, long-standing feud with the Clan Morrison, whose lands were located on the northern coast around Ness. Today the MacAulays are said to be of Norse descent, due to the origin of their name and the early history and tradition of Lewis, though in the seventeenth century tradition gave them an Irish descent. Though the MacAulays of Lewis were never a clan in their own right, and were under the protection of the MacLeods of Lewis, they have left their legacy in the rich folklore of Lewis. History Origins The surname MacAulay, when found in the Scottish Hebrides, is thought to be derived from the Gaelic Mac Amhlaoibh or Mac Amhlaidh. These names are Gaelic patronymic forms of the Old Norse personal name Áleifr and Óláfr. Óláfr was a common name among the Norsemen who settled in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The eponymous ancestors of most west highland clans first appear in around the 13th century. At the beginning of the 13th century Lewis was under Norse control. According to the Chronicle of Man one eminent Olafr had connections with Lewis at this time-Olaf the Black-who would later become King of Man and the Isles. Today the MacAulays of Lewis are generally said to be of Norse descent, and in consequence a favourite modern tradition of theirs is a descent from Olaf the Black. However, according to Rev. William Matheson, there is no real evidence for descendants of Olaf the Black living on Lewis. A tradition of the MacAualsys of Uig was that they descended from Magnus, King of Norway. The family of the Victorian historian and politician, Lord Macaulay (also descendants of the MacAulays of Uig) had their tradition of a descent from 'Olaus Magnus, King of Norway'. Matheson pointed out that Olaf the Black did indeed have a son named Magnus. The Victorian era historian, Captain F. W. L. Thomas, wrote that there was no real tradition among the Lewis MacAulays as to their eponymous ancestor. Thomas maintained that the claim of descent from Olaf, King of Mann was an example of historical induction, where a historical figure is grafted on to a tradition. Thomas also showed that in the 17th century the belief on Lewis was that the MacAulays descended from an Irishman. It should be noted that Olaf the Black is also claimed as ancestor of the MacLeods and the Morrisons of Lewis, as well. Origins according to the Indweller of Lewis In the late 17th century the origin of the MacAulays was documented among an historical account of Lewis. John Morisone, Indweller of Lewis, wrote between about 1678 and 1688, that the ancient inhabitants of Lewis were three men from three separate races: The first and most antient Inhabitants of this Countrie were three men of three severall races viz. Mores the son of Kenannus whom the Irish historiance call Makurich whom they make to be Naturall Sone to one of the Kings of Noruvay. some of whose posteritie remains in the land to this day. All Morisones in Scotland may challenge there descent from this man. The second was Iskair Mac.Awlay ane Irish man whose posteritie remain likvise to this day in the Lews. The third was Macknaicle whose onlie daughter Torquill the first of that name (and sone to Claudius the sone of Olipheous, who likewise is said to be the King of Noruway his sone,) did violentlie espouse, and cutt off Immediatlie the whole race of Macknaicle and possessed himself with the whole Lews and continueth to his posteritie (Macleud of Lews) dureing 13 or 14 generations and so extinct before, or at least about the year 1600 the maner of his decay I omitt because I intend no historie but a descriptione. - John Morisone, A Descriptione of the Lews. The name Iskair is rendered in Scottish Gaelic as Sgàire. The Biblical name, Issachar, Zachary, Zachariah, is used as an Anglicisation of this Gaelic name hich is most commonly found on Lewis and a name peculiar to the MacAulays of Lewis down to the present day. There is however, little known about this Gaelic name. The name appears in that of an old chapel-Cill Sgaire-in Bragar. The name is thought to be of Norse origin, however there is no known Norse personal name that would correspond to Sgàire. One possible origin of the name is the Norse skari meaning 'young seamew', from which the Scottish Gaelic sgaireag is derived from. According to Matheson this could have began as a nickname. John Morrisone made no mention of a royal ancestry to the MacAulays, but gave them an Irish ancestry. Curiously, Irskar is Icelandic for Irish. Even so, Matheson remarked that it was possible Morrison gave an Irish descent to the MacAulays because of the fact that many families in Ireland names which can equate to MacAulay. Hebridean feuds The most notable of the Lewis MacAulays was their hero Donald Cam MacAulay, who lived during the early seventeenth century, and appears frequently in Lewis lore. The Gaelic byname cam commonly means 'squinting' or 'blind in one eye'. Donald played a large part in the feuds with the Morrisons. When Morrisons of Ness invaded MacAulay territory and drove off cattle belonging to the MacAulays, Donald Cam, Big Smith and a force of MacAulays pursued the Morrisons across Loch Roag and in the night approached Dun Carloway. After killing the sentry and with his men blocking any exit, 'Donald Caum M'Cuil' scaled the walls of the broch, aided by his two dirks, which he slipped between crevices in the stone wall. Once atop the tower Donald Cam ordered his men to gather large bundles of heather, which he threw into the dun and set alight, smothering and burning the Morrisons inside, thus destroying Dun Carloway. Prophecy of the Brahan Seer It is on the day Allt nan Torcan
That injury will be done to the women of Lewis:
Between Eidseal and Aird a 'Chaolais
The sword edges will be struck.
They'll come, they'll come, 'tis not long till there
Will come ashore at Portnaguran
Those who will reduce the country to a sorry state.
Alas for the woman with a little child -
Everyone of Clan Macaulay
Will have his head dashed against a stone
And she herself will be slain along with him. A prophecy attributed to the Brahan Seer, translated by Rev. William Matheson. Coinneach Odhar, more famously known as the Brahan Seer was, a possibly legendary, Highland seer who is well known for his prophecies across the Highlands. Possibly an historical Coinneach Odhar is the Keanoch Owir who appears in a Commission of Justice in 1577, as being charged with 'diabolical practices of magic, enchantment, murder, homicide and other offences', in Ross-shire. Though according to popular tradition, Coinneach Odhar was born in Baille-na-Cille, within the Lewis parish of Uig, (the heartland of the Lewis MacAulays), and lived during the early seventeenth century. Tradition stated that Coinneach Odhar was eventually burnt to death by Isabel, the wife of Kenneth Mor Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Seaforth. One of the many predictions, today attributed to Coinneach Odhar, involves the MacAulays of Lewis: Rev. William Matheson proposed that this prophecy may describe a battle in which the MacAulays were massacred by the MacLeods, on the road between Stornoway and Uig. The only survivors of the MacAulays were the chief's youngest son Iain Ruadh (John Roy or Red John) and his illegitimate half brother. Iain Ruadh was the grandfather of Donald Cam MacAulay, placing this instance in the early sixteenth century. Matheson theorised that it is possibly that the legends of a historical Coinneach Odhar in Ross-shire were brought to Lewis by a MacKenzie who was made tacksman of Baille-na-Cille, in Uig. Some speculate that through this MacKenzie's mother, who had connections in Ross-shire, that the legend of Coinneach Odhar may have grown in Lewis and incorporated other tales that had been originally been attributed to others. Conquest of Lewis Up until the beginning of the seventeenth century the Outer Hebrides, and particularly Lewis, were considered backward and in a state of anarchy by the rest of Scotland. An official account of Lewis described the inhabitants 'given themselves over to all kynd of barbaritic and inhumanitie,' who were, 'voyd of ony knawledge of God or His religion.' James VI of Scotland encouraged a Syndicate of Adventurers to undertake the colonization of Lewis, in the hopes of making the island profitible to Scotland. The syndicate were for the most part lairds from Fife and the colonists themselves lowlanders. The 'Fife Adventurers' made three unsuccessful attempts at colonization lasting from October 1598 to December 1601, August 1605 to October 1606, and for a brief time in 1609. During this period of invasions the islanders rallied and resisted the lowlanders, in time driving out the invaders. In 1607 the MacLeods of Harris landed in Lewis and captured Stornoway Castle and other 'fortalices' from the Lowlander colonists. In August of that year the Government ordered the fortresses delivered back into the hands of the colonists. Not long afterwards Stornoway was again captured, this time by Lewismen, led by Neil MacLeod and Donald Cam MacAulay. It was during the fray that Donald's brother was killed on South Beach by a shot from the castle. In 1610, in light of the collapse of the third colonization attempt, the syndicate of Adventurers sold their charter rights to Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail. Within two years the Mackenzies of Kintail had succeeded where the lowlanders could not, and reduced the island to submission. In the years of the Mackenzie conquest the MacAulays fought alongside the MacLeods of Lewis against the invaders who had the aid of the MacLeods of Harris and Skye (Clann Thormoid). Although eventually the MacKenzies gained control of Lewis some islanders still resisted, notably Neil MacLeod and Donald Cam MacAulay. Donald Cam fortified himself on a 100-foot (30 m) high promontory of jagged rock on the seacoast, which is still called today, Stac Dhomhnuill Chaim (Donald Cam's Stack). Tradition is that Donald Cam's daughter, Anna Mhòr (Big Anne), carried water to her father on her head, as she needed her hands to climb the cliffs. Flight of the Young Pretender The Outer Hebrides. The major islands include Lewis, Harris, North Uist, Benbecula, and South Uist. Following the Jacobite defeat at the Battle of Culloden, as Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to the Outer Hebrides in the hope to sail to France, several Lewis MacAulays are noted as supporting the government cause in attempting to apprehend The Young Pretender. On April 27, 1746 Rev. John MacAulay, a Presbyterian minister, was having dinner with the chief of Clan Ranald in Benbecula when Bonnie Prince Charlie secretly landed on the island. When the Catholic chief of Clan Ranald heard the news he secretly advised the prince to make for Stornoway on Lewis, where he could find a ship to take him to France. The Rev. MacAulay descovered the identity of the prince and his plans, and immediately sent warning to his father, Rev. Aulay MacAulay, minister of Harris. On the small island of Scalpay near Harris, Rev. Aulay just narrowly failed to capture the fugitive prince, before sending warning to another minister in Lewis. When no help was to be found in support of the prince on Lewis, the fugitives made there way back south into the largely Catholic, Clan Ranald territories of Benbecula and South Uist. An accomplice of the prince afterwards exclaimed 'it was that Devil of a Minister that caused all the mischief'; Rev. Aulay MacAulay. Post 1746 In 1861 Lewis had a population of 21,059 with almost one fifth of the island being Macleods. Half the population of the island (10,430) were a combination of Macleods, Macdonalds, Mackenzies, Morrisons and Macivors. Another quarter of the population, (4,598), consisted of Macleans, Mackays, Smiths, Macaulays, Murrays and Campbells, all with at least 400 members. In 1861 North Uist had a population of 3,939 and Harris 3,764. Macaulay was the third most common surname on North Uist with 165, following th Macdonalds (1,064) and Macleans (392). There were 64 Macaulays recorded on Harris. By 1961 MacAulay was the eleventh ranked surname on Lewis, with about 500 MacAulays on Lewis. The MacLeods were ranked first with just over 3,000 and the MacAulays' old enemies, the Morrisons, were ranked third with about 950.

MacAulay of Ullapool and Loch Broom

The MacAulays of Ullapool and Loch Broom were a minor sept or clan, located in the area of Loch Broom on the north-western coast of the Scottish Highlands. There is no connection between the MacAulays and the Clan MacAulay who were centred in the Loch Lomond area bordering the Highlands and Scottish Lowlands. Some historians have speculated that the MacAulays may possibly be related to the MacAulays of Lewis who are centred on the Isle of Lewis. These two septs are thought to be related because of the close proximity between the lands they occupied. The MacAulays of Ullapool and Loch Broom were a sept of the Clan MacKenzie, and took an active part in the history or the area. Origins The small Highland town of Ullapool upon the shores of Loch Broom in Ross and Cromarty, Scotland. Several historians have claimed the MacAulays of Ullapool and Loch Broom are of Norse descent, due to a possible Norse origin of their surname, and the history and place-names of the lands they inhabited. The surname MacAulay, in the area of the Scottish Hebrides, is thought to be derived from the Gaelic Mac Amhlaoibh or Mac Amhlaidh, which are Gaelic patronymic forms of the Old Norse personal name Áleifr and Óláfr. The small town of Ullapool on the eastern shores of Loch Broom, derives it's name from Olafr bólstaðr (translation from Old Norse: the homestead of Olaf). George Mackenzie, 1st Earl of Cromartie described the MacAulays as being among the ancient inhabitants of Kintail, of these the MacIvors, MacAulas, MacBollans, and Clan Tarlach were thought to have descended from Norwegian families. The MacAulays, according to the First (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, were also noted to having inhabited the lands of Kintail before the MacRaes entered what are now regarded as their ancestral lands. History Duncan MacAulay, Commander of Eilean Donan According to the MacKenzie's version of history for their clan, during the early 1300s the chiefs of the MacKenzies were at odds with the Earls of Ross. Coinneach na Sroine (Kenneth of the Nose), regarded as the third chief of the MacKenzies, was to have been executed by Uilleam III, Earl of Ross in 1350. One of Coinneach's trusted men was Duncan MacAulay of Lochbroom, who commanded the castle of Eilean Donan against the Earl of Ross. After Coinneach's death, MacAulay sent his own son to to MacDougall of Lorn, and his master's heir, Murchadh Dubh (Black Murdoch), to Macleod of Lewis. Though MacAulay's son was then seized and murdered by a follower of the Earl of Ross, Leod MacGilleandreis, who held the lands of Kenlochewe. Murchadh Dubh later grew to manhood was to have lurked in the caves of Kenlochewe and Torridon, and was known since as Murchadh Dubh nan Uamhag (Black Murdoch of the Cave). In time Murchadh Dubh nan Uamhag had his revenge on MacGilleandreis and later married Isabel, daughter and heir of Duncan MacAulay of Lochbroom. Through this marriage the lands of MacAulay of Lochbroom passed to the MacKenzies, and from then on the MacAulays followed the MacKenzie's of Kintail. Battle of Bealach na Broige Main article: Battle of Bealach na Broige The Battle of Bealach na Broige was a battle fought between various north-western highland clans from the lands of Ross, against the followers of the Earl of Ross, which consisted largely of Dingwalls and Munros. Though the date of the battle is obscure, with historians giving various dates, what is known is that the rising consisted of the 'Clan-juer' (Clan Iver), 'Clantalvigh' (Clan-t-aluigh, ie. Clan Aulay), and 'Clan-leajwe' (Clan-leaive, ie. Clan Leay). The Munros and Dingwalls pursued and overtook the rising clans at Bealach na Broige, where a bitter battle ensued, fed by old feuds and animosities. In the end the MacIvers, MacAulays and MacLeays where almost utterly extinguished and the Munroes and Dingwalls won a hollow victory, having lost a great number of men including their chiefs. Post 1600s From the end of the middle-ages, the history of the MacAulays of Loch Broom is entwined with that of the MacKenzies of Kintail. On August 16, 1725 George Wade, who was 'Commander in Chief of His Majesty's forces, castles, forts and barracks in North Britain', by power of the Disarming Act, ordered the disarmament of all highlanders who lived within the lands of the former Earl of Seaforth. William Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Seaforth had forfeited his lands by joining the Jacobite rebellion of 1715. Included among the men within MacKenzie lands were the MacAulays of Ullapool and Lochbroom. To all and every the Clans of the M'Kenzies, M'Ras, Murchiessons, M'Lays, M'Lennans, Mathewsons, M'Aulays, Morrisons, M'Leods, and all other Clans and persons liable by Act of Parliament to be disarmed within the limits of that part of the Estate formerly belonging- to the late Earl of Seaforth, in the parishes of Dingwell, Urquhart, Collyrndden, Rosemarky, Avoch, Suddy, Kilmure Wester, Killurnon, Luggy Wester, Urray, Contan, Totterery, Kintail, Loch Caron, Garloch, Loch Breyn, and Assint, and to all other persons inhabiting or being within the parishes, lands, limits, and boundings above-mentioned ... - George Wade, Summons sent to the Estate of the former Earl of Seaforth, August 16, 1725 The highlanders, listed in the Summons above, were ordered to turn in their 'Broad Swords, Targets, Poynards, Whingars, or Durks, Side-pistol, or Pistols, Guns, or any other warlike weapons' at Brahan Castle by August 28, 1725.

MacAulay

Clan MacAulay is a Scottish clan. The clan was historically centred around the lands of Ardincaple, which are today consumed by the little village of Rhu and burgh of Helensburgh in Argyll and Bute. The MacAulays of Ardincaple were located mainly in the traditional county of Dunbartonshire, which straddles the 'Highland Line' between the Scottish Highlands and Lowlands. Clan MacAulay has been considered a 'Highland clan' by writers and has been linked by various historians to the original Earls of Lennox and in later times to Clan Gregor. The MacAulays of Ardincaple, like Clan Gregor and several other clans, have traditionally been considered one of the seven clans which make up Siol Alpin. This group of clans were said to have claimed descent from Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts, from whom later kings of Scotland traced their descent. The chiefs of Clan MacAulay were styled Laird of Ardincaple. Clan MacAulay dates, with certainty, to the 16th century. The clan was engaged in several feuds with neighbouring clans. However, the clan's fortunes declined in the 17th and 18th centuries. After the decline and fall of Clan MacAulay, which ended with the death of Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple in the mid-18th century, the clan became dormant. With the revival of interest in Scottish clans in the 20th century a movement was organised to revive Clan MacAulay. The modern organisation strove to unite the three unrelated groups of MacAulays, and all who bore the surname MacAulay, under one clan and chief. In 2002, the clan appointed a potential chief of Clan MacAulay, but his petition for formal recognition was denied by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The Lord Lyon ruled that the petitioner did not meet two criteria: anyone without a blood link to a past chief must be Commander of the Clan for ten years before being considered for recognition, and that the chiefship in question was of the MacAulays of Ardincaple and not of all MacAulays. To date, Clan MacAulay does not have a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, and therefore can be considered an Armigerous clan. There are many different groups, clans or septs of MacAulays from Ireland and Scotland who have no historical connection with Clan MacAulay. Other Scottish MacAulays include: the MacAulays of Lewis, the MacAulays of Ullapool and Loch Broom, and possibly the MacAulays of the Uists. Also, there are several Irish septs or clans of MacAulays with no connection with Clan MacAulay. These include: the McAuleys of County Offaly and County Westmeath, the McAuleys in Ulster (County Fermanagh), and the MacAuleys of the Glens (County Antrim). The MacAuleys of the Glens, however, have been thought to have been originally Scottish. Origin The origin of Clan MacAulay shares both land and names with the early medieval Earls of Lennox. The Classical Gaelic personal name Amhlaoíbh, (today Anglicised as Aulay), was a common christian name in the early families of the Earls of Lennox. Amhlaoíbh, a younger son of Alwyn, 2nd Earl of Lennox, is the subject of the lay Mairg thréigios inn, a Amhlaoíbh, which was dedicated to him by the poet Muireadhach Albanach. In the lay, Amhlaoíbh's land is named 'Ard nan Each' ('Horse Height' or 'Height of the Horse'). His name appears in early records within the Lennox under several variations, including Auleth, Ameleth, Amelech, Amhlew, Hamelen, and Havel. Amhlaoíbh and his descendants held the lands of Fasselane (Faslane) and an extensive tract of land on the Gare Loch, which included the ancestral lands of Clan MacAulay. Amhlaoíbh had two known sons; Aulay de Fasselane (the elder son), and Duncan. Duncan appears as Duncano Macamelech in a grant to a cousin c. 1290. Aulay de Fasselane had an elder son named Walter de Fasselane who married a cousin, Margaret, Countess of Lennox, after which Walter became the de facto Earl of Lennox through his wife. Ardincaple ('cape of the horses' or 'height of the horses'), the ancestral home of Clan MacAulay, is located on the shores of Gare Loch in the historical district of Lennox. In the Middle Ages, the Lairds of Ardincaple paid homage to the Earls of Lennox. According to the Scottish heraldist Alexander Nisbet (1657-1725), 'Morice de Arncappel', who appears in the Ragman Rolls swearing allegiance to Edward I of England in 1296, was the ancestor of the MacAulays of Ardincaple. His seal consists of a 'Stag's head cabossed; between the antlers a small animal and fleur-de-lys'. An early Laird of Ardincaple was Alexander de Ardincaple, who in 1473, served on the inquest of the Earl of Menteith. Another laird, Aulay de Ardincaple, was invested on a precept from John, Earl of Lennox, in the lands of Faslane adjoining Ardincaple in 1518. Aulay and his wife, Katherine Cunningham, had sasine of the lands of Ardincaple in 1525. Several historians have stated that the first Laird of Ardincaple to take the surname MacAulay was Alexander de Ardincaple, son of this Aulay de Ardincaple. Nisbet wrote that Alexander took the name 'from a predecessor of his own of the name of Aulay, to humour a patronymical designation, as being more agreeable to the head of a clan than the designation of Ardincaple of that Ilk.' Alexander lived during the reign of James V (reigned 1513-1542). However, the antiquary Walter MacFarlane stated that the MacAulays derived their name from an Aulay MacAulay of that Ilk, who lived during the reign of James III of Scotland (reigned 1440-1488). There is record in 1536 of a Awla McAwla of Ardencapill; another Awla McAwla was clerk of the watch of Queen Mary's guard in 1566. During the 15th and 16th centuries in west Dumbartonshire, the clans MacFarlane, MacAulay, and Colquhoun raided and plundered each other's lands and combined to sweep the lowlands of its flocks and herds. Other clans-among them the MacGregors, Campbells, Camerons and Buchanans-invaded the district later. In July 1567, after Mary, Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate the Scottish throne in favour of her infant son, James, Walter MacAulay of Ardincaple was one of the signators of the bond to protect the young prince. 'The Laird of M'Cawla of Ardincaple' appears in the General Band of 1587 as a principal vassal of the Duke of Lennox. In 1594, the 'M'Cawlis' appear in the Roll of Broken Clans. Near the shores of Faslane (which today is consumed by Her Majesty's Naval Base Clyde), there was a place called Cnoch-na-cullach (translation from Scottish Gaelic: 'Knoll of the cock'). There is a legend that when a cock crowed beneath the branches of an old oak tree upon the knoll that a member of Clan MacAulay was about to die. Feud with clans Buchanan and Galbraith A facsimile of the Arms of 'Mc: aula of Arncapelle'. Note the similarity to various Stewart Arms, perhaps hinting of an actual descent or dependence upon the Stewarts. On 1 August 1590, Walter MacAulay, son of Allan MacAulay of Durling, was killed on the 'Highway and street of Dunbarton' in a clash against a contingent of Buchanans, who were lead by Thomas Buchanan, Sheriff Depute of Dunbarton. Also wounded in the encounter was Walter's brother, Duncan MacAulay, who was wounded through the 'harn pan' (brain); John dhu MacGregor, who was wounded behind his shoulder blade so that 'his lights and entrails might be seen' (lungs); James Colquhoun, who was wounded in the 'wamb' (stomach); and others including a MacAulay, Miller, and MacGibbon. When a complaint was registered on 29 September, the defenders failed to appear and were 'put to the Horn' (denounced as rebels). On 6 October 1590, Thomas Buchanan of Blairlusk, John Buchanan, his son John Buchanan Burgess of Dunbarton, and others were formally charged in Edinburgh with the murder of Walter MacAulay. The accused were ordered to appear before the Justice at Edinburgh on 21 December 1590. The case was then deferred to March and again the accused failed to appear. The following May saw the Bond of Manrent between Clan MacAulay and Clan Gregor, in which both chiefs swore an alliance to assist each other, their 'kin and friends in all their honest actions against whatsoever person or persons the Kings Majesty being only excepted'. In spring of 1593, Robert Galbraith, Laird of Culcreuch, purchased a Commission of Justiciary (or a commission of 'fire and sword' used to legally attack and destroy another clan) to pursue Clan Gregor and 'their ressetters and assisters'. The MacAulays and Colquhouns were suspicious of Galbraith's real intentions and on 3 May 1593, the lairds of the two clans complained that Galbraith had only purchased the commission under counsel from George Buchanan and that Galbraith had no intentions of actually harassing the MacGregors. It seemed more likely that the Galbraiths, allied with the Buchanans, would direct their vengeance against the MacAulays and Colquhouns under the guise of hunting and clearing Clan Gregor from the Lennox. To complicate matters, the Laird of Ardincaple had married the Laird of Culcreuch's widowed mother against his consent and Galbraith had 'gevin vp kindnes, and denunceit his euill-will to him with solempne vowis of revenge' (given up kindness, and denounced his evil will to MacAulay with solemn vows of revenge). Ultimately, Robert Galbraith's letter of commission was taken from him. Alliance with clan Gregor The traditional descent of the seven clans of Siol Alpin. In 1591 the MacAulays signed a bond of manrent with the MacGregors, acknowledging the MacGregors as senior in line to the MacAulays. The MacGregors had signed a similar contract with MacKinnons in 1571. Around the end of the 16th century Clan Gregor was involved in several disputes. In order to strengthen its position the clan proceeded to enter in alliances with clans who were reputed to share a common ancestry. One such alliance was concluded on July 6, 1571 between James Macgregor of that Ilk and Luchlin Mackinnon of Strathardill, and another alliance was formalised twenty years later, on 27 May 1591, with Clan MacAulay. This formal agreement, known as a bond of manrent, was between Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple and Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae. In the bond, the two chiefs promised to aid each other against anyone but the King, and MacAulay acknowledged being a cadet of the House of MacGregor and promised to pay the MacGregor chief his calp. The giving of calp, a tribute of cattle or the best eighth of a part of goods to a superior lord or chief, was a significant custom in Gaelic society. Prior to this bond of manrent, the chief of Clan MacAulay does not appear to have been involved with Clan Gregor in anyway. According to the 19th century historian Joseph Iriving even though the chief of Clan MacAulay was at feud with the Buchanans it is unclear how such an alliance would benefit his own clan. Irving wrote that the MacAulay chief must have known that any connection with Clan Gregor 'would end (as it actually did) in a manner most disastrous to all connected with the turbulent Macgregors'. This bond of manrent has been used as evidence of an ancestral connection between clans Gregor and MacAulay. A passage in the bond states: 'Alexander M'Gregor of Glenstray on the ane part and Awly M'Cawley of Ardingapill on the other part understanding ourselfs and our name to be M'Calppins of auld and to be our just and trew surname' (Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae on the one part and Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple on the other part, understanding ourselves and our names to be MacAlpins of old and to be our just and true surname). From this statement the 19th century historian W. F. Skene discounted a descent from the old Earls of Lennox, and further concluded there was no doubt that Clan MacAulay was a member of Siol Alpin - a group of clans which could claim descent from Kenneth MacAlpin (Cináed mac Ailpín) whom Scots considered to be their first king. Later historians have shown that such bonds were used by the MacGregors to cement alliances with weaker clans, and that such a bond was likely to have been forced upon the MacAulays by the more powerful MacGregors. Following the Battle of Glen Fruin, between Clan Gregor and Clan Colquhoun in February 1603, there was much public outcry against the rebellious MacGregors. By an Act of the Privy Council, on April 3, 1603, it was made an offence to bear the name MacGregor, or to give one aid or shelter. The Earl of Argyll, who was responsible to the Privy Council for the actions of the MacGregors, was entrusted to bring the force of the law against this lawless clan. Deeply suspicious of the Clan MacAulay chief and his relations with the Clan Gregor chief, one of his first moves was to bring acts against Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple. On 17 March 1603, Aulay MacAulay and his sureties were ordered to appear and answer for reset, supplying, and intercommuning with Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae and other MacGregors. He was also to answer for not 'rising ye fray' and pursuing the outlawed clan Gregor in the Lennox. MacAulay was accused of bringing the MacGregor 'thevis and rebells' to the Colquhoun lands of Luss and for their part in stealing from the Colquhouns of Luss. It seems clear that the Duke of Lennox's influence with the King is all that saved Clan MacAulay from suffering the same fate as Clan Gregor, who were outlawed and hunted down throughout the country. On 7 April 1603, James VI of Scotland wrote from Berwick to the Justice General and his deputies, stating; 'And We, vnderstanding that the said Aulay M'cauley is altogidder frie and innocent of the saidis allegit crymes laid to his chairge ; and that he is to accumpany ws to our realme of Ingland, with our darrest cousing the Duik of Lennox, his maister' (And we, understanding that the said Aulay MacAulay is altogether free and innocent of the said alleged crimes laid to his charge; and that he is to accompany us to our realm of England, with our dearest cousin the Duke of Lennox, his master). The King's order stopped all investigation against the Laird of Ardincaple, thus protecting the small Clan MacAulay from the powerful Earl of Argyll and his allies. By the time the time the King's letter was received, MacAulay had left the Lennox as part of the Duke of Lennox's train, which accompanied King James VI on his way to England to be declared King James I of England. On 18 January 1604, the chief of Clan Gregor, Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae, was apprehended by the Earl of Argyll after almost a year in hiding and was brought to stand trial in Edinburgh. Before his execution two days later, MacGregor accused the Earl of Argyll of trying to persuade him to kill the Chief of the MacAulays: 'I Confess, befor God, that he did all his craftie diligence to intyse me to slay and destroy the Laird Ardinkaippill, Mckallay, for ony ganes kyndness or freindschip that he mycht do or gif me. The quhilk I did refuis, in respect of my faithfull promeis maid to Mckallay of befor' (I confess, before God, that he did all his crafty diligence to entice me to slay and destroy the Laird of Ardincaple, MacAulay, for any gain of kindness or friendship that he might do or give me. That which i did refuse, in respect of my fateful promise made to MacAulay before). Feud with the Earl of Argyll The Earl of Argyll suspected the Laird of Ardincaple, among others, of involvement in a conspiracy which resulted in the murder of the John Campbell, Laird of Calder in 1591. Argyll's evidence pointed to a larger conspiracy which had designs on the assassination of himself, his brother Colin Campbell of Lundy, the Earl of Moray, and John Campbell of Calder. It seems the conspirators' goal was to replace the Earl of Argyll with his kinsman, Campbell of Lochnell, who followed his brother Colin in the line of succession to Argyll, and to divide the vast estates of Argyll amongst themselves. When Argyll discovered MacAulay was somehow involved in the plot, he took action and invaded and took Ardencaple Castle from the MacAulays by May 1594. The Duke of Lennox, taking Argyll's action to be a direct assault on himself, demanded that Argyll return the lands of Ardincaple. As stated before, in the confession of Alasdair MacGregor of Glenstrae, he stated that the Earl of Argyll attempted to convince MacGregor to slay Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple. This was not the first time the earl had been accused of such an act, in the Treasurer's Books, dated November 1602, reads: 'Item, to Patrik M'Omeis, messinger, passand of Edinburghe, with Lettres to charge Ard Earle of Argyle to compeir personallie befoir the Counsall, the xvj day of December nixt, to ansuer to sic things as salbe inquirit at him, tuiching his lying at await for the Laird of Ardincapill, vpone set purpois to have slain him, xvj li'. Feud with the Captain of Carrick Clan Macaulay Armorial Shield, as found in the gallery of Scottish Clan Armorial Shields, in St Columba's Church, Glasgow. A bitter feud began at the end of the 16th century between the MacAulays of Ardincaple and Campbells of Carrick, who were based at Carrick Castle on the shores of Loch Goil (about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) northwest of Ardincaple). Though the origins of the feud are unclear, the first documented evidence of trouble occurred in 1598. Duncan Campbell, Captain of Carrick, registered a bond of 300 merks for each of his men in Rosneath, to keep from harming 'Awlay McCaulay of Ardingapill.' Another bond of 2000 merks was registered for Campbell of Carrick to not harm 'McCaula' and his followers. In 1599, the Duke of Lennox legally evicted Donald Campbell of Drongie and several of his followers from the lands of Mamoir, Mambeg, and Forlancarry along the banks of the Gare Loch. In retaliation, a combined force of Campbells of Carrick and Drongie assembled at Rosneath, on the opposite shore of the Gare Loch from Ardincaple, and returned laid waste to the Duke's new acquisitions. When the case was presented to the Privy Council on 17 May 1600, Campbell of Carrick and Campbell of Drongie were denounced as rebels. Evidence was brought forth to the Privy Council of an attempt on Aulay MacAulay's life on 24 September 1600. The evidence pointed to the Captain of Carrick's men coming at night to Ardincaple and attacking followers of the Laird and killing one, Malcolm Galbraith. A second attempt on the chief of the MacAulays' life was carried out at night as he was staying at Nether Greenock. Aulay MacAulay, Patrick Dennestoun (one of Ardincaple's servants), and Archibald Connel were all shot in the encounter. Again the Privy Council denounced the Captain of Carrick and his men as rebels. In November 1600, the Captain of Carrick and 100 followers invaded the lands of Ardincaple, armed with 'hagbuts, pistolets, bows, darlochs and habershons.' After taking prisoners, the invaders eventually fled the wood they were waiting in for fear of being pursed from men of the district. The Campbells then retreated after destroying houses, hamstringing animals, and making off with livestock belonging to other tenants of the Duke of Lennox. For this action, the participating Campbells were again denounced as rebels. After 1600 In 1597, Aulay MacAulay was suretor to Lachlan MacLean of Coll who had to give up the house a Brekoch when required by the king. After the episode at Glen Fruin between clans Gregor and Colquhoun in 1603, western Dumbartonshire slowly became more 'settled' or peaceful. The MacGregors ceased to exist as a clan and the resident clans of MacAulay, MacFarlane, and Buchanan became less powerful as their lands slowly passed into the hands of strangers. In 1614, Angus Og MacDonald of Dunyvaig seized Dunyvaig Castle, which had been held by the Bishop of the Isles. Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple, with twenty of his men, accompanied the Bishop to Islay to demand the surrender of the castle. On 26 March 1639, Covenanters captured Dumbarton Castle to prevent it from being used as an Royalist base in the event of an invasion from Ireland. Once secured, the Earl of Argyll placed Walter MacAulay, Laird of Ardincaple, as keeper of the castle with a garrison of forty men. In 1648, the parish of Row (modern Rhu) was created at the instigation of Aulay MacAulay, Laird of Ardincaple, who wanted to separate from the parish of Rosneath on the opposite side of the Gare Loch. He built the first parish kirk a year later and provided land for the kirk, minster's manse, and garden. The Glorious Revolution of 1688 saw the overthrow of the Roman Catholic, James II of England, in favour of the Protestant, William III of Orange. Though most of the English accepted William, Jacobites within Ireland and Scotland opposed him in favour of the deposed James. In 1689, the Earl of Argyll's offer to raise a regiment of 600 men in aid of William was accepted. Argyll's regiment was to consist of 10 companies of about 60 men each. That same year, Archibald MacAulay of Ardincaple raised a company of fencibles in aid of William. William and his wife Mary were crowned King and Queen of Scotland as William II and Mary II on 5 November 1689. In 1690, 'Ardencaple's Company' within the Earl of Argyll's Regiment was commanded by Captain Archibald MacAulay of Ardencaple, Lieutenant John Lindsay, and Ensign Robert MacAulay 'Anshent' (ancient). Later in 1694, Archibald's younger brother, Robert, is listed as Captain Robert MacAulay in the Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot. Even after the revolution had succeeded there was still a fear of invasion in Dumbartonshire by adherents to the expelled Jacobite king. Local parishes were required to muster their men. An example of the size of one particular muster around 1693 is as follows: in Kilmaronock, fifty men and ten guns; in Gleneagles, seventy-four men and three-score swords; in Luss, seventy men 'with arms conforme'; in Cardross, one hundred men and thirty stand of arms; and in Rhu, there were eighty-men and fifty-six firelocks. At first the individual parishes selected their own officers, but at general musters they were divded into two companies-one containing those above Leven, and those living below in the other. At a shire mustering at Kilpatrick in 1696, MacAulay of Ardincaple was selected as Captain of the company above Leven, with Noble of Ferme, Lieutenant, and Dugald MacFarlane of Tullibintall, Ensign. At the beginning of the 18th century, a group of MacAulays migrated to the former counties of Caithness and Sutherland. Fall of the clan and loss of Ardincaple Ardencaple Castle c. 1879, then occupied by H. E. Crum-Ewing of Srathleven, Lord Lieutenant of Dunbartonshire. See also: Ardencaple Castle The power of Clan MacAulay and the fortune of the Lairds of Ardincaple diminished from the 17th century into the 18th century. Successive lairds were forced to divide and sell, piece by piece, the lands once governed by the clan. As the laird's resources dried up, their lands fell into decay, and the once expansive lands of Ardincaple shrank to only a few farms. The last Macaulays seem to have been a perfect type of the true old Celtic school of men who thought much of their Chiefery, of their old connection with Clan Gregor, and of the retainers whom they could send out to fight or reive in alliance with them, but who thought nothing of the acres under their own power which could be made to bear the fruits of industry and of peace. - George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll, Scotland As It Was and As It Is. By the early 1750s, even the roof of Ardincaple Castle, seat of the clan chief, had fallen in. The overall condition of the castle had deteriorated to such an extent that the next laird was forced to abandon it and live in nearby Laggarie. The bulk of the Ardincaple estate ultimately passed into the hands of John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll. The last chief of the MacAulays, Aulay MacAulay, died at High Laggarie (now encompassed by the tiny village of Rhu) landless and without an heir to succeed as chief in about 1767. In 1794, Lord Frederick Campbell (brother of John, 5th Duke of Argyll) supervised the draining of the marsh and bog-ridden former lands of the Lairds of Ardincaple. The poor state of the lands of Ardincaple before that year is illustrated in the statement by George Campbell, 8th Duke of Argyll: that much of the land couldn't bear the weight of a cow, and local men of the time remembered when horses would be lost in the bogholes prevalent in the area. Modern era: clan associations Since the death of the last chief, in the 18th century, the clan ceased to exist. Though with a revival of Scottish interest in the 20th century several MacAulays unsuccessfully attempted to prove a genealogical link to the last chief, and a movement was organised to revive the clan. In 1997 Iain McMillian MacAulay was made interim leader, or Clan Commander. Later in 1998, during its first assembly, the organisation's objectives were determined: to unite three unrelated groups of MacAulays under one chief - Clan MacAulay (the MacAulays of Ardincaple), the MacAulays of Lewis, and the MacAulays of Ullapool and Loch Broom. This new chief would then, in effect, be chief of all MacAulays. In 1999 MacAulay intended to petition the Lord Lyon King of Arms to be recognised as chief but was challenged by Iain Davidson MacAulay, originally a native of Helensburgh who claimed a direct bloodline to the chiefs of the clan. Ardencaple Castle, located near Helensburgh, Scotland. Today, all that remains of the grand turreted mansion is a solitary tower. In 2001, an ad hoc derbhfine took place at Tulloch Castle, Dingwall in Easter Ross with the intention of nominating a person to petition Lyon Court to become a recognised clan chief. Prior to the derbhfine Ross Herald wrote to six armigers and ten landowners supplied by the Clan MacAulay Association, who would be involved in the voting. The derbhfine, which was supervised by Ross Herald, took place in front of 50 clan members, and the voting was carried out by only 11 members. The derbhfine ruled that Iain McMillan MacAulay, and 80-year-old armiger, should lead the clan. After being nominated as leader, MacAulay then petitioned the Lord Lyon King of Arms for the right to receive the Undifferenced arms of the last chief of Clan MacAulay, legally making him clan chief. Later in 2002, the Robin Blair, the Lord Lyon King of Arms rejected MacAulay's petition. He ruled that a petitioner without a genealogical link to a past chief would have to rule as Commander of the Clan for ten years before being considered for recognition as a chief. Following this, The Scotsman reported that the reasoning behind his ruling was that recognising MacAulay as chief would discourage any further research into finding a blood link to the chiefs of the clan. And that such research was unnecessary. The Lord Lyon also stated, that with no historical evidence linking the MacAulays of Lewis and Clan MacAulay (the MacAulays of Ardincaple), 'there does not seem to be any firm basis for considering the present Petition other than in the context of the Ardincaple MacAulays alone.' Later in 2002, clan members then decided on a democratic process to select a clan chief. It was decided that a potential chief would have to be elected by all clan members for a duration of five years at a time, before being re-elected again. At the time it was also debated over whether a potential chief should have to be a resident in Scotland, however a decision on this could not be agreed upon. Following Iain McMillan MacAulay's death in 2003 his son, Diarmid Iain MacAulay, was elected by members as chief of Clan MacAulay. The present Clan MacAulay does not have a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, and therefore can be considered an Armigerous clan. According to the Clan MacAulay Association in Scotland website, there will be a 'clan gathering' held in Edinburgh during the International Gathering of the Clans festivities which will take place from July 25-July 26, 2009. DNA study: separate clans, unrelated septs In 2003 the Clan MacAulay Society decided to undertake a DNA project to determine how people with the surname, including its many variants, were related to each other. There have also been several other DNA projects involving the MacAulay surnames, including one for MacAulays with ancestral links to North Uist. An analysis of the combined results, 54 members as of November 2007, showed that there were nine separate blood-lines of 'MacAulays' and 8 members who could not be attached to a blood-line. Of these nine distint groups, three were determined to represent known clans or septs, however these clans/septs have no historical link with Clan MacAulay: the MacAuleys of Fermanagh (Ireland); the MacAulays of North Uist (Western Isles); the Macaulays of Lewis (Western Isles). The other blood-line groups could not be attached to any particular clan, as well as the 8 members without a blood-line group, and as such no DNA group or member has yet stood out as representing a Clan MacAulay blood-line. In Ireland See also: Plantation of Ulster During the early 17th century, Clan MacAulay was involved in the Plantation of Ulster, as King James I began colonising regions of Ireland with English and Scottish settlers. Several MacAulays were transplanted from Scotland to Ulster during this era. The Duke of Lennox was the chief undertaker in the precinct of Portlough (eastern County Donegal) and his resident agent was Sir Aulay MacAulay. In the same precinct, Alexander MacAulay of Durling (also known as 'Alexander M'Awley, alias Stewart') was alloted 1,000 acres (4.0 km²), called Ballyneagh. By 1617, the MacAulay-controlled Ballyneagh consisted of a stone house, a bawn of lime and stone, two freeholders, nine lessees, and was able to produce thirty men with arms. Alexander MacAulay, alias Stewart later succeeded Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple as chief of Clan MacAulay, and sold his lands in Ireland. Irish MacAuleys Today many of the McAuleys (and other various spellings of the name) living in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland are descendants of Clan MacAulay of Ardincaple, though there are several different clans or septs of native Irish MacAuleys who are unrelated to one another and also have no link with Scotland at all. Map of Ireland. The McAuleys of County Offaly & County Westmeath derive their name from Amhalgaidh (Old Irish), who lived in the 13th century. They are of native Irish descent, with an ancient descent from Niall of the Nine Hostages. Their lands were in western County Westmeath and northern County Offaly; the heartland of the sept was near Ballyloughnoe, County Westmeath, known in Elizabethan times as 'MacGawleys Country.' The McAuleys in Ulster get their name from Amhlaoibh, a Gaelic personal name derived from the Old Norse names Áleifr and Óláfr. These McAuleys trace a descent from Amhlaoibh, son of the first Maguire King of Fermanagh, Donn Carrach Maguire. The Mac Amhlaoibhs are said to have conquered southern Fermanagh for the Maguires and have left their name on the area in Clanawley. The MacAuleys of the Glens are thought to be of Scottish descent. Located in the Glens of Antrim, the MacAuleys were allies of the MacDonnells in the 16th century. The MacDonnells held parts of Clannaboy while the MacAuleys, MacGills, and MacAllisters occupied the northeast coast of Antrim. On the plain of Bun-na-mairgie, near Ballycastle, the MacDonnells (lead by Sorley Boy MacDonnell) fought the MacQuillans. Before the battle, the MacQuillans appealed to the O'Neills of Lower Claneboy and to the MacAuleys and MacPhoils of the middle Glens of Antrim for assistance against the MacDonnells. The two small clans (the MacAuleys and MacPhoils) were two days late to the battle; when they arrived, they were only spectators to a battle which was near its climax. Sorley Boy MacDonnell then rode out to the chief of the MacAuleys and persuaded him to join his ranks, as did the MacPhoils. Their combined force then drove the MacQuillans to the banks of the river Aura, where they were finally defeated and the chief of the MacQuillans slain in what is known as the Battle of Aura. Festivities lasted for several days after the battle and a cairn, called 'Coslin Sorley Boy', was raised on the mountain Trostan. A branch of the MacAulays of Ardincaple settled in County Antrim, with the leading member of the family owning the Glenarm estate for some time until it passed to the MacDougalls in 1758. Clan profile Origin of the name As stated, the clan surname MacAulay (and its numerous variations) has been thought by some to descend from the family of the Earls of Lennox. George F. Black wrote that this name originated from the Gaelic patronymic name MacAmhalghaidh ('son of Amalghaidh'). The Old Gaelic personal name Amalghaidh, pronounced almost like 'Aulay' or 'Owley', is of uncertain meaning. Several unrelated 'MacAulay' clans or septs, such as MacAulays from the Western Isles, and MacAuleys from County Fermanagh, derive their name from a Gaelic form of an Old Norse personal name. Clan symbols: crest badge and clan badge A scottish crest badge is a heraldic badge used by clan members to show allegiance to a specific clan and its chief. Crest badges are made of metal, usually silver in colour, and are worn on a bonnet. In most cases crest badges are made up of the clan chief's heraldic crest, surrounded by a strap and buckle which contains the chief's heraldic motto or slogan upon it. However, in the case of Clan MacAulay, no coat of arms of a chief of the clan has ever been matriculated by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The crest badge appropriate for a clan member of Clan MacAulay contains the Latin motto DULCE PERICULUM ('Danger is sweet'). The crest within the badge is an antique boot, couped at the ankle, proper. In 1608 Sir Aulay MacAulay of Ardincaple was a Shire Commissioners for Dumbartonshire (prior to the Acts of Union 1707, a Shire Commissioner was the equivalent of the English office of Member of Parliament). Sir Aulay was one of two commissioners who were tasked with regulating the price of boots and shoes. Another clan symbol is a clan badge or plant badge. Clan badges were originally plants worn from a bonnet or tied to a spear or pole. There have been two clan badges attributed to Clan MacAulay: Cranberry (Scottish Gaelic: A'Muileag, and Scots Pine (Scottish Gaelic: Giuthas). Both Clan MacAulay and Clan MacFarlane have been attributed with Cranberry. Clan MacFarlane, also a west-Dumbartonshire clan, claims a descent from Alwyn II, Earl of Lennox. The clan badge of Scots Pine has been attributed to all seven clans of Siol Alpin: Clan Grant, Clan Gregor, Clan MacAulay, Clan Macfie, Clan MacKinnon, Clan MacNab, and Clan MacQuarrie. Tartans There have been four published tartans associated with the surname MacAulay: Tartan image Notes MacAulay or Comyn/Cumming: This tartan was first published by James Logan as a MacAulay tartan and was illustrated in Logan and R. R. McIan's joint work The Clans of the Scottish Highlands in 1845. An almost identical tartan, listed as a Cymyne (Comyn) tartan, appeared in the 1842 work, Vestiarium Scoticum, by the infamous Sobieski Stuarts. In the 1850 work of W. & K. Smith, it is listed as Cumming tartan; the Smiths claimed the tartan had the sanction of the head family of Cumming. MacAulay: This shortened version of the tartan published by Logan is first found in 1881 by M'Intyre North, who had copied (possibly erroneously) Logan's thread counts. The tartan then appears in James Grant's work of 1886, with Logan's original MacAulay tartan being listed again as a Comyn (Cumming). There are several theories as to how the shortened version came to be; a copyist's error could have left out four lines from Logan's count to produce this version, or manufacturers seeing Logan's design listed as a Cumming in the Smith work may have made the change to eliminate confusion. This shortened version looks similar to the MacGregor tartan, with whom the MacAulays have been associated. Frank Adam, in his The Clans, Septs & Regiments of the Scottish Highlands, claimed that this is the tartan of the MacAulays of Ardincaple. Also, that the MacAulays of Lewis, who were dependent on the MacLeods of Lewis, wear the MacLeod tartan. MacAulay: This tartan shows a definite similarity to the MacGregor tartan. It was first published in the The Baronage of Angus and Mearns in 1856. The Baronage of Angus and Mearns describes the tartan as '12 red, 1/4 blue, 6 green, 1/4 blue, 2 1/2 red, 1/4 blue, 3 green, 1/4 black, 1 white, 1/4 black, 3 green, 1/4 blue, 2 1/4 red, 1/4 blue, 6 green, 1/4 blue, 24 red.' Hunting MacAulay: this modern tartan conforms to the early MacAulay tartan recorded by Logan (top). Clan septs The Clan Campbell sept of MacPhederain (Anglicised as MacPhedran, McPhedran, Patterson, and Paterson) were descended from a MacAulay, according to William Buchanan of Auchmar. The MacPhedrans traditionally held the lands of Sonachan on Loch Awe, in what was largely Campbell territory. The earliest account of the MacPhedrans is in 1439, when 'Domenicus M'Federan' was granted confirmation for the lands of Sonachan by Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochawe. According to David Sellar the MacArthurs of Darleith descend from the MacAulays of Ardincaple. Darleith is located quite close to the old MacAulay seat at Ardincaple, about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi).

MacBain

Origins of the Clan There are several possible Gaelic origins for this name but the most likely is bheathain which means lively one. This could also have been renderd as Mac ic Bheatha which means MacBeth, a name which was very important in early Scottish history. When King Malcolm II of Scotland removed the MacBeth line from the Scottish throne, his power was constantly challenged by the powerful Scottish noble families of Moray. Various members of the family sought shelter in other parts of the kingdom. According to tradition the MacBains sought out his kin among descendents of Gillichatten Mor more commonly known as the Chattan Confederation. The earliest certain record of the name in its more modern form appeared in an old Kinrara manuscript of the mid 14th century, which names both Bean Macmilmhor and his son, Milmor MacBean. Wars of Scottish Independence In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan MacBain supported King Robert the Bruce. The MacBains are credited with killing the steward of John the Red Comyn, who was Bruce's rival to the throne. John the Red Comyn was the Chief of Clan Cumming/Comyn, he was stabbed to death by Robert the Bruce himself at Greyfriars Church in Dumfries in 1306. 16th Century Logiebride 1597, At a time of peace between the Clan MacKenzie and Clan Munro a fight broke out at a fair in logiebride which almost put the whole of Ross-shire into combustion. The fight began between John Macgillichallum (brother to the Laird of Raasay) and Alexander Bane (brother to Duncan Bane of Tulloch). The Munros took the side of Alexander Bane and the MacKenzies took the side of John Macgillichallum. John Macgllicham was killed along with John Mac-Murdo Mac-William and three others from the Clan MacKenzie. Alexander Bane escaped but three on his side were also killed; John Munro of Culcraggie, his brother Hutcheon Munro and John Munro Robertson. The clans MacKenzie and Munro then began assisting each side in preparing to invade each other. However nothing ever came of it and peace was resumed. Alexander Bane was the brother of the chief of Clan MacBain. Alexander's descendants later left the Clan MacBain and Chattan Confederation. They moved north and became a sept of the Clan MacKay. 17th Century Paul MacBean the 12th chief of the clan was in huge debt and was forced to relenquish his lands in 1685. The loss of the lands at Kinchyle must have been sorely felt however the present chief has done much to retrieve some of the Clan MacBain clan lands and establish a MacBain memorial park on the slopes of Loch Ness. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings The Clan MacBain supported the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715. Many of the MacBains were captured and transported to the plantations in Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina after the Stuart defeat. The Clan MacBain also took the side of the Jacobites during Uprisings of 1745 to 1746 where many of them fought at the Battle of Culloden. During the battle Gillies MacBean, a man said to be at least 6ft 4ins tall, with his back to a wall cut down 13 to 14 of his enemy until he was mortally wounded. It is said that a government officer made an attempt to call back his men to save him but MacBean was already dead. It was a MacBain who assisted the Chief of Clan Cameron of Lochiel who was injured and unable to walk and escape to safety. However the Clan MacMillan also claim to have carried Lochiel off the field at Culloden. After Culloden the chief struggled to keep the remaining clan lands together and they were finally sold in 1760. 19th Century & Boer Wars It was a MacBain who commanded the Gordon Highlanders regiment against the Boers of South Africa in 1881 during the Boer Wars. The Clan Today The present chiefly line descends from the younger son of Paul MacBean, the 12th chief during the 17th century, the elder line having ended in a daughter, Elizabeth Margaret Macbean, who married Dougald Stuart around 1790, but died without issue. The present chief has continued the work of his father, who retrieved some of the clan lands and established the Macbain memorial park on the slopes above Loch Ness. Clan profile Septs of Clan MacBain Bain Bane Bayne Bean Beattie Binnie Cobain Cobean MacBain McBain MacBean Macbeath Macbeth Macbheath Macilvain MacVean McElveen Castle & Clan Seat The seat of the Clan MacBain was originally at Tulloch Castle however this was later taken over by the Clan Davidson who laid claim to the lands. Meaning of the Name The names Bayne, Bain, Bane, MacBain, MacBean etc come from the Gaelic word 'Ban' which means 'light colourd', 'fair headed' or 'fair complexion'.

MacCallum

Origins of the Clan In Gaelic, Saint Columba's name was Colm. MacCallum means 'son of Colm'. The ancient Kingdom of Dál Riata where the first Scots of Ireland settled was home to Columba and the ancestors of the MacCallums. Despite all this we should not see the two as relations in blood but interpret the name MacCallum as 'follower of Columba'. Between Columba's time and the earliest historical reference to the MacCallums is almost a thousand years and the lands of Lorn, Argyllshire are generally regarded as MacCallum country. 13th Century A traditional story about the MacCallums is that, perhaps in the thirteenth century, the chief family at Colgin had three sons, all wishing to make their own lives away from home. Their father prepared them their horses and told them they should ride in their different directions and build their homes wherever their horses' panniers should first fall off. When the panniers of the first son fell off before he'd left his father's farm he chose to remain at home. The panniers of the second fell at Glenetive and the third used the advice to find himself setting up his residence at Kilmartin. 15th Century By 1414 Argyll was the estate of the Clan Campbell and Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow granted lands in Craignish and on the banks of Loch Avich to Reginald MacCallum of Corbatton. 17th Century & Civil War From the family in Poltalloch was Zachary MacCallum who was famous for his great strength. He was a supporter of the Marquess of Argyll and he was killed in 1647 by forces of Sir Alexander MacDonald at Ederline. After killing seven of the enemy Zachary MacCallum turned to Sir Alexander MacDonald, who would have been his eighth that day if MacCallum was not taken from behind by an enemy who killed him with a Scythe. 18th Century Chief Dugald MacCallum of Poltalloch inherited the Malcolm estate in 1779, and was the first to adopt the name of Malcolm permanently. Of the Malcolm chieftainship line: Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm was Commander in Chief of Saint Helena, and won the regard of Napoleon. Sir Pulteney Malcolm also commanded HMS Royal Oak as Captain of the ship. John Wingfield Malcolm of Poltalloch was created Lord Malcolm in 1896, and died in 1902, when the peerage became extinct, though his brother inherited his estate, and the feudal title of 'Malcolm of Poltalloch', descended with the chieftainship of the Clan. Clan Chief The current chief of Clan MacCallum/Malcolm is Robin N. L. Malcolm of Poltalloch. Clan Profile Gaelic Name: MacChaluim. Motto: In ardua petit (He has attempted difficult things). Plant Badge: Mountain Ash. Lands: Argyll Origin of Name: Son of Callum (Bald dove).

MacCulloch

Families of the name MacCulloch MacCulloch of Myreton 1. The MacCullochs of Myreton were a Lowland family who lived in southern Scotland overlooking Luce Bay near the Water of Luce. Unlike other MacCulloch families the MacCullochs of Myreton were not septs of another clan but owned their own territory and were seated at Cardoness Castle. Myreton is in southwest Scotland along the coast. Across the bay from Myreton lies another MacCulloch region related to Ardwell. King Robert the Bruce of Scotland of Scotland knighted Captain Cullo O'Neil and chose him to be his standard-barrer and Secretary of State around 1317. He gave Sir Cullo O'Neil lands in Lorn, Myreton, and Achawan which encompass Killerar and Ardwell in Gallaway. Sir Cullo O'Neil died in 1331 and left his estate of Myreton and other lands in Galloway to his eldest son Sir Godfrey, who assumed the surname of McCullo. The progenitor of this race is lost in antiquity and it is not until the 13th century that we have a positive record of the name. The first noted swore fealty to Edward I of England c.1296, and this lineage held the lands of Torhouse, Myreton and Ardwell in Galloway until, in 1682, Sir Godfrey Macculloch, through imprudence, was obliged to sell his inheritance and live in reduced circumstances. Following a fatal fight over some cattle with a Clan Gordon neighbour he fled the country for a time, but returned, only to be apprehended and executed in 1697. This story became the basis of an old Scottish legend: MacCulloch of Ross-shire 2. Another MacCulloch family, the MacCullochs of Ross-shire were known to have established themselves in Easter Ross by the 14th century, where they are first noted as followers of the Earl of Ross and Clan Ross. Several MacCullochs became Canons Regular of the Premonstratensian Order at Fearn Abbey in Ross-shire. In 1486 Angus MacCulloch of Tarell was killed at the Battle of Auldicharish fighting against the Clan MacKay who had long been at feud with the Clan Ross. In 1497 they aligned themselves as a sept of the Clan Munro in Ross-shire. The family had considerable tenure of lands around Tain. Their principal designation 'of Plaidis' was held until John Macculloch, Provost of Tain, bought the lands of Kindeace from Munro of Culnald in 1612, whereafter they became 'of Kindeace'. Other lands held by the Maccullochs in Easter Ross included Piltoun, Mulderg and Easter Drumm, the latter coming into their possession in 1649. MacCulloch of Oban 3. Another MacCulloch family, MacCullochs of Oban. A third 'clan' of Maccullochs inhabited lands in the vicinity of Oban, and the island of Kerrara, on the West coast of Argyll, where Macculloch of Colgin was long recognised as representer of his line who were said to be descended from a race of MacLulichs who had inhabited Benderloch under the patronage of the Clan MacDougall. That various MacCullochs allied themselves with other clans is undoubted but, given their individual land holdings, they no doubt held themselves to be the equal of any. McCulloch lineages and related families In 1966, with the death of his father, Walter Jameson McCulloch became the 14th of Ardwall, as well as sixth of Hills, the latter Maxwell estate near Lochrutton having been in the McCulloch family since 1710. He had three sons: Andrew Jameson (b.1935); John David (of Auchindinny) (b.1937) and Alexander Patton (1946). His extensive book which was published for private family use contains trees of the following McCulloch lineages and related families: McCulloch of Myreton McCulloch of Ardwell (later of Myretoun) McCulloch of Killasser McCulloch of Torhouse McCulloch of Drummorrel McCulloch of Inshanks and Mule McCulloch of Torhousekie McCulloch of Cardiness Gordon of Cardiness McCulloch of Barholm McCulloch of Kirkclaugh McCulloch of Auchengool McCulloch of Ardwall (Nether Ardwall) Maxwell of Hills. MacCulloch Tartans Image:Tartan.jpg The MacCullochs of Ross-shire, as septs of the Clan Munro and Clan Ross are permitted to wear either of those clans tartans and the MacCullochs of Oban as septs of the Clan MacDougall may wear their tartan or even the District of Galloway tartan. However the MacCullochs themselves also have their own clan tartan as well as a second 'dress' tartan. Castles Cardoness Castle was the seat of the MacCullochs of Myreton which was built in the 1470's. Barholm Castle was the seat of a branch of the MacCullochs of Myreton who became known as the MacCullochs of Barholm. Myreton Castle was another seat of the MacCullochs of Myreton which was built in the 16th century but was sold to the Clan Maxwell in 1685. The castle was built on a thie site of a 12th century motte. Today the castle lies in ruin. Spelling variations Although MacCulloch is the most frequent because few people could write centuries ago, the spelling of the name has varied. This may mean that members of the same family may have even spelled their names differently. Spelling variations include: Culloch Gulloch McCulloch McCullough MacCoulaghe MacChullach MacAlach MacCullaigh MacCullough MacClullich MacLullich MacLullick Makcullocht

MacDonald of Clanranald

Clan Macdonald of Clanranald is a Scottish clan. The clan is one of several branches of Clan Donald. The clan chief of Clan Macdonald of Clanranald is designated Captain of Clanranald. Both chief and clan are recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Origins of the clan Clan Macdonald of Clanranald descends from Raghnall (d.1207), son of King Somerled (d.1164). Raghnall's eldest son Domhnall became chief of the head Clan Donald while his second son Ruairi became chief of Clanranald. By the early 14th century the direct male line of the chieftainship of Clanranald had died out. John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, 6th chief of Clan Donald inherited lands between the Great Glen and the Outer Hebrides through his marriage to Amie MacRuari, the female heiress to the Lordship of Garmoran and chieftainship of Clanranald. The two distant relatives John of Islay and Amie MacRuari both descended from the first Ranald who died in 1207, son of Somerled. Together they had a son called Ranald (d.1386) who took over as chief of Clanranald and was also expected to succeed his father John of Islay as chief of Clan Donald. However, John of Islay later married Margaret Stewart, the daughter of King Robert II of Scotland and they had a son called Donald who succeeded John of Islay as chief of the head Clan Donald. In 1373, Ranald (d.1386) received a charter confirmed to him by his father John of Islay, Lord of the Isles. The charter was for the greater part of the MacRuari inheritance including the districts of Moidart, Arisaig and Lochaber. Ranald had five sons. The eldest was called Alan (d.1430) who succeeded as Chief of the Clanranald. Alan's younger brother Donald became Chief of the Clan MacDonell of Glengarry. In a bond of manrent, dated 1571, between Angus MacAlester of Glengarry and Clan Grant, Glengarry makes an exception in favour 'of ye auctoritie of our soverane and his Chief of Clanranald only '. This is held by Clanranald of Moydart as an acknowledgment by Glengarry of the Captain of Clanranald as his chief. 15th century Alan MacRanald as he was known died in his Castle Tioram in 1419. He was succeeded by his son Roderick who was a staunch supporter of MacDonald Lord of the Isles. Roderick died in 1481 and was succeeded by his son, Allan Macruari. Allan took part in the Battle of Bloody Bay. Allan was a capable and warlike chief. He led raids into Lochaber and Badenoch in 1491 which culminated in the capture of Inverness Castle. Raid on Ross-shire 1491, Ewen Cameron, 13th Chief of Clan Cameron with a large force of Camerons, joined by Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh, Clanranald of Garmoran and Lochaber and the Chattan Confederation - who they must have made peace with on a raid into the county of Ross-shire. During the raid, they clashed with the Clan MacKenzie of Kintail. They then advanced from Lochaber to Badennoch where they were even joined by the Clan Mackintosh. They then proceeded to Inverness where they stormed Inverness Castle and Mackintosh placed a garrison in it. The Lords of Lochalsh appear at this time to have had strong claims upon the Camerons to follow them in the field. They were superiors under the Lord of the Isles of the lands of Lochiel in Lochaber, in addition to the claims of a close marriage alliance (Ewen married a daughter of Celestine of Lochalsh). This would serve to explain the quite unusual mutual participation under a common banner between the Camerons and Mackintoshes in this raid. The Clanranald adjusted to the realities of Royal power. On the first visit of King James IV of Scotland to the Highlands, Allen MacRuari chief of Clanranald, was one of the few chiefs to render him homage. 16th century In 1509, Alan MacRuari was tried, convicted, and executed in the presence of the King at Blair Atholl but for what crime is not known. Alan's eldest son, Ranald Bane, married a daughter of Lord Lovat. He obtained a charter for the lands of Moidart Arisaig in December 14, 1540. He died soon afterwards in 1451. He had one son, Ranald Galda, who was fosterd by his mother's relations in the Clan Fraser of Lovat. On the death of Ranald Bane, the 5th chief of Clanranald, the clan resolved to defeat his son's right to succeed as chief. This was because his mother's relations in the Clan Fraser of Lovat and the Clan Fraser itself had joind the Earl of Huntly who was chief of Clan Gordon in fighting against the Clan Donald or MacDonald. The Clanranald people themselves had chosen the next heir, John Moydartach (or John Moydart), Ranald's cousin. However, before this plan could be executed, Ranald, assisted by the Clan Fraser and Clan Fraser of Lovat, marched into Catletirrim and placed Ranald in possession of the lands. The Clanranald, assisted by the MacDonalds of Keppoch and Clan Cameron, then laid waste and plunderd the districts of Abertarf and Stratherrick belonging to Clan Fraser and Clan Fraser of Lovat. They then laid waste the lands of Urquhart and Glenmoriston, property of the Clan Grant and the Earl of Huntly of Clan Gordon. Clanranald , the MacDonalds of Keppoch, and Clan Cameron raised a substantial force in what became known as the Battle of the Shirts against Clan Fraser and Clan Fraser of Lovat. 300 Frasers were ambushed on their march home by 500 MacDonalds. Only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds are said to have survived the bloody engagement. Both the Lovat Chief, Lord Lovat and his son and heir were amongst the dead and were buried at Beauly Priory. Despite this, the Frasers were stronger than ever before within a hundred years. 17th century & The Civil War During the Civil War, the MacDonalds of Clanranald supported the Royalist cause and distinguished themselves when they served under James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose. The 14 year old chief of the MacDonalds of Clanranald led 500 clan men at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. 18th century & Jacobite uprisings Clanranald fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir during the initial early risings of 1715 where their chief was killed. Clanranald tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. In the later Jacobite uprisings of 1745 to 1746, the MacDonalds of Clanranald were amongst the Macdonalds who fought on the honoured right wing at the Battle of Prestonpans and the Battle of Falkirk (1746). However, at the Battle of Culloden, the three Macdonald regiments of Clanranald, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, and the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch formed the left wing. It was probably their feeling of dissatisfaction at being placed on the left of the line that caused the Macdonald regiments to leave the field in disgust at lack of acknowledgement of their honourable position among the highland clans. Castle The seat of the Clanranald chief was at Castle Tioram. Castle Tioram was seized by Government forces around 1692 when Clan Chief Allan of Clanranald joined the Jacobite Court in France, despite having sworn allegiance to the British Crown. A small garrison was stationed in the Castle until the Jacobite Uprising of 1715 when Allan Macdonald recaptured and torched the castle, purportedly to keep it out of the hands of the government forces. It has been unoccupied since that time, although there are some accounts suggesting it was partially inhabitated thereafter, including storage of firearms from the De Tuillay in the 1745 Jacobite Uprising and Lady Grange's account of her kidnapping. Clan profile Clan chief: Ranald Alexander Macdonald of Clanranald, 24th Chief and Captain of Clanranald, Mac Mhic Ailein. Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Chief's crest: On a castle triple towered, an arm in armour, embowed, holding a sword, proper. Chief's motto: My hope is constant in thee. Clan badge: Heath. Clan slogan: Dh'aindeoin co'theireadh e (translation from Gaelic: 'Gainsay who dare'). Pipe music: Spaidsearachd Mhic Mhic Ailein (translation from Gaelic: 'Clanranald's March'). Septs of Clanranald Septs of Clan MacDonald of Clanranald may include the following: Allan Allanson Currie MacAllan MacBurie MacEachin MacGeachie MacGeachin MacIsaac MacKeachan Mackechnie MacKeochan MacKessock MacKichan MacKissock MacMurrich MacVarish MacVurrich MacVurie McCrindle Park

MacDonald of Keppoch

Clan MacDonald of Keppoch, also known as Clan Ranald of Lochaber, is a Scottish Clan. History The MacDonalds of Keppoch are descended from Alistair Carrach Macdonald who was a younger son of Good John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, 6th chief of Clan Donald and his second wife Margaret Stewart, daughter of King Robert II of Scotland. For his involvement in the 1431 inserrection of Donald Balloch, Alistair Carrach had a large portion of his lands removed and transferd to the Chief of the Clan MacKintosh. In 1497 some of the Clan MacLaren stole cattle from the Braes of Lochaber from the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch. The MacDonalds followed them and overtook them at a place called Glenurchy where a battle took place. The MacDonalds won and recovered their cattle. However the MacLarens then looked for assistance from Dugel Stuart of Appin. Another battle then took place where the MacLarens were now joined by the Stuarts against the MacDonalds. During the battle Dugel, the chief of Clan Stuart and the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch chief were both killed. The 12th Chief of the Clan Macdonald of Keppoch called Alexander along with his brother was slain in 1663 in what is remembered as in gaelic as Tobair-nan-ceann meaning the Well of Heads, not far from Invergarry. This is where the heads of seven murderers were washed before presentation to the Lord MacDonnell of Invergarry. In 1668 the MacDonalds of Keppoch fought at the Battle of Mulroy. Noted in the Black-book of Taymouth that in 1681 a bond of manrent was given by Gilleasba, chief of Keppoch, to John Glas, first Earl of Breadalbane; 'such as Ceppoch's predecessors gave to the Earl's predecessors.' binding Keppoch 'to restrain all the inhabitants of Brae-Lochaber, and all of the name of Macdonell, from committing robberies within the Earl's bounds.' During the Jacobite Uprisings the son of the 15th Chief of Clan MacDonald of Keppoch was among the men who attacked British government soldiers who were preparing a surprise assault on the Glenfinnan gathering at what is now known as the Highbridge Skirmish. This was the first strike on the government during the 1745 to 1746 uprising. The MacDonalds of Keppoch were also involved in the Siege of Fort William in March 1746. This son of the chief later died at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. The MacDonalds of Keppoch were without a chief for over 150 years until the 13th September 2006 when Ranald Alasdair MacDonald was acknowledged as the lawful chief by the Lyon Court, following a 30 year fight for the right to use the ancient title of Mac Mhic Raonuill. The original seat of the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch was at Tom 'a Charraigh at Torlundy et al. Septs of Clan MacDonald of Keppoch Septs of Clan MacDonald of Keppoch include the following. Other branches of the Clan MacDonald have different septs. Alexander, Sanderson, MacGillivantic, MacGilp, Macglasrich, MacKillop, MacPhilip, Philipson, Ronald, Ronaldson. The family of MacRanald, now mainly spelled McReynolds, was also a branch of the Keppoch's. A very ancient and rare name in Scotland.

MacDonald of Sleat

The MacDonalds of Sleat are a branch of the Clan Donald or MacDonald. History Origins of the clan The Macdonalds of Sleat are descendants of Hugh MacDonald (d.1498) who was a younger son of Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross, 3rd Lord of the Isles and 8th chief of Clan Donald. Hugh had ability and power and sat on the council of the Isles. During the 1400s attempts were made by various people to reclaim the MacDonald's mainland possessions. However Hugh obtained a charter to retain his lands. His son John MacDonald inherited these lands from him. 16th century and clan conflicts By the 16th century the power of the MacDonalds, Lords of the Isles had warned. The Clan Matheson no longer supported the MacDonalds but were now in allegiance with the Clan MacKenzie. Chief Iain Dubh Matheson died whilst defending the Castle on Eilean Donan island against the Clan MacDonald of Sleat for the Clan MacRae and Clan MacKenzie in 1539. The Battle of the Western Isles, 1586, Fought on the Isle of Jura, between the Clan MacDonald of Sleat and the Clan MacLean. The Macdonald of Sleat brothers John had five sons, each to a different woman. These Macdonalds threw the clan into a period of destructive evil. One of these sons called Black Archibald is described as having a soul as dark as his complexion. With two of the other half brothers he conspired to murder the eldest of the half brothers who he strangled. Black Archibald invited another of the half brothers called Donald Hearach to dinner to see his newly built gallery. During the dinner he stabbed Donald in the back. In the violent reprisals that followed the Black Archibald was the only one of the half brothers to survive. However Black Archibald was later murderd by his nephews Donald and Ranald Grumach. This Donald then became Chief of the Clan MacDonalds of Sleat in 1518. 17th century and clan conflicts The Battle of Siol Tormoit was fought in 1601 between the Clan MacDonald of Sleat and the Clan MacLeod. The Clan MacDonald of Sleat branch became known as Clan Donald North to distinguish themselves from the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg branch who became known as Clan Donald South. In 1608 after a century of feuding which included battles against the Clan MacKenzie and Clan MacLean all of the relevant MacDonald Chiefs were called to a meeting with Lord Ochiltree who was the King's representative. Here they discussed the future Royal intentions for governing the Isles. The Chiefs did not agree with the King and were all thrown into prison. Donald the Chief of the MacDonalds of Sleat was incacerated in the Blackness Castle. His release was granted when he at last submitted to the King. Donald died in 1616 and then Sir Donald MacLeod, his nephew succeeded as the chief and became the first Baronet of Sleat. In 1689 the chief led 500 men of the Clan MacDonald of Sleat at the Battle of Killiecrankie, in support of John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee where they were victorious. 18th century and Jacobite uprisings Unlike other branches of the Clan Donald the Clan MacDonald of Sleat did not take any part in the Jacobite Uprisings. As a result the Sleat possessions remained secure and intact. Castle The seat of the Chief of the Clan MacDonald of Sleat was at Dunscaith Castle which is now a ruin. Clan chief The current chief of the Clan MacDonald of Sleat is Sir Ian Bosville Macdonald, 17th Baronet of Sleat. Clan profile Clan Crest: A hand in armour in fess, holding by the point a cross crosslet fitchy, gules. Clan Motto: Per mar per terras, (Latin), By sea and land. Clan Badge: Heath.

MacDonald or Donald

Clan Donald is one of the largest Scottish clans. The MacDonald clan has many separate branches: Clan Donald Clan crest These are the Clan Donald branches with extant chiefs, including the main Clan Donald followed by their Gaelic patronymics: Lord Macdonald who is the High Chief of Clan Donald whose ancestor was the Lord of the Isles. The MacDhomnhaill. MacDonald of Sleat MacUisdean. MacDonald of Clanranald. Mac Mhic Ailean. MacDonnell of Glengarry. Mac Mhic Alasdair. MacDonald of Keppoch. Mac Mhic Raghnaill. McDonell of Antrim chiefs hold the title Earl of Antrim. Mac Somhairle Buidhe. Clan MacAlister. MacAlasdair. These are the other branches of the Clan Donald without extant chiefs: MacDonald of Ardnamurchan or MacIain of Ardnamurchan. Mac Iain Aird nam Murachan. MacDonald of Lochalsh now part of the Macdonalds of Sleat. MacDonald of Glencoe Mac Iain Abrach. MacDonald of Dunnyveg or McDonnells of the Glens or Clan Donald South. Mac Iain Mhoir. History Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. 580-600. Later territory of King Somerled ancestor of the MacDonalds. Pictish regions are marked in yellow. Origins of the Clan The Norse-Gaelic Clan Donald traces its descent from Domhnall mac Raghnaill (d. circa 1250), whose father Reginald or Ranald was styled 'King of the Isles' and 'Lord of Argyll and Kintrye'. Ranald's father, Somerled was styled 'King of the Hebrides', and was killed campaigning against Malcolm IV of Scotland at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164. Clan Donald shares a descent from Somerled with Clan MacDougall, who trace their lineage from his elder son,Blake Donald. Gaelic tradition gave Somerled a Celtic descent in the male line, as the medieval Seanachies traced his lineage through a long line of ancestors back to Colla Uais and Conn of the Hundred Battles. Thus Clan Donald claimed to be both Clann Cholla and Siol Chuinn (Children of Colla and Seed of Conn). Possibly the oldest piece of poetry attributed to the MacDonalds is a brosnachadh (an incitement to battle) which was said to have been written in 1411, on the day of the Battle of Harlaw. The first lines of the poem begin 'A Chlanna Cuinn cuimhnichibh / Cruas an am na h-iorghaile,' (Ye children of Conn remember hardihood in the time of battle). A later poem made to John of Islay (1434 - 1503), last of the MacDonald Lords of the Isles, proclaims 'Cennus Ghaoidheal do Chlainn Cholla, coir a fhogra,' (The Headship of the Gael to the family of Colla, it is right to proclaim it), giving MacDonald's genealogy back to Colla Uais. However a recent DNA study has shown that Somerled may have been of Norse descent in his male line. By testing the Y-DNA of males bearing the surnames MacDonald, MacDougall, MacAlister, and their variants it was found that a substantial proportion of men tested shared the same Y-DNA and a direct paternal ancestor. This distinct Y-chromosome found in Scotland has been regarded as showing Norse descent in the British Isles. According to the Clan Donald DNA Project about 22% of tested participants have this signature of Somerled. Scottish-Norwegian War The MacDonalds had always supported Norway. However, this alliance broke when the Norwegians were defeated at the Battle of Largs in 1263 by Scottish forces. Norway's King Haakon was defeated and his fleet was wrecked by the skilled manoeuvres of King Alexander III of Scotland and the Clan MacDougall. Three years later, the Norwegians submitted their last islands to the Scottish crown. Aonghas Mór, the son of Domhnall, then made peace with King Alexander III of Scotland. Wars of Scottish Independence MacDonald, Lord of the Isles In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the MacDonalds fought with Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. It was Donald's great grandson, Angus Og of Islay who was the 6th Lord of the Isles who sheltered King Robert the Bruce. Angus led a small band of Islesmen at the Battle of Bannockburn. In recognition of Clan Donalds support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald would always occupy the honored position on the right wing of the Scottish army. Lord of the Isles begins The clan takes its name 'Donald' from the name of the 1st Lord of the Isles who was the grandson of King Somerled who lived until 1269. Donald's son was the original 'Mac' which means 'son of'. It was Donald's great grandson, Angus Og who was the 6th Lord of the Isles who sheltered King Robert the Bruce. In recognition of Clan Donalds support King Robert the Bruce proclaimed that Clan Donald would always occupy the honored position on the right wing of the Scottish army. In 1380 the Clan MacLean, Clan MacLeod and Clan Mackinnon were together all defeated in battle by Donald Macdonald, Lord of the Isles, who vindicated his right as Lord of the Isles. 15th century Earldom of Ross The title and territory of the Earl of Ross had originally been held by the Chief of Clan Ross. However Angus Og's grandson, Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles married the first female heiress of the Earl of Ross. He later successfully claimed the position of Earl of Ross through marriage. This was secured by the Battle of Harlaw on 24 July 1411 where most of the highland clans supported Donald in preventing the Duke of Albany and his army of Scottish Lowlanders from claiming the position for himself. However by 1415 the Earldom of Ross was lost as Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany had seized Dingwall Castle and Easter Ross. Domhnall prepared for war and proclaimed himself 'Lord of Ross'. Although Albany appointed his own son John Stewart, 2nd Earl of Buchan as the new Earl of Ross. However, later the MacDonald chiefs would again become the Earls of Ross, firstly Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross and then his son John of Islay, Earl of Ross who surrendered the earldom in 1476 to James Stewart, Duke of Ross. Clan Conflicts Battle of Dingwall, 1411, The Clan MacKay are defeated by Clan Donald. They later joined forces and fought at the Battle of Harlaw. Battle of Split Allegiances, 1429, This conflict was between forces led by Alexander MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross, 3rd Lord of the Isles and the Royalist army of King James I of Scotland. Battle of Inverlochy (1431), While chief Alexander MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross was imprisoned by King James I, the Clan MacDonald were led by Donald Balloch, the nephew of Alexander. The MacDonalds were victorious in defeating the Earl of Mar's army. Battle of Blar-na-Pairc, 1477, Fought between the Clan MacDonald and Clan MacKenzie. Battle of Bloody Bay 1480. The battle was fought between John MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles and chief of Clan Donald (Eoin MacDomhnaill) against his son Angus Og Macdonald (Aonghas Óg ). John MacDonald of Islay, chief of Clan Donald was supported by men from the Clan MacLean, Clan MacLeod, and Clan MacNeil. He was opposed by his son, Angus Og Macdonald, who was supported Allan Macruari, chief of the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald. and Domhnall Mac Aonghais (Donald Mac Angus) chief of the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch Battle of Skibo and Strathfleet, 1480, John MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross invaded Sutherlandshire and fought against men of the Clan Sutherland and Clan Murray. Battle of Drumchatt, 1497, In 1495 King James assembled an army at Glasgow. Then on May 18 many of the Highland Chiefs made their submissions to him, including the MacKenzie and Munro chiefs. Soon after this Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh and his clan rebelled against the King. He invaded the fertile lands of Ross-shire where he was defeated in battle by the Clan Munro and Clan MacKenzie at a place called Drumchatt where he was driven out of Ross-shire. 16th century MacDonald of the Isles (MakDonnald of ye Ylis) tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. Lord of the Isles ends The position of Lord of the Isles which the MacDonald chief had held since the 13th century had been revoked in 1495. However the MacDonalds remained a powerful clan and retained much of their lands until much violence broke out in the middle of the 16th century. Clan Conflicts Battle of Flodden Field, 1513, During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the son of Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh led the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh against the English army. On his return he attempted to take control of the government-held Urquhart Castle. Battle of the Shirts, 1544, The Clan MacDonald of Clanranald fought against the Clan Fraser at the on the shores of Loch Lochy. Legend has it that only five Frasers and eight MacDonalds survived. Battle of the Spoiling Dyke, 1578 MacDonalds of Uist and the Clan MacLeod. Battle of the Western Isles, 1586, Fought on the Isle of Jura, between the Clan MacDonald of Sleat and the Clan Maclean. Battle of the Isle of Islay, 1598, Fought between the Clan Donald and Clan Maclean on the Isle of Islay. 17th Century & The Civil War Battle of Siol Tormoit, 1601, Fought between the Clan MacDonald of Sleat and the Clan MacLeod. The MacLeods were defeated. Battle of Morar, 1602, Fought between the Clan MacDonell of Glengarry and the Clan Mackenzie. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644-47 was in large part a clan war between the MacDonalds and Clan Campbell. the MacDonalds sided with the Royalists in the English Civil War and the Irish Confederate Catholics in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The Campbells sided with the Scottish Covenanters. A MacDonald clansman, Alasdair MacColla raised an Irish force in 1644 and landed in Scotland, with the aim of linking up with the Scottish Royalists and taking back the lands that Clan Donald had lost to the Campbells. After a year of campaigning around Scotland, in which MacColla's men ravaged the Campbell lands, the two sides met at the Battle of Inverlochy (1645). This battle was between the Scottish Argyll government forces of Clan Campbell led by Archibald Campbell, 1st Marquess of Argyll and the Royalist forces of the Marquess of Montrose mainly made up of Irish O'Kanes, O'Neills, Ulster Irish Clan MacDonald, Clan MacLean and other MacDonalds. Through cunning tactics the Royalist force of 1500 MacDonalds, Irish and MacLeans defeated the Argyll Campbell force of 3000. In 1645 during the Civil War, Kinlochaline Castle of the Clan MacInnes was attacked and burned by MacDonalds serving under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. Battle of Mulroy, 1668, The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch and Clan Cameron defeat the Clan MacKintosh and Clan MacKenzie Massacre of Glencoe, 1692, 38 unarmed MacDonalds from the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe were murdered in the Massacre of Glencoe when an initiative to suppress Jacobitism was entangled in the long running feud between Clan MacDonald and Clan Campbell. The slaughter of the host MacDonalds at the hands of their Campbell guests was a major affront to Scottish Law and Highland tradition. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite risings of 1715 the British Government forces, including some units drawn from Clan Campbell fought against the Jacobite rebels, made up, amongst others, of the men of Clan Donald who were under MacDonald of Keppoch and the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald whose chief was killed. However there were in fact some Campbells who took the Jacobites's side, led by the son of Campbell of Glenlyon whose father had commanded the government troops at the Massacre of Glencoe 22 years earlier. The two young men buried the hatchet and swore to be brothers in arms, fighting side by side in the Battle of Sheriffmuir. The British forces defeated the Jacobites. The Clan Donald fought on the side of the Jacobites during the 1745-1746 uprisings with three regiments from Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald, Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry, Clan MacDonald of Keppoch and the Clan MacDonald of Glencoe fighting at the Battle of Prestonpans, Battle of Falkirk (1746) and the Battle of Culloden. A number of MacDonalds were killed at Culloden although many of them left the field after seeing the slaughter of other clans who charged the government lines before them. The Clan MacDonald of Sleat branch did not take part in the Jacobite Uprisings therefore the Sleat possessions remained intact. MacDonald's Castles Castles that have been in possession of the MacDonalds over the centuries have included: Finlaggan Castle is located on an island, on Loch Finlaggan, on the Isle of Islay. It was the seat of the chief of Clan Donald, Lord of the Isles. Armadale Castle on the Isle of Skye was built in 1825 and today houses a MacDonald Clan centre which is open to the public. Knock Castle (Isle of Skye) is a ruined Macdonald castle located on the Isle of Skye. Duntulm Castle is a ruined Macdonald castle located on the Isle of Skye. Aros Castle is a ruined MacDonald castle located on the Isle of Mull. Claig Castle is a ruined MacDonald castle located on the Isle of Jura. Kildonan Castle is a ruined MacDonald castle located on the Isle of Arran. Ardtornish Castle is a ruined MacDonald castle located on the peninsuala Morvern. Dunaverty Castle is a ruined MacDonald castle, off the coast of Kintyre, known as Blood Rock because of the incident known as the Dunaverty Massacre which took place there. Castle Tioram, Loch Moidart, Lochaber was the seat of the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald. Borve Castle was another castle of the MacDonalds of Clan Ranald. Ormiclate Castle was another castle of the MacDonalds of Clan Ranald. Invergarry Castle, built on the Raven's Rock was the seat of the Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry. . Strome Castle on the shore of Loch Carron was an earlier castle of the MacDonnells of Glengarry. Dunluce Castle in Ireland was the seat of the Clan MacDonnell of Antrim, Earls of Antrim. Glenarm Castle in Ireland was another castle of the MacDonnells of Antrim. Dunyvaig Castle on the Isle of Islay was the seat of the Clan MacDonald of Dunnyveg. Dunscaith Castle on the Isle of Skye was the seat of the Clan MacDonald of Sleat. Mingarry Castle in Kilchoan, Lochaber was the seat of the Clan MacDonald of Ardnamurchan. Clan Chiefs The current chief of Clan Donald is the Right Honourable Godfrey James Macdonald of Macdonald, 8th Lord Macdonald, Chief of the Name and Arms of Macdonald, High Chief of Clan Donald and 34th hereditary Chief of Clan Donald. He descends directly from the ancient Kings and Lords of the Isles. The following is a list of some of the early chiefs of Clan Donald. Name Died Notes Donald Dubh 1545 Rebelled against the king of Scotland but made an alliance with the king of England. Aonghas Óg 1490 'Bastard' son of John of Islay. Last MacDonald Lord of the Isles. John of Islay, Earl of Ross 1503 Fought at the Battle of Bloddy Bay against his son. Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross 1449 His other sons were Celestine of Lochalsh and Hugh of Sleat. Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles 1422/3 Fought at the Battle of Harlaw. John of Islay, Lord of the Isles 1380 His other sons were John Mor (Earls of Antrim) and Alastair Carroch of Keppoch. Angus Og of Islay 1329/16 Fought at the Battle of Bannockburn. Other son was Ian Fraoch of Glencoe. Aonghas Mór (Angus Mor MacDonald) 1292 His other sons were Alastair Og (deposed) and John Sprangach of Ardnamurchan. Domhnall mac Raghnaill (Donald) 1250 From who the Clan Donald takes its name. Raghnall mac Somhairle (Ranald) 1207 Other son was Ruairi of Clanranald. Somerled 1164 Killed at the Battle of Renfrew. Clan profile Gaelic Name: MacDhomhnuill. Motto: Per mare per terras (By sea and by land). Plant Badge: Heather. Lands: The Western Isles. Origin of Name: Gaelic, Domhnull (World ruler). Septs of Clan Donald Septs of Clan Donald include the following. Other branches of Clan Macdonald have different septs. Alexander, Beath, Beaton, Bethune, Bowie, Colson, Connall, Connell,Cram,Crum, Danalds, Darroch, Donald, Donaldson, Donillson, Donnelson, Drain, Galbraith, Galt, Gilbride, Gorrie, Gowan, Gowrie, Hawthorn, Hewison, Houstoun, Howison, Hughson, Hutcheonson, Hutchinson, Hutchison, Isles, Kellie, Kelly, Kinnell, Mac a' Challies, MacBeth, MacBeath, MacBheath, MacBride, MacBryde, MacCaishe, MacCall, MacCash, MacCeallaich, MacCodrum, MacColl, MacConnell, MacCook, MacCooish, MacCrain, MacCuag, MacCuish, MacCuitein, MacCutcheon, MacDaniell, Macdrain, MacEachern, MacElfrish, MacElheran, MacGorrie, MacGorry, MacGoun, MacGowan, MacGown, MacHugh, MacHutchen, MacHutcheon, MacIan, Macilreach, Macilriach, Macilleriach, Macilrevie, Macilvride, Macilwraith, MacKean, MacKellachie, MacKellaig, MacKelloch, MacKiggan, MacKinnell, MacLairish, MacLardie, MacLardy, MacLarty, MacLaverty, MacLeverty, MacMurchie, MacMurdo, MacMurdoch, MacO'Shannaig, MacQuistan, MacQuisten, MacRaith, MacRorie, MacRory, MacRuer, MacRurie(MacRury- Contester of the Lord of the Isles), MacShannachan, MacSorley, MacSporran, MacSwan, MacWhannell, Martin, May, McReyolds, McRuer, Murchie, Murchison, Murdoch, Murdoson, O'Drain, O'May, O'Shannachan, O'Shaig, O'Shannaig, Patton, Purcell, Revie, Reoch, Riach, Rorison, Shannon, Sorley, Sporran, Train, Whannel, Wheelans, Wheelens, Whillans, Whillens, Wilkie, Wilkinson, Wilkins, Willans, Willens

MacDonnell of Glengarry

Clan MacDonell of Glengarry is a branch of Clan Donald taking its name from Glen Garry where the river Garry runs eastwards through Loch Garry to join the Great Glen about 16 miles (25 km) north of Fort William. The principal families descended from the house of Glengarry were the McDonells of Barrisdale, in Knoydart, Greenfield, and Lundie. History Origins of the clan The MacDonells of Glengarry claim descent from Donald, one of the five sons of Ranald (d.1386), chief of Clanranald. The parents of Ranald (d.1386) were John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, 6th chief of Clan Donald and Ami MacRuairi the heiress to the chiefship of Clanranald. The two distant relatives, John of Islay and Amie MacRuairi both descend from Ranald (d.1207), son of King Somerled. They married and their son Ranald (d.1386) became chief of Clanranald. Ranald was also expected to succeed his father, John of Islay as chief of Clan Donald. However John of Islay later married Margaret Stewart, the daughter of Robert II of Scotland. They had a son called Donald who became the next chief of Clan Donald. Ranald (d.1386) had five sons. One of these five, Alan (d.1430) succeeded him as chief. Another of the five sons, Donald (d.1420) became chief of the MacDonells of Glengarry. 16th century & clan conflicts Glengarry first played an independent part in the politics of Clan Donald when in 1539 the Macdonald chief received a feudal charter from the Scottish crown. Glengarry chose to follow Donald Gorm of Sleat in an attempt to reclaim Lordship of the Isles which collapsed with a failed assault on Eilean Donan Castle in which Donald died. Along with other chiefs, Glengarry was tricked into attending on King James V of Scotland at Portree where they were captured and imprisoned in Edinburgh until the King died in 1542. In 1544 the MacDonells of Glengarry fought against the Clan Fraser at the Battle of the Shirts. In 1545 Alexander MacRanald of Glengarry and North Morar was one of the lords and barons of the Isles who pledged allegiance to the king of England. In a bond of manrent, dated 1571, between Angus MacAlester of Glengarry and Clan Grant, Glengarry makes an exception in favour 'of ye auctoritie of our soverane and his Chief of Clanranald only '. This is held by Clanranald of Moydart as an acknowledgment by Glengarry of the Captain of Clanranald as his chief. By the middle of the 16th century the Clan Matheson had greatly diminished in size and influence, and John Matheson's son Dougal possessed no more than a third of the ancient Matheson property on Lochalsh. Even that property he was in danger of losing by engaging in a dangerous feud on his own account with 'Clan MacDonell of Glengarry. This powerful chief had established himself on the shores of Loch Carron at hand, and he presently seized Matheson and threw him into prison, where he died. This incident brought about the final ruin of the Clan Matheson as a powerful clan. With a view to avenge his father's death, and recover his lost territory; Dougal Matheson's son, Murdoch Buidhe Matheson, relinquished all his remaining property, excepting the farms of Balmacara and Fernaig, to the chief of the Clan MacKenzie of Kintail, in return for the services of an armed force with which to attack the Clan MacDonell of Glengarry. The lands thus handed over were never recovered from the MacDonells. Neither Matheson's generalship or the force given to him by Clan MacKenzie seems to have been enough to the task of forcing terms upon MacDonells of Glengarry. Later Murdoch Matheson's son, Ruari, the next Clan Matheson chief, had more satisfaction, when, as part of the following of the Clan MacKenzie chief in 1602, he set out to punish the MacDonells of Glengarry. On this occasion Glengarry's stronghold of Strome Castle, on Loch Carron, was stormed and destroyed. By this time the Mathesons appear to have been merely the 'kindly tenants' of the Clan MacKenzie compared to the more powerful clan they once were. In course of time that kindly tenancy, or occupation on condition of rendering certain services, was changed into a regular rent payment, and Balmacara and the other Matheson properties passed from the hands of the chiefs of that name for ever. The family was afterwards represented by the Mathesons of Bennetsfield. By 1581 the MacDonells of Glengarry controlled extensive territory and became involved in feuding and battles with Clan Mackenzie which led to them burning a church and the trapped congregation while the Glengarry piper marched round the building playing a tune still called Kilchrist after the name of the place. 17th century The Battle of Morar was fought on 1602 between the Clan MacDonell of Glengarry and the Clan Mackenzie. Donald, 8th of Glengarry, reportedly lived for more than a hundred years and was clan chief for over seventy years. In 1627 he succeeded in obtaining a charter under the Great Seal to make his lands a free barony. In 1649 he failed to appear before the Privy Council in Edinburgh to answer charges of harbouring fugitives from the Isles, and was denounced as a rebel. The Civil War In the Wars of the Three Kingdoms Glengarry supported the Royalist side. Aeneas the 9th Chief was out with James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1645 and followed King Charles II to his final defeat at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. For his pains he had his new house of Invergarry burned by General George Monck and his lands forfeited by Oliver Cromwell, but had them returned at the Restoration, gaining the title of Lord MacDonell and Aross and chiefship of Clanranald and the whole of Clan Donald. As he died without issue his peerage became extinct. Jacobite Risings The clans under Glengarry took the Jacobite side in the Jacobite Risings. In 1689 Alastair Dubh Macranald commanded the clan at the Battle of Killiecrankie. In the 1715 rising Glengarry attended the pretended 'grand hunting match' at Braemar arranged by the John Erskine, 23rd Earl of Mar and followed him to fight at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. The 13th chief was on his way from France to join the 1745 rebellion when he was captured by an English frigate and imprisoned in the Tower of London until 1747. However, six hundred of the Macdonells of Glengarry joined Prince Charles under the command of MacDonell of Lochgarry and were involved in many of the battles including the Highbridge Skirmish which was the first engagement between Government and Jacobite troops during the uprising of 1745 to 1746. The Macdonells of Glengarry also fought at the Clifton Moor Skirmish and Battle of Prestonpans in 1745 where they were victorious. The following year they also fought at the Battle of Falkirk (1746), and the Battle of Culloden. Colonel Alasdair Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry Portrait by Henry Raeburn of Alasdair Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry in 1812. Main article: Alasdair Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry Alasdair Ranaldson MacDonell was the personality whose character and behaviour gave Walter Scott the model for the haughty and flamboyant Highland chieftain Fergus MacIvor in the pioneering historical novel Waverley of 1810. As was customary for the chief of a clan, he was often called simply 'Glengarry.' In June 1815 he formed his own Society of True Highlanders in bitter opposition to the Celtic Society of Edinburgh. During the visit of King George IV to Scotland he arrogantly made several unauthorised appearances, to the annoyance of Walter Scott and the other organisers. Under his authority timber was felled for sale, the cleared land was leased to sheep farmers and many of his clansmen were forced from the land by increasing rents and evictions, with the great majority forced to go to British North America in part of what was later known as the Highland Clearances. Bishop Alexander Macdonell Main article: Bishop Alexander Macdonell In contrast to Alasdair Ranaldson, his contemporary Alexander Macdonell became a Roman Catholic priest whose missionary duty in Brae Lochaber led him to help his displaced clansmen. First he tried getting them employment in the Lowlands, then in 1794 he organised formation of the Glengarry Fencible regiment under the command of Alasdair Ranaldson, with Father Macdonell appointed chaplain. When the regiment was disbanded Father Macdonell appealed to the government to grant its members land in Upper Canada but this was not realized until much later. He himself came to Upper Canada Glengarry County in 1804 and in 1826 was elevated to Bishop of Regiopolis Kingston Clan profile Castles and clan seat Invergarry Castle which is situated on the Raven's Rock was the seat of the Chief of Clan MacDonell of Glengarry. Strome Castle was also owned by the MacDonells of Glengarry until 1602. Clan motto and pipe music Motto: Cragan an Fhithich (The rock of the raven). Pipe Music: Glengarry Foot Stomp. Clan chiefs The current chief of the Clan MacDonell of Glengarry is Aeneas Ranald Euan MacDonell, 23rd Chief of Chief of Macdonell of Glengarry. The following is a list of the chiefs who have headed the Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, they descend from the early chiefs of Clan Ranald and the high Clan Donald. Name (+ Gaelic Name) Dates of chieftency Further info Ranald of the Isles, 1st chief. (Raghnall Nan Eileen)'' 1380 - 1386 Chief of both Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry and Clan Ranald. Married a daughter of Walter Stewart, Earl of Athol. Donald MacRanald or Ranaldson, 2nd chief. (Domhnall MacRaghnaill)'' 1386 - 1420 Second son of Ranald of the Isles (his elder brother Allan succeeded as chief of Clan Ranald). Donald first married a daughter of the chief of Clan MacIver from which his first son John and secondly married a daughter of Lord Fraser of Lovat from which his second son, Alexander of the Woods. John MacDonald, 3rd chief. (Iain MacDhomhnaill Mhic Raghnail)'' 1420 - ? Of which little is known, succeeded by his younger half-brother, Alexander. Alexander of the Woods, 4th chief (Alasdair Na Collie)'' ? - 1460 Married Mary, a daughter of Hector MacLean of Duart. John Ranaldsoune, 5th chief. (Iain MacAlasdair Mhic Dhomhnaill)'' 1460 - 1501 Married his cousin, a daughter of Cameron of Lochiel, who's mother was a daughter of Hector ''Mor'' MacLean of Duart. John the 5th chief of Glengarry was killed by Fraser of Lovat after being invited to a meeting with him. Alexander Rnaldson, 6th chief . (Alasdair Mac Iain Mhich Alasdair)'' 1501 - 1560 Fought at the Battle of the Shirts against Clan Fraser in 1544. Married Margarat MacDonald, daughter of MacDonald of Lochalsh. One of seventeen chiefs who formed Donald's council, his signature appears a commission of the Lord of the Isles of Scotland to a treaty with the King of England in 1545. Angus Mac Alasdair, 7th chief (Aonglus Aluinn)'' 1560 - 1574 Married firstly Janet, daughter of Hector Og MacLean of Duart, secondly Margarat, daughter of MacLeod of Dunvegan and thirdly Mary, daughter of MacKenzie of Kintail. Donald Mac Angus, 8th chief (Donhnall Mac Aonhais)'' 1574 - 1645 Married firstly Helen, daughter of Grant 4th of Freuchie, secondly Margaret, daughter of Allan MacDonald, 9th chief of Clan Ranald. Alexander Aneas, Lord MacDonald and Aros, 9th chief (Aonglos Mac Alasdair Dheirg)'' 1645 - 1680 Fought under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose at the Battle of Inverlochy (1645) and the Battle of Auldearn. Later fought under the Earl of Glencairn during the Royalist rising of 1651 to 1654. Succeeded by his cousin. Ranald MacDonell, 2nd of Scotus, 10th chief. 1680 - 1705 Cousin of previous chief. Married Flora, daughter of John MacLeod of Drynoch. Alasdair Dubh, 1st of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 11th chief. (Alasdair Dubh Ghlinne Garraidh)'' 1705 - 1721 Fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie under Graham of Cleverhouse in 1689, Battle of Sheriffmuir 1715 but was not with his clansmen at the Battle of Glenshiel in 1719. Married firstly Ann, daughter of Fraser of Lovat, secondly Mary, daughter of Kenneth Mor MacKenzie, 3rd Earl of Seaforth from whom his successor. John, 2nd of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 12th chief. (Iain Mac Alasdair Dubh)'' 1721 - 1754 Fought at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745. Married firstly Margaret, daughter of Colin MacKenzie of Hilton from whom his successor. Married secondly Helen, daughter of John Gordon of Glenbucket. Alexander, 3rd of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 13th chief. (Alasdair Ruadh)' 1754 - 1761 Succeeded by his nephew. Duncan, 4th of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 14th chief. (Donnchadh MacAonghais)'' 1761 - 1788 Succeeded his uncle. Married Marjory, daughter of Sir Ludovick Grant of Dalvey. 3rd son was General Sir James MacDonell; CB, KCH, KCB, GCB (1778 - 1857). Alasdair Ranaldson, 5th of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 15th chief. (Alasdair Fiadhaich)'' 1788 - 1828 Married Rebecca, daughter of Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo. Aneas Ranaldson, 6th of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 16th chief. (Aonghas MacRaonaill)'' 1828 - 1851 Married a daughter of Rt. Rev William Beneet. Alexander Ranaldson, 7th of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 17th chief. (Alasdair MacRaonaill)'' 1851 - 1862 Succeeded by his younger brother. Charles Ranaldson, 8th of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 18th chief. (Tearlach MacRaonaill)'' 1862 - 1868 Married Agnes Campbell. Aneas Ranald, 9th of Titular, Lord MacDonald, 19th chief. (Aonghas Raoniall)'' d. 1868 Succeeded "posthumously". Married Juian Charlotte, daughter of Archdeacon Wade of Bombay. Aneas Ranald Wesdrop, 10th of Titular, 20th chief. (Aonghas Raonall Westdrop)'' 1868 -1901 Married Cathrine, daughter of Henry Herris Creed. Aneas Ranald, 11th of Titular, 21st chief. (Aonghas Raonill)'' 1901 -1941 Married Dorah Edith, daughter of Dr H.W Hartford. Aneas Ranald Donald, 12th of Titular, 22nd chief. (Aonghas Ronall Domnhall)'' 1941 -

MacDougall

Origins of the clan Clan MacDougall is a Scottish clan traditionally associated with the lands of Argyll and Lorn in Scotland. Like the Clan Donald or MacDonald and all of its MacDonald branches, the MacDougalls are also descended from the King Somerled. The clan takes its name from Dougall, a son of Somerled, who, after his father's death in 1164, held most of Argyll and also islands such as the Isle of Mull, Lismore, Jura, Tiree, Coll and many others. Likewise the Clan MacDonald of Clan Ranald branch take their name from another of King Somerled's sons called Ranald and the head Clan Donald take their name from Somerled's grandson and Ranald's son who was called Donald. The Celtic Christian name Dougall, or Dugald, is derived from the Gaelic 'dubh-gall', meaning 'black stranger'. Dougall's royal descent was acknowledged by the king of Norway, and he styled himself 'King of the South Isles and Lord of Lorne'. His son, Duncan, and his grandson, Ewan, built castles to defend their dominions, including Dunstaffnage, Dunollie and Duntrune on the mainland, and Aros, Cairnburgh, Dunchonnel and Coeffin on the islands. Dunollie, a craig rising up over seventy feet, was most likely fortified as early as the sixth century and was to become the chief seat. Duncan also built Ardchattan Priory, where the MacDougall chiefs were buried until 1737. After Haakon IV of Norway had been defeated by the Scottish army at the Battle of Largs in 1263 the Clan MacDougall attacked his fleet. The Norsemen were defeated by the MacDougalls in the sea battle. Battle of Red Ford, Lorn 1296; Battle between Clan Campbell and Clan MacDougall. This battle took place due to the feud over coastal lands between the two clans. In the late 13th century the rising force on Scotland's Western Seaboard was the MacDougalls. Controlling the Western mainland was MacDougall's Dunollie Castle and Dunstaffnage Castle, near Oban in Argyll while their huge fleet of galleys commanded the seas. Many lives were lost on both sides at the Battle of Red Ford which takes its name from the Ford which ran red with blood where the battle took place. Also on the day one of Campbell's castles on loch Awe was seized by the MacDougalls. The Campbell Chief Cailean Mor Campbell was killed at the battle. His body was carried to the church of St. Peter the Deacon at Kilchrenan on Loch Awe side and buried there. Although the exact burial place is unknown, in 1816 the Duke of Argyll inserted in the gable of the present church, a 14th century gravestone in memory of his ancestor. Wars of Scottish Independence The MacDougalls were supporters of William Wallace and King John I of Scotland but were later driven out by supporters of King Robert I of Scotland during the civil wars in Scotland which formed part of the Wars of Scottish Independence. Two years later and Bruce led an army of three thousand men against the MacDougalls. John MacDougall of Lorne set an ambush for them but after a savage engagement the MacDougalls were broken and forced to flee. The MacDougalls lost most of their lands in Argyll which were then passed to the Clan Campbell for their loyalty to the King. However Clan MacDougall fought against Robert the Bruce and the Earl of Atholl at the Battle of Dalry in 1306 where the MacDougalls were victorious. However the victorious MacDougalls were later defeated when they fought against Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Pass of Brander in 1308. Alistair MacDougall married the sister of John Comyn of the Comyn, Scotland's most powerful man. John's son, the 'Red Comyn', was next in line as King of Scotland after the Balliols. However this was the time when Bruce made his bid for the Crown. Bruce slew the Red Comyn at the altar rails in Dumfries and the MacDougalls entered into the feud which ended in the utter destruction of the Clan Comyn and the loss of the MacDougalls' islands to Bruce. 15th century & clan conflicts In 1463 Sir John Stewart was murdered outside of a church just as he was about to marry his MacLaren wife. He was murdered by Alan MacCoul, an ally of the Clan MacDougall. However his murder was avenged in 1468 when the Clan Stuart and Clan MacLaren together defeated the Clan MacDougall at the Battle of Stalc, which took place opposite Castle Stalker. 17th century & Civil War In the 17th century during the Civil War the Clan MacDougall were generally Royalist and in 1645 chief Alexander MacDougall led five hundred of his men into battle. After the defeat of James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose a Covenanting army under David Leslie was sent to Argyll to deal with the royalist sympathisers. When the Stuart monarchy was restored so were the MacDougall lands. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings In the 18th century during the Jacobite Risings the Clan MacDougall supported the Jacobite cause in 1715 and fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir which the Jacobites lost. The MacDougall chief was forced into exile but later returned to Scotland to live as a fugitive. He was pardoned in 1727. His son and next chief, Alexander MacDougall did not take part in the Jacobite Uprisings of 1745 to 1746. Although his brother and some of the clansmen did indeed fight as Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Castles Castle Stalker Castles owned by the MacDougalls have included: Dunollie Castle, Argyll, Scotland The current MacDougall clan seat. Dunstaffnage Castle Once the MacDougall clan seat. Duntrune Castle Besieged by the rival Clan MacDonald and later taken by the Clan Campbell. Gylen Castle was destroyed by Covenanters under General Leslie in 1647 during the Civil War. Castle Stalker Later passed to the Stewarts and then the Clan Campbell. MacDougall Lords Dugald, son of Somerled Dugald Screech and Donnchad of Argyll (died 1237×1248) (and perhaps Uspak), sons of Dugald Eóghan MacDubhgall, son of Dugald (died 1268×1275) Alexander of Argyll, son of Eoghan (died 1310×1311, perhaps at Carlisle), married a daughter of John Comyn, driven from Scotland by Robert Bruce and his allies; his sister Mary married Magnus Olafsson, King of Mann and, on Magnus's death, remarried with Maol Íosa, Mormaer of Strathearn John of Lorne, son of Alexander (died on pilgrimage to Canterbury, September 1317), enemy of Bruce and Bruce's ally Angus Óg of Islay, defeated and driven into exile Clan profile MacDougall tartan, as published in 1842 in the Vestiarium Scoticum. Origin of the Name: Mac Dùghall (Gaelic for 'Son of Dougall'). Gaelic Names: MacDhughaill (Surname) & Clann 'icDhughaill (Collective). Motto: Buaidh no bàs (Victory or Death). Plant Badge: Bell Heather. Animal Symbol: Raven. Crest: On a chapeau Gules furred Ermine, a dexter arm in armour embowed fessways couped Proper, holding a cross crosslet fitchée erect Gules. Arms: Quartered in these arms are two ancient royal emblems, the Black Galley of Lorn symbolizing descent from the royal house of the Norse and the lion symbolic of the descent from the Scottish Kings of ancient Dal Riada. Pipe Music 'Caisteal Dhunolla' 'Cumha Chaiptein MacDhughaill' 'Failte Iain Cheir' 'Jeanne Rea's Wedding' 'Latha Dhunabharti' 'Maid of Lorn' 'MacDougall's Gathering' 'MacDougall Gillies' 'MacDougall's Lament' 'MacDougall of Lunga' 'MacDougall of Lunga-Paterson' 'McDougall's Jig Oban Reel' Tartans MacDougall (Modern) MacDougall (Ancient) MacDougall (Dress) Chief Morag Morley MacDougall of MacDougall Branches MacDougall of MacDougall and Dunollie MacDougall of Lunga Septs of Clan MacDougall Carmichael Conacher Coull Cowan Cowie Dowall Livingston MacConacher MacCoull MacCowan MacCulloch MacDole MacDowell MacDulothe MacEachan MacEachem MacHowell Kichan MacLucas MacLugash MacLulich MacNamell Macoul Macowl

MacDowall

Clan Macdowall is a Scottish clan. The clan claims to descend from the senior descendants in the male line of the princely house of Fergus, first of the ancient Lords of Galloway. The main branches of the family include the MacDowalls of Garthland, the Makdougals of Makerston, the MacDoualls of Logan, the MacDoualls of Freugh, and the MacDowalls of Machrimore. History Origins of the clan The name MacDowall is a name connected with the ancient history of Galloway, a district in the south west of Scotland which took its name from the Gall-Gaidhel settlers of the seventh and eighth centuries. Many legends exist in Galloway including the legend that Dovall of Galloway killed Nothatus the Tyrant in 230 BC. It is also said that the Royal House of Galloway resisted the Romans. The name MacDowall is generally accepted to mean 'Son of Dougal' due to the transliteration of the 'ug' in Dougall to 'w' in Dowall, introduced under Edward I of England because of the difficulty incurred by the English in pronouncing the Gaelic version. MacDowall was later referred to as MacDowell, with the introduction of the Irish spelled 'e'. The Lords of Galloway were very powerful. They scattered their ancient princedom with well endowed abbeys and priories. The last of the native Lords of Galloway, Allen died in 1234. His daughter Devorgilla married John Balloil, 5th Baron de Balliol, a member of the Balliol family who were lords of Barnard Castle. Their son, John, claimed Galloway through the right of his mother. He also claimed the throne of Scotland. Balliol, Lord of Galloway had granted lands in Garthland to 'Dougal', a descendant of King Somerled and Fergus MacDoual, Balliol's own relation. These two men both appear on the Ragman Rolls of Scottish nobles who swore fealty to king Edward I of England. Dougals's grandson Fergus, third of Garthland was sheriff depute for Kirkcudbright during the reign of King David II of Scotland. 14th century The Clan MacDowall, like their Clan MacDougall neighbours and allies, supported the Clan Comyn who were once the most powerful clan in Scotland and rivals to the Scottish throne of Robert the Bruce. Once Robert the Bruce had killed John the Red Comyn, chief of Comyns, the MacDowalls became mortal foes of the Bruces. The MacDowalls followed the MacDougalls into several battles against the Bruces until Sir Dougal was killed and dispossessed by the Bruces. The next generation of MacDowalls and MacDougalls changed sides many times but eventually became defenders of Scotland, loyal to the Bruces. 15th century Fergus III of Garthland's grandson was Sir Fergus MacDowall, fifth Laird of Garthland who led the Clan MacDowall against the English at the Battle of Humbleton Hill where he was captured in 1402. This was also known as the Battle of Homildon. 16th century & Anglo-Scottish Wars Uchtred MacDowall the 9th of Garthland married Isabel Gordon. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars Uchtred Macdowall led the Clan MacDowall at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 against the English where both he and his son Thomas MacDowall were killed. John MacDowall the 11th of Garthland led the Clan MacDowall against the English at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. Uchtred MacDowall the 12th of Garthland was among those who were involved in the 'Ruthern Raid' in 1582 led by the Clan Ruthven in which the young King James IV of Scotland was kidnapped and held at Ruthven Castle and later Edinburgh Castle. The main migrations of the family name were to Ireland during the Plantations of Ulster, and then to America during the Irish potato famine as a result of which most members of the family now live in the United States. The MacDowalls today Today, Fergus MacDowall of Garthland is the Chief of the Name and Arms. The caput baroniae is at Garthland Mains on the Rhinns of Galloway. The present seat is at Barr Castle, Garthland, Lochwinnoch, Renfrewshire. Clan profile Clan chief: Fergus MacDowall of Garthland Chief's motto: Vincere Vel Mori (To Conquer or Die) Gaelic Names: mhic dhu ghaill meaning son of dark (or swarthy) stranger. See later transliterations of 'MacDougall' to 'MacDowall' discussed above Clan Plant Badge: Bell Heather Animal Symbol: Raven

MacDuff

Clan MacDuff is a Scottish armigerous clan, which is registered with Lyon Court, though currently without a chief. Moncreiffe wrote that the Clan MacDuff was the premier clan among the Scottish Gaels. The early chiefs of Clan MacDuff were the Earls of Fife. Today the Earls of Wemyss are thought to be the direct descendants in the male line of Gille Míchéil, Earl of Fife, thought to be one of the first Clan MacDuff chiefs. History The round tower of Abernethy, built for the Celtic abbey of which a branch of Clan MacDuff were hereditary Abbots. The clan originates from the original Scotto-Pictish lines who created the Kings of Scotland and the Earldom or Mormaerdom of Fife. The direct male line of the Mormaer failed in 1353 after Edward I took Donnchadh IV prisoner in England. His aunt, Isabella, later gave the title to Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and Regent of Scotland. In 1425 the earldom was absorbed into the crown, not withstanding the clan retained it status as first among clans. The title of The Fife returned with William Duff, 1st Earl Fife and Viscount Madcap in 1759. Later Alexander William George Duff, 6th Earl of Fife and 1st Duke of Fife, married the Princess Royal, HRH Louise (daughter of King Edward VII). The direct line of the ancient house is in dispute and supposedly continued in Wemyss, and moreover, in the northern territories, families of Clan Duff emerged with no proof of royal descent. For this reason of non-proof of headship, MacDuff is still Armigerous. Law of Clan MacDuff The Earl of Fife and the Abbot of Abernethy were both 'Capitals of Law of the Clan MacDuff'. The law protected all murderers within ninth degree of kin to the Earl of Fife, as they could claim sanctuary at the Cross of MacDuff near Abernethy, and could find remission by paying compensation to the victims family. The chiefs of the clan had the right to enthrone the King on the Stone of Destiny. When the Stone of Destiny was taken to England by Edward I of England, Robert I of Scotland had himself crowned King of Scots a second time, in order to be crowned by a member of clan MacDuff, the Earl of Fife's sister. In 1425 the last Earl of Fife, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, was beheaded. The Clan MacDuff hereditary right of bearing the Crown of Scotland then passed to the Lord Abernethy. The current Lord Abernethy, and as consequence bearer of the Scottish Crown, is Angus Douglas-Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton. Clan profile 'Clan Makduffe' tartan as published in 1842 in the Vestiarium Scoticum. Gaelic Name: MacDhuibh. Origin of Name: Dubh (Gaelic) (Black). Motto: Deus juvat (Latin) (God assists). Badge: Red whortleberry. Lands: Fife, Lothian, Strathbran and Strathbogie.

MacEwen

Clan MacEwen is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan does not have a chief recognized by Lord Lyon King of Arms and as such the clan can be considered an Armigerous clan. The principle clan with the name MacEwen was Clan MacEwen of Otter that was centred on the shores of Loch Fyne in Argyll. The MacEwens of Otter's traditional ancestry is entwined with several local clans such as Clan Lamont, Clan Maclachlan, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens, all claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill, who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. All of these clans can claim a further decent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century. In the 15th century the MacEwens of Otter lost their lands to the Campbells, and since then the line of chiefs has been untraced. The MacEwens were then known as a broken clan (landless) and followed Clan Campbell. History Clan MacEwen of Otter The traditional ancestry of the MacEwens of Otter gives the clan a descent from an Irish prince named Anrothan O'Neill. The MacEwens of Otter along with several local clans such as Clan Lamont, Clan Maclachlan, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens, all claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill, who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. From this descent the clan can claim a further decent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century. Their castle was located on Loch Fyne on the rocky shore near Kilfinan. In 1431-2, during the reign of James I of Scotland, Sween MacEwen of Otter resigned the destination of the Barony of Otter to the heir of the chief of Clan Campbell, after which on Sweens death the barony passed into the hands of the Campbells. From that time on with the loss of their land the MacEwens as a broken clan were dependants on Clan Campbell. Since the death of Sween the line of chiefs of the MacEwens of Otter have been untraced. In an Act of Parliament of 1602 the MacEwens are listed beside the lMacLachlans and McNeils, as vassals of the Earl of Argyll and answerable to him for their behaviour. General Wade's statement of the Highland forces engaged in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715 lists the Mac Ewens of the Isle of Skye with 150 men. Clan profile Crest badge: the crest badge is usually made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Crest: The trunk of an oak tree sprouting Proper. Motto: Reviresco (translation from Latin: 'I grow strong again'). The modern crest badge of Clan MacEwen is derived from the crest and motto within the Arms of the McEwen Baronets. These McEwens held lands in Bardrochat in Carrick. The McEwen Baronets may not have any connection with Clan MacEwen of Otter. Tartan In the sixteenth century the MacEwens were a broken clan, which was absorbed by the Campbells, this tartan is made to resemble the Campbell of Loudon tartan.

MacFarlane

Clan MacFarlane is a Highland Scottish clan. The clan claims a descent from the old line of the Earls of Lennox. For some time there had been some controversy as to the descent of these earls, with both Gaelic and Anglo-Saxon origins given. Though today it is generally accepted that the earls, and in consequence Clan MacFarlane, are of Gaelic descent. The clan takes its name from a Malcolm MacFarlane, who lived in the fourteenth century. Clan MacFarlane took part in several conflicts and were loyal supporters of the Earls of Lennox. The clan was also noted for its raiding, and as such, it is said that the full moon was known as 'MacFarlane's Lantern'. The ancestral lands of the clan were Arrochar, located at the head of Loch Long and further northwest of Loch Lomond. The lands of Arrochar were first granted to an ancestor of the clan in the thirteenth century, and were held by the chiefs until they were sold off for debts, in 1767. The last descendant of the chiefs, in the direct male line, died in 1886. Since the modern clan is without a chief it can be considered an Armigerous clan. History Origins Clan MacFarlane claims descent from the original Earls of Lennox, though the ultimate origin of these earls is murky and has been debated. The nineteenth century Scottish antiquary George Chalmers, in his Caledonia, quoting the twelfth century English chronicler Symeon of Durham, wrote that the original Earls of Lennox descended from an Anglo-Saxon - Arkil, son of Egfrith. This Arkil, a Northumbrian chief, was said to have fled to Scotland from the devastation caused by the Harrying of the North by William the Conqueror, and later received control of the Lennox district from Malcolm III of Scotland. However, today it is generally thought that the original Earls of Lennox were of Gaelic descent. Clan MacFarlane claims its descent from the original line of the Earls of Lennox, through Gilchrist, brother of Maol Domhnaich, Earl of Lennox, who received in charter, 'de terris de superiori Arrochar de Luss', the lands of Arrochar which the MacFarlanes held for centuries until the death of the last chief. Gilchrist's son, Duncan, also obtained charters for his lands from the Earl of Lennox, and appears in the Ragman Rolls as 'Dunkan Makilcrift de Leuenaghes' (Duncan son of Gilchrist of Lennox). Duncan's grandson was Parlan (or Bartholomew), from whom the clan takes its name from. Malcolm MacFarlane, the son of Parlan, was confirmed the lands of Arrochar and others, and 'hence Malcolm may be considered as the real founder of the clan'. Malcolm, in turn, was succeeded by his son, Duncan, who obtained by charter the lands of Arrochar, dated in 1395 at Inchmurrin. Duncan seems to have married Christian, daughter of Sir Colin Campbell of Loch Awe, as stated in a charter of confirmation by Donnchadh, Earl of Lennox, also dated in 1395. Iain MacPharlain, in 1420, received confirmation to his lands of Arrochar. In support of the Stewart earls of Lennox Map of the district of Lennox. Not long after, the ancient line of the Earls of Lennox died with the execution of Donnchadh, Earl of Lennox, by James I of Scotland in 1425. After the earl's death it seems likely that the MacFarlane's claimed the earldom as heirs male. This claim though, proved disastrous, and the family of the chief perished, with the clan's fortunes suffered severely. The destruction of the MacFarlanes would have been inevitable but for an Andrew MacFarlane, who married Barbara, daughter of John Stewart, Lord Darnley, who had been created Earl of Lennox in 1488. Skene claimed that even though Andrew MacFarlane, through his marriage, had saved the clan from destruction, he still was refused the chiefship of the clan. Skene also showed that even his son, Sir John MacFarlane, assumed the subordinate designation of 'Capitaneus de Clan Pharlane' (Captain of the clan). Though Alexander MacBain, in a later edition of Skene's work, pointed out that Capitaneus was really Latin for Chief. From this period on the clan appears to have loyally supported the Stewart Earls of Lennox, and for several generations there is little history attributed to the clan. Battle of Glasgow Muir In the mid sixteenth century, Duncan MacFarlane of MacFarlane, appears to have been a steady supporter of Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox. In 1544, MacFarlane lead three hundred of his men, and joined Lennox and Glencairn at the Battle of Glasgow Muir, where they were defeated. The MacFarlanes were affected by the forfeitures that followed, though were saved by powerful friends, and the chief obtained a remission for his lands. After the defeat, the Earl of Lennox was forced to flee to England, and married a niece of Henry VIII, and afterwards returned to Scotland with a force supplied by the English king. For fear of further repercussions, the chief of the clan didn't personally support Lennox, but instead sent a relative, Walter MacFarlane of Tarbet, with four hundred men, in support of the Earl. The MacFarlane clansmen are said to have acted as light troops, and as guides to the Earl's main force. The sixteenth century, English chronicler, Raphael Holinshed described this MacFarlane force as follows: 'In these exploytes the Erle had with him Walter M'Farlane of Tarbet, and seven score of men of the head of Lennox, that spake bothe Irishe and the English Scottish tongues, light footmen well armed in the shirtes of mayle, with bows and two-handed swords; and being joined with the English archers and shotte, did much avayleable service in the streyghts, marishes, and mountayne countries'. Battle of Pinkie Cleugh Scottish clan map. Further information: Battle of Pinkie Cleugh At Irwine in 1545, a bond of manrent was granted to Hugh, Master of Eglinton to Duncan, uncle of the Laird of MacFarlane. Later in 1547 the clan suffered grievously at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh, in which the chief, Duncan was slain along with many of his men. The clan, led by Duncan's son, Andrew, fought under the Regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, against the forces of Mary Queen of Scots, at the Battle of Langside in 1568. The clan's part in the battle is related to by Holinshed: 'In this battayle the vaiancie of an Hie-land gentle-man named M'Farlane, stood the Regent's part in great steede; for in the hottest brunte of the fight, he came in with three hundred of hus friends and countrymen, and so manfully gave in upon the flanke of the queen's people, that there was great cause of the disordering of them'. After the battle, the clan also boasted of capturing three standards of the Queen's army, which were preserved as trophies for a long time afterwards. For his clan's aid, Andrew was awarded the crest of a 'demi-savage proper, holding in his dexter hand a sheaf of arrows, and pointing with his sinister to an imperial crown, or, with the motto, This I'll defend', by the Earl. The crest bestowed on the MacFarlane chief alludes to the defence of the Crown and Kingdom of Scotland, as Mary was seen as rebellion against the Crown. Nothing is known of Andrew's son, though his grandson, Walter MacFarlane was a staunch supporter of the King. In his time, he was twice besieged in his house, and his castle of Inveruglas was later burned down by English forces. Fall of the clan The clan was denounced by the Government in 1594, to have committing theft, robbery, and oppression. Later, in 1624, many members of the clan were tried and convicted of such acts, with some being pardoned. Many others were removed to Aberdeenshire and Strathaven in Banffshire, where they assumed the names M'Caudy, Greisock, M'James and M'Innes. According to the International Clan MacFarlane Society website, the last descendant of the chiefs, in the direct male line, died in 1886. A branch of the clan settled in Ireland, during the reign of James VII, and the leading representative of this branch, MacFarlane of Hunstown House, from Dublin, claimed to be the chiefship of the clan. Today the chiefship of the clan is dormant, and the clan can be considered an Armigerous clan. Clan profile MacFarlane tartan as published in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. Clan Badge: Two plant badges have been attributed to the clan. Cranberry. The clan shares this badge with Clan MacAulay, which tradition gives a descent from the old Earls of Lennox. Cloudberry. (Attributed to the clan by Skene). Clan Slogan: Loch Sloidh (Anglicised as: Loch Sloy) (translated from Gaelic: The Loch of the Host). Clan Motto: This I'll Defend. Clan Crest: A demi-savage brandishing in his dexter a broad sword Proper and pointing with his sinister to an Imperial Crown or standing by him on the wreath. Clan Pipe Music (Pibroch): 'Thogail nam bo (translation from Gaelic: Lifting the cattle). or, Thogail nam Bo theid sinn (translation: To Lift the Cows We Shall Go). Spaidsearachd Chlann Pharlain (translation from Gaelic: MacFarlane's march). Origin of the name The surname MacFarlane, and other variations of the name, are Anglicisations of the Gaelic patronymic Mac Pharthaláin, meaning 'son of Parthalán'. The Gaelic Parthalán is likely an Gaelicisation of the Latin Bartholomaeus. In Moncreiffe's opinion the name was linked with Partholón of Irish mythology, writing: 'Par-tholon or 'Sea-Waves' appears in Irish mythology as the first to take possession of Ireland after the flood'. Associated Names The following names are considered, by the International Clan MacFarlane Society, to be associated with the clan. Note that the prefixes Mac, Mc, and M' are interchangeable. Many of the associated names listed are claimed by other clans. Associated names of Clan MacFarlane Condey / Condie / Condy. Gruamach. MacCondey / MacCondie / MacCondy. MacIock / MacJock. MacInally. MacNide / MacNite. MacNoyer / MacNuyer. MacWalter. Monach / Monnock. Parlane Weaver. Webster. Weir. Associated names of Clan MacFarlane that are also claimed by other clans Allan / Allen. Allanach. Allanson. Allison. Arrell / Arroll. Barclay. Bart. Bartholomew. Bartie/y. Bartson. Brice / Bryce. Caa / Caw. Calla/ende/ar. Cunnison / Kennison. Galbraith. Galloway. Grassick / Griesk. Greusaich. Knox. Lea/iper. Lenox / Lennox. MacAllan / MacAllen. MacAndrew. MacAndro. MacCaa / MacCaw. MacCause. MacEa/och. MacEachern. MacEoin. MacErrachar. MacFarquhar. MacGaw. MacGreusich/k. MacInstalker. MacJames. MacKin(d)la/ey.

Macfie

Clan Macfie is a Scottish clan. Since 1981, the clan has been officially registered with the Court of the Lord Lyon, which is the heraldic authority of Scotland. The clan is considered an armigerous clan because even though the clan is recognised by the Court of the Lord Lyon, it is currently without a chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the judge of the Court of the Lord Lyon. The official clan name Macfie is derived from the Gaelic Mac Dhuibhshíthe. This Gaelic patronymic name has been Anglicised into various forms, many of which are considered associated names of the clan. The clan has a long history with the islands of Colonsay and Oronsay in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, and today many monuments to various lairds and churchmen of the clan are found on these islands. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene named the clan as one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin - who according to Skene could all trace their ancestry back to Alpin, father of Cináed mac Ailpín. Popular tradition has been until recently to consider Cináed mac Ailpín the first King of Scots and a Gael; however, recent research has shown he was actually a Pictish king and likely a Pict himself. Little is known of the early history of the clan. However, is certain that the clan served under the Lords of the Isles - descendants of Somerled, who ruled the Hebrides from the 14th century to the late 16th century. Following the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles in the late 15th century, the clan still attached itself to powerful Macdonalds. In the early 17th century the last chief of the clan was executed as Colonsay was lost to the control of a Macdonald. Without a chief of their own to control their home lands the clan was considered a leaderless 'broken clan'. From this point on the Macfies followed the Macdonalds of Islay, though a branch of the clan was dispersed to lands controlled by Clan Cameron. In the early 19th century Ewen Macphee became a notorious outlaw, 'revered and feared by locals and despised by the authorities'. Today the modern Clan Macfie is alive with nine associated clan societies located around the world. History The proposed descent of the seven clans of Siol Alpin. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene, stated that members of Clan Macfie were the ancient inhabitants of Colonsay. He also wrote that the clan was one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin, and that 'their genealogy, which is preserved in the manuscript of 1450, evinces their connexion by descent with the Macgregors and Mackinnons'. The seven clans of Siol Alpin could, according to Skene, trace their descent from Alpin, father of the traditional first King of Scots: Cináed mac Ailpín. However, even while stating all this, he wrote that there was nothing known about the early history of Clan Macfie. Over a century after Skene, W. D. H. Sellar wrote that according to later Gaelic tradition, 'Dubside', ancestor of Clan Macfie, fostered Aonghas Mór, Lord of Islay (Sellar describes Aonghas Mór as the first MacDonald). Martin, in his A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland of 1703, wrote that on the south side of the church of St. Columba on Oronsay, were the tombstones of MacDuffie (or Macfie, a former chief of the clan) and the cadets of his family. The principle stone bore the engraving of a birlinn, two handed claymore and the inscription 'Hic jacit Malcolumbus MacDuffie de Collonsay' (Here lies Malcolumbus MacDuffie of Colonsay). The burial place of the Macfies was a small chapel, on the south side of the church on Oronsay. Another stone is for Sir Donald MacDuffie, who was abbot of Oronsay when Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, toured the Western Isles in 1549. Tomb of Murchardus Macdufie, who died in 1539. On a visit to Colonsay in the 18th century, Sir Joseph Banks was informed that, ' was a factor or manager for Macdonald King of the Isles upon these islands of Oransay and Colonsay & that for his mismanagement & tyranny he was executed by order of that prince'. According to a manuscript, written in the 17th century, pertaining to the coronation of the Lords of the Isles, and the Council of the Isles, 'MacDuffie, or MacPhie of Colonsay, kept the records of the Isles'. In 1463 Macfie of Colonsay was a member of the Council of the Isles, listed as Donald Macduffie, a witness to a charter by John of Islay, Earl of Ross, the last Lord of the Isles, dated April 12 at the Earl's castle of Dingwall. After the fall of the Lordship of the Isles the Macfies followed the MacDonalds of Islay. In 1531, the chief of the clan, 'Morphe Makphe de Colwisnay', and many other west highland chiefs were cited for treason and summoned to Parliament as supporters of the rebellious Alexander MacDonald of Dunivaig and the Glens. This Macfie chief died in 1539 and his impressive tombstone can still be seen (pictured left). Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, in his A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland Called Hybrides, in 1549, described the island of Jura as partly controlled by Maclean of Duart, Maclaine of Lochbuie, and Macfie of Colonsay. In describing the island of Colonsay, Monro wrote that it had once been held by Macdonald of Kintyre, but was then currently ruled by a 'gentle capitane, callit M'Duffyhe' - gentle meaning 'well-born', and captain being the old styling of 'chief'. By 1587, atrocities committed between warring west highland clans had escalated to such an extent that Parliament devised what is known as the General Band in an effort to quell hostilities. The band was signed by landowners throughout the Scottish highlands, borders and the islands, requiring them to be responsible for the men who lived within their lands. The signing chiefs were required to come up with sureties equal to their wealth and lands for the peaceful conduct of their followers. In it the laird of Colonsay, 'M'Fee of Collowsay' (Murdoch Macfie of Colonsay), is listed as one of the landlords in the Scottish highlands and islands where broken men (or lawless men) dwelt. Despite the Governments actions to secure the peace, about this time Lachlan Mor MacLean of Duart ravaged the MacDonald islands of Islay and Gigha, slaughtering 500-600 men. Maclean of Duart then besieged Angus MacDonald of Dunivaig and the Glens at his Castle Dunivaig. The siege was only lifted when MacDonald of Dunivaig and the Glens agreed with MacLean of Duart to surrender half of his lands on Islay. However, despite his agreement with the MacLeans, MacDonald of Dunivaig and the Glens then invaded the MacLean islands of Mull, Tiree, Coll and Luing. Angus MacDonald of Dunivaig and the Glens was aided in the action by Donald Gorm Mor MacDonald of Sleat and many west highland clans such as the MacDonalds of Clanranald, MacIains of Ardnamurchan, MacLeods of Lewis, MacNeills of Gigha, MacAlisters of Loup and also the Macfies of Colonsay. Supporting MacLean of Duart were the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan, MacNeils of Barra, MacKinnons of Strathrodle and the MacQuarries of Ulva. In 1609, 'Donald Mcfie in Collonsaye' was present at the assembly of island chiefs and gentlemen, who met with the Bishop of the Isles at Iona, when the nine Statutes of Icolmkill were enacted, which were to bring the Western Isles under the control of the Scottish Parliament. Fall of the clan In 1615 Malcolm Macfie of Colonsay supported Sir James Macdonald of Islay, Chief of 'Clan Donald South', after Macdonald had escaped from Edinburgh Castle. Macfie was one of the principal leaders in Macdonald's rebellion against the Government, who had promised Islay to the Campbells. The combined forces of Macfie and Donald Gigach MacIan, who was the leading man on the nearby isle of Jura, contributed a total of 64 men to the Macdonald rebellion. When Sir James Macdonald's force of 400 men landed in at Kinloch (Campbellton) in Kintyre, they were made up in part by the 'special men' from Islay, Macfie of Colonsay, Donald Gigach of Jura, Allaster MacRanald of Keppoch, and North Islesmen. The Earl of Argyll later secured the submission of Colla Ciotach MacDonald, who was another chief of Clan Donald South. Colla Ciotach then captured Malcolm Macfie of Colonsay, among eighteen others, and handed them over to the Earl of Argyll. Malcolm Macfie, along with another rebel leader, received assurance for their lives by serving on the Government's side against the rebels while in the company of the Earl of Argyll. The Earl, in late 1615, presented the captured to the Privy Council. For several years both Colla Ciotach and the Macfie chief lived on Colonsay, with Colla Ciotach residing at Kiloran and Macfie at Dun Eibhinn. During this time the two feuded. Judging by the many hiding places which bear his name, such as leab' fhalaich Mhic a Phì ('MacPhee's Hiding Place'), Macfie was chased from one to another for quite sometime. Finally, in 1623, Malcolm Macfie was chased from Colonsay and pursued to Eilean nan Ròn (south-west of Oronsay). There, on the south-western corner of Eilean nan Ròn, called an t Eilean Iarach, he was spotted and taken by the MacDonalds. Popular lore has it that the Macfie chief was finally discovered when his hiding place amongst the seaweed was given away by a gull. As it hovered over Macfie's position, Colla Ciotach's men were alerted by its cry and spotted the clan chief on a ledge of rock at the edge of the sea. After being apprehended, the chief was then tied to a stone and summarily shot. Colla Ciotach, and several of his followers, appear in the Council Records in 1623 as being accused of killing the Macfie chief. Because of the death of the their chief the Macfies finally lost control of Colonsay. The island then passed to the Macdonalds, as Colla Ciotach took the island for himself, and held it peacefully for many years. The island was later to be absorbed into the earldom of Argyll, until it was sold in 1701 to McNeill or Crear. Without its own chief the clan became a 'broken clan' and for the most part followed the Macdonalds of Islay, with Macfies/Macphees making up only a small proportion of the total population of Colonsay. A branch of the clan, after the collapse of the clan, settled in Lochaber and followed Cameron of Lochiel, chief of Clan Cameron. A Macfie (a Macphee of Clan Cameron) was one of the two pipers at Glenfinnan, when on August 19, 1745 Charles Edward Stuart raised his standard and claimed both the Scottish and English throne in the name of his father James Francis Edward Stuart. The following year Macfies were among the Camerons, who were on the right flank at the Jacobite Army at the Battle of Culloden. Macphee the outlaw 'Ewen Mac Phee the Outlaw'. An illustration by R. R. McIan, originally appearing in his work: Gaelic gatherings, or the Highlanders at Home on heather, river and loch, published in 1848. A well known character in Inverness-shire, in the 19th century, was a Ewan Macphee who lived as an outlaw. Described as Scotland's last outlaw, he recognised no landowner, stole sheep, and raised a family upon a small island. Ewan Macphee was a young man when he was enlisted by his landlord into a Highland Regiment of the British Army. Macphee was said to have been an able soldier but he soon deserted the Army and fled to his native Glengarry, where he hid living in Feddan with his sister. His Regiment then sent a troop of soldiers to arrest him for desertion, though just as Macphee was about to be taken handcuffed aboard a steamer at Corpach, he managed to escape and fled his captors. Ewan Macphee lived for two years around the shores of Loch Arkaig before building a bothy on a small island in Loch Quoich, which has since born his name: Eilen Mhic Phee (translation from Scottish Gaelic: MacPhee's Island). Macphee then took for his wife a fourteen year old girl, who lived across the hill in Glen Dulochan. As time passed Macphee was feared and looked upon by the poor inhabitants of the glen as a seer. Macphee believed himself to have supernatural powers, he weaved charms and cattle were brought to him to be cured. As the years past neighbouring shepherds finally decided to put an end to Macphee's sheep stealing, and the sheriff sent two officers to confront Macphee. As the officers rowed to his island they were fired upon by Macphee's wife and the officers fled. A week later an armed party was then sent and Ewan Macphee was finally arrested and taken to prison, where he eventually died. The modern clan The official Clan Macfie tartan was registered with the Lord Lyon in 1991. In 1864, the first Macfies to have coats of arms registered in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland were Robert Macfie of Langhouse and Airds and Robert Andrew Macfie of Dreghorn-two highly successful businessmen in the sugar industry. The heraldic crest within the clan's crest badge is actually derived from the heraldic crest on the coat of arms of Robert Andrew Macfie of Dreghorn. In 1968, Earle Douglas MacPhee of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada started a movement to have the Clan Macfie officially registered with the Lord Lyon King of Arms. On May 10, 1977, the Macfie Standing Stone on Balaruminmore on Colonsay was dedicated as a memorial to the last chief of the clan, who was executed against it in 1623. In May 1981, Clan Macfie was formally recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms and later in November of that year, Earle MacPhee was appointed as Commander of Clan Macfie by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Following Earle MacPhee's death in 1982, Alexander Carpendale McPhie of Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia was appointed by the Lord Lyon King of Arms as Commander of Clan Macfie on September 7, 1989. Today there are nine clan societies associated with Clan Macfie. The societies are located around the world in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Scotland, Sweden, and the United States of America. An ongoing DNA project is being conducted to help discover the clan's genetic roots and to determine how members with the same surname are related. Currently, (as of March 2008) there are 104 participants in the project. Of the 104 participants, there have been 33 separate bloodlines found. The largest bloodline, which consists of 23% of the total project, and also contains the line of the last McPhee on Colonsay, is currently thought to represent the original male line of Clan Macfie. The project website summarises that the majority of the 33 bloodlines are likely to be of 'Celtic' descent. Clan profile The Oronsay Cross located on Oronsay was carved in around 1500 for Malcolm MacDuffie, lord of Colonsay. Origin of the name The origin of name Macfie (and its variations) is from the Gaelic Mac Dhuibhshíthe, which means 'son of Duibhshíth'. This Gaelic name is composed of two elements: dubh (black) + síth (peace). The name Macfie (and its variations) is rendered as Maca'phi in modern Scottish Gaelic. According to a passage in the Carmina Gadelica, which was a collection of Gaelic folkloric poems from 1855 to 1910, there was a family on North Uist which was known as Dubh-sith (translation from Gaelic: Black fairy), 'from a tradition that the family have been familiar with the fairies in their fairy flights and secret migrations'. This family were the North Uist MacCuishes, who also for a time, commonly bore Dubhsith as a given name. There were never many MacCuishes on the Uists, and after a time Dubhsith ceased to be used as a given name there, though it carried on in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, taking the forms of 'Dushie, Duffus and even David'. These MacCuishes (of North Uist and Skye) are considered septs of Clan Donald. Clan Macfie genealogy according to the MS of 1450 According to Skene, the genealogy showed the clan's connection with the MacGregors and MacKinnons. The genealogy within the manuscript is as follows (original spelling in italics): 'Donaill, Niel and Gilecolaim the three sons of Gilleeasp, son of ... son of Gillacrist, son of Gillacolm, son of Dubgall mor, son of Duibsi, son of Muireac, son of Finlaec the rash, son of Muirechach, son of Fearchar, son of Cormac, son of Airbeataig, son of Fearchar fada, son of Fearadaig'. The Donald first mentioned may be the Donald MacDuffie who is recorded as witnessing a charter by John, Earl of Ross and Lord of the Isles in 1463. Clan symbols (crest badge and clan badges) Scottish crest badges are used by clan members to show their allegiance to their clan and chief. Much like clan tartans, crest badges owe their popularity to Victorian romanticism. Crest badges are heraldic badges which usually contain the heraldic crest of the clan chief, encircled with a buckle containing the chief's heraldic motto. However, in the case of Clan Macfie, which does not have a chief, the crest badge is derived from the coat of arms of Macfie of Dreghorn, who was one of the first Macfies to register a coat of arms in the Public Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland. The crest badge of Clan Macfie contains as a crest: a demi lion rampant, proper. The motto which encircles the crest is: PRO REGE, which translated from Latin means 'for the king'. Although today crest badges are more commonly used by clan members, the original badges worn by clansmen were plant badges or clan badges. Clan badges consisted of plants which were worn on a bonnet or attached to a pole or spear. There have been several clan badges attributed to Clan Macfie, and the clans shares the use of them with several associated clans. Clan badges attributed to Clan Macfie include: Scots Pine (Scottish Gaelic: Giuthas), attributed to all seven of the clans of Siol Alpin; Oak (Scottish Gaelic: Darag), also attributed to Clan Cameron; Crowberry (Scottish Gaelic: Dearca Fithich), also attributed to Clan MacLean and Clan Cameron. Tartan The official 'Clan Macfie Tartan' was registered in the Books of the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms on August 29, 1991. It is likely to date from about the time of the first Macfie coats of arms were registered in the mid 19th century. The tartan is very similar to the MacIver tartan - swapping the colour green for the MacIver black. However, it has been said that the colours (red, green and yellow) and the general appearance of the Macfie tartan are similar to the Cameron tartan, and that it may allude to the dependence on Clan Cameron of several Macfies after the collapse of their clan. The Clan Cameron Association considers the surnames MacPhee, MacFie and MacVee septs of Clan Cameron. Associated names The following is the list of names associated with Clan Macfie, as recognised by the Commander of the Clan. Note that the prefix Mac/Mc are interchangeable. Athey. Athie. Cathey. Cathie. Coffee. Coffey. Duffee. Duffey. Duffie. Duffy. Fee. Guffey. Guffie. Haffey. Haffie. Macafee. Macafie. Maccaffer. Maccaffie. Maccaffrey. Maccathey. Maccathie. Maccuish. Macduffee. Macduffey. Macduffie. Macduffin. Macduffy. Macfee. Macfie. Macguffey. Macguffie. Macguffin. Machaffie. Machaffy. Macphee. Macphie. Macvee. Macvie. Mahaffey. Mehaffey. Mehaffie. Phee. Phie.

MacGillivray

History Origins of the clan The MacGillivrays were a principal clan even before King Somerled, progenitor of the MacDonalds drove the Norsemen from the western Isles. The Clann Mhic Gillebràth were dispersed after King Alexander II of Scotland subdued Argyll in the year 1222. 14th century & clan conflicts The Clan MacGillivray eventually joined the Chattan Confederation which was headed by the chief of the Clan MacKintosh. The clan have always distinguished themselves by their prowess and bravery. One of them, Ivor MacGillivray was killed at Drumlui in a battle with the Clan Cameron in about the year 1330. Ivor was the son of chief Duncan MacGillivray. This Duncan married a natural daughter of the sixth Clan MacKintosh chief. 15th century A hundred years later, in about the middle of the fifteenth century, the chief of the MacGillivrays appears to have been a certain Ian Ciar (Brown). At any rate, when William, fifteenth chief of the Mackintoshes, was infefted in the estate of Moy and other lands held from the Bishop of Moray, the names of a son and two grandsons of this Ian Ciar appear in the list of witnesses. Other Mackintosh documents show the race to have been settled by that time on the lands of Dunmaglass (the fort of the grey man's son), belonging to the thanes of Cawdor. 16th century Ian Ciar MacGillivray was apparently succeeded by a son, Duncan, and he again by his son Ferquhar, who, in 1549, gave letters of reversion of the lands of Dalmigavie to Robert Dunbar of Durris. Ferquhar's son, again, Alastair, in 1581 paid forty shillings to Thomas Calder, Sheriff-Depute of Nairn and chief of Clan Calder for ' two taxations of his £4 lands of Domnaglasche, granted by the nobility to the King.' It was in his time, in 1594, that the MacGillivrays fought in the royal army under the young Earl of Argyll at the disastrous Battle of Glenlivet. 17th century MacGillivray. Alastair's son, Ferquhar, appears to have been a minor in 1607 and 1609, for in the former of these years his kinsman Malcolm MacBean was among the leading men of Clan Chattan called to answer to the Privy Council for the good behaviour of Clan Chattan during the minority of Sir Lachlan Mackintosh its chief; and in the latter year, when a great band of union was made at Termit, near Inverness, between the various septs of Clan Chattan, responsibility for the ' haill kin and race of the Clan M'Illivray' was accepted by Malcolm MacBean, Ewen M Ewen, and Duncan MacFerquhar, the last-named being designated as tenant in Dunmaglass, and being probably an uncle of young Ferquhar MacGillivray. The Macgilivrays were one of the oldest and most important of the clans of the Chattan Confederation, and from 1626, when their head, Ferquhard MacAllister, acquired a right to the lands of Dunmaglass, frequent mention of them is found in extant documents and registers. 18th century & Jacobite Risings As Episcopalians they were persecuted by Calvinist and Presbyterian neighbours yet fought both in the 1715 and 1745 Jacobite uprisings including the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715 and the Battle of Falkirk (1746). Chief Alexander MacGillivray led the Chattan Confederation where he was killed at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. A wall at Culloden where he fell still bears his name. He is perhaps the best known of the heads of this clan. He was fourth in descent from the Ferquhard who acquired Dunmaglass in the 17th century . This gentleman was selected by Lady Mackintosh to head her husband's clan on the side of Prince Charlie in the '45, even though the chief of Clan MacKintosh was loyal to the government. Lady MacKintosh ensured the MacKintoshes and their allies supported the Jacobites. The MacGillivray chief was shot through the heart. His body, after lying for some weeks in a pit where it had been thrown with others, was taken up by his friends and buried across the threshold of the kirk of Petty. His brother William was also a warrior, and gained the rank of captain in the old 89th regiment, raised in about 1758.After the Battle of Culloden the clan emigrations began across the Atlantic. Clan profile Clan Motto: Touch not this cat. Clan Badge: There are two plant badges listed for the clan. Boxwood (Latin: Buxus sempervirens) (Scottish Gaelic: Bocsa). Red Whortleberry (Latin: Vaccinium vitis-idaea) (Scottish Gaelic: Lus nam braoileag). Clan Slogan: Dunmaghlas. Clan chief The last chief to live at Dunmaglass was the 13th laird, Capt. John William MacGillivray, who had to sell his estate and died without an heir in 1914. The chiefship then passed to a cousin of his, John Farquhar MacGillivray, who lived in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. John Farquhar MacGillivray was chief for 32 years when he died in 1942 without an heir, and the last chief of Clan MacGillivray. Another Canadian, Col. George B. Macgillivray, later petitioned Lord Lyon King of Arms three times between 1953 to 1989 to be recognised as chief. Lord Lyon, not satisfied with the proofs Macgillivray submitted, denied him status of chief, but commissioned him as Commander of the Clan. Macgillivray served as Commander for five years before dieing in 1994, and to this day the clan remains without a leader. Associated names Clan MacGillivray does not have any septs, though common variations of the names MacGillivray and McGillivray, associated with the clan, are listed as follows. Note that the prefix Mac/Mc are interchangeable, as well as the capitalisation of the second syllable. MacGillavery. MacGillavry. MacGillivary. MacGillivoor. MacGillivrey. MacGillivry. MacGillvary. MacGillveary. MacGillviray. MacGillvray. MacGillvrey. MacGilvary. MacGilveray. MacGilvery. MacGilvra. MacGilvray. MacGilvreay. MacGilvry. MacIlbra. MacIllevorie. MacIlvora. MacIlvoray. MacIlvrae. MacIlvray. McGilvray. McGilvrey.

MacInnes

History Origins of the name From the Gaelic MacAonghais (Sons of Angus). Mac or Mc (as they are interchangeable) means son or family of, aon means one or unique, and gusa means choice. Therefore Unique Choice or Choice One. Mac does not imply strict bloodlines, but could reflect kinship, dependent allies or tenants. This name first appears in the seventh century Scottish Senchus fer n-Alban (The History of the Men of Scotland). Arrival in Scotland Clan MacInnes' ancestors were among the early inhabitants of Islay, Jura and the Kintyre peninsula in Scotland, generally part of the region known as Argyll. These Scotti, a Celtic, Gaelic-speaking people, first appear there as settlers from Ireland in c.500 when Fergus Mór, king of the north Irish kingdom of Dál Riata, and his two brothers, Loarn and Óengus, expanded their lands into southwestern Alba. Óengus had already established a colony on Islay and/or Jura and was the master of ships for the new Kingdom. Óengus (Angus) is considered to be the first of the MacInnes Clan and is thought to be buried on Iona. Dalriada quickly grew in influence and strength, and eventually overran the indigenous Pictish peoples and their culture. The area then became known as Scotland after these Scotti immigrants. Civil War In 1645 during the Civil War the Clan MacInne's Kinlochaline Castle was attacked and burned by MacDonalds serving under James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose. Expansion and decline It is believed that MacInneses lived on Iona with Columba. Oengus and his descendants would have exploited their seagoing skills and ventured to Iona at an early time. Iona is the final resting-place of many with our name and lore says that Columba selected the site whereupon the Kiel Church now stands in Lochaline near Kinlochaline Castle, the castle built by the MacInneses. During the 9th century the clan moved out of the western isles and into Argyll (Morvern and Ardgour). This was most likely as a result of constant Viking raids in the islands. By the early 12th century MacInnes people were well established in all of Morvern (the peninsula bounded by Loch Sunnart and Loch Linnhe and adjacent to the Isle of Mull). The traditional seat of the Chiefs of Clan MacInnes was established there in Kinlochaline Castle. As the Viking raids continued to terrorize their lands the MacInneses became members of an alliance known as Siol Gillebride (Seed of the Servant of St. Bride) along with MacGillivrays, MacMasters and MacEachearns somewhat in the manner of Clan Chattan, under the leadership of the Celtic-Norse warrior Somerled (killed in 1164, often referred to as Somerled MacGillebride, and his father was believed to be a MacAonghais Chief). Somerled's grandson was the first of Clan Donald (McDougall and McDonald clans). How the clan entered into this alliance is told as follows: Chief of MacInnes sought Somerled to seek his aid. A skilled warrior, Somerled agreed to help them if they would follow his directions completely. He told them to kill and skin a herd of longhaired highland cattle, and to then march their normally kilt-clad fighters in plain sight of the invading Vikings. Next they were to dress in the cowhides with the long hair turned outwards and march again before their enemies; then a third time they were to march in front of the Vikings, but this time wearing the hides turned skin side out. The MacInnes men followed his advice. The Vikings were fooled into thinking the MacInneses had three times their actual fighting strength. They turned and fled the "overwhelming numbers" and many were slain. In thanks to Somerled, the MacInnes' vowed to become his vassals. In mid 14th century, the last chief of the Clan MacInnes was killed along with his sons by order of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles(who was the great-great-grandson of Somerled). Chief MacInnes had advised John to divorce his wife and marry the daughter of future king Robert II of Scotland. John's former wife got revenge by telling John that MacInnes had complained that when he stayed at John's house, his quarters stank because they were used as a dog's kennel. John was enraged. Clan MacLean carried out the murders in the Castle of Ardtornish on the Sound of Mull and as a reward were deeded the lands and castle of Ardgour. Clan MacInnes remains without a Chief, and many of the clan scattered to Appin, Craignish, Lochaber and Skye, but some of the clan continued to occupy the castle. Dispersal In the 16th Century, many of the MacInnes Clan moved to Sleat on the Isle of Skye. Five longships are said to have made the journey, each holding a family group. From these five families are descended the five lineages of the name of MacInnes on the Isle of Skye. Some of these MacInnes men became the hereditary bowmen to the Mackinnon of Strath. The bowmen were known as Sliochd Neill a' bhogha (The Line of Neil of the Bow). Others of the dispossessed Clan had joined with Clan Dugall Craignish and some went to Perthshire and joined with the MacGregors, leading to an ill-informed present-day claim that MacInnes is a Sept of MacGregor. It should be also noted that Clan Innes is unrelated to MacInnes having arisen in Moray east of Inverness at a later date. Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite uprisings most of the Clan MacInnes supported the British government however one branch of the clan fought for the Jacobite cause: In the 1745 Jacobite Rising, MacInnes Clansmen took up arms on both sides. Some stood with the Campbells and the House of Argyll, but others (MacInneses of Morvern, Lochaber and Appin) supported Prince Charles Edward Stuart and fought beside Stewart of Ardshiel, who commanded of the Appin (Stewart) Regiment. A MacInness clansman, MacMaster of Glenaladale, raised Prince Charles banner at Glenfinnan. Four MacInnes men were killed and two wounded in the battle. Others may have been captured and subsequently hanged. Donald Livingstone, the 18-year-old son of Anna MacInnes of Morvern, saved the Appin Banner from Culloden and smuggled it home. The banner is now housed in the Museum of Scotland. These kinsmen are buried in the cemetery of Kiel Kirk (Kiel Church) in Lochaline Morvern. The church and cemetery exist today, with many old grave stones housed in the session house next to the church. One John McGinnes helped row Charles to safety and when captured and flogged, refused to disclose the details. The Highland Clearances The Highland Clearances, from about 1790 to 1840s, drove many MacInneses from their homes, notably on Skye and Mull. These Clearances were designed to get the tenant farmers off the land to make room for profitable sheep herding. Poverty, crop failures and high rents also contributed to the tide of emigration that emptied the highlands during the 19th Century. Numerous parish cemeteries on Mull, Skye, Iona, Islay and across Argyll hold the remains of clansmen. Castle Kinlochaline Castle was the seat of the chief of Clan MacInnes. Crest The oldest crest of the MacInneses is a bee on a thistle and the motto "E labore Dulcedo" (Translation:'in labor, pleasure') coming from an incident in the 13th century when a MacInnes Chief was awakened by a bee sting to lead his forces in surprising and defeating a party of Viking raiders. In 1960, a branch of the Clan matriculated arms from which was adopted the crest of a Left Arm in Proper Tartan Holding a Bow and the motto "Irid Ghipt Dhe Agus an Righ" (by the grace of God and King). This crest was adopted for commercial use by the Council of Chiefs. Since there is no Clan Chief, the arms are lodged with Lord Lyon King of Arms. That branch of the MacInnises emigrated from Skye and founded a farm in Nova Scotia in the 19th century called Malagawatch. As such the 'arm & bow' crest and the motto above are part of the Arms of MacInnes of Malagawatch. In 2004, the International Association of Clan MacInnes was granted Arms by the Court of Lord Lyon which incorporated the 'arm & bow', with slight modifications, atop a wholly new coat of arms incorporating significant symbols related to the history of the Clan. Related names There are many Anglicized spellings of the name: MacInnis, Macinnis, McInnis, Macinnes, McInnes, McGinnis (not to be confused with McGuinnes), McKinnis, MacAngus, McAninch, McIninch, McKynes, M'Aneiss, McCanse, McNiesh, McAinsh and many more, since Mac and Mc are interchangeable. Masters, MacMaster and variants are of the Clan. To this day there are 157 variants of the spelling of the name 'MacInnes' including spellings with Mc, Mac, and the occasional G. The name "Innes" is often inaccurately linked to MacInnes. Innes has a later origin in Moray.

MacIntyre

History Origins of the clan In Gaelic, the name Macintyre is rendered 'Mac an t-Saoir', meaning 'son of the carpenter'. A traditional account dates the origins of the name to the early twelfth century, when Somerled was establishing his lordship in the Western Isles. After Olav the Red, Norse King of Mann and the Isles, resisted Somerled's ambitions, he then resorted to diplomacy, and sought the hand of the king's daughter, Ragnhild, in marriage. Somerled's nephew, Macarill or Maurice, assured his uncle that he could devise a scheme to win the bride. It is said that Macarill sabotaged Olav's galley by boring holes in the hull, which he then plugged with tallow. He contrived to be a passenger on the king's galley, and went well supplied with wooden plugs. Heavy seas washed out the tallow and the galley began to founder, at which point Macarill promised to save the king's life if he would promise his daughter's hand to Somerled. The pact was sealed, and the plugs used to stop the leaks. Macarill was thereafter known as the 'wright' or 'carpenter', and found high favour with his uncle. Macarill's descendants later established themselves on the mainland where, according to legend, they were warned by a spirit only to settle where a white cow in their herd came to rest. The land they settled was the rich and fertile Glen Noe by Ben Cruachan on Loch Etiveside. By the end of the thirteenth century the Macintyres were foresters to the Lord of Lorn, an office they held through the passing of the lordship from the Clan MacDougall to the Stewarts and finally the Clan Campbell. Stone of the White Calf at the Lairig Noe Tradition suggests that the MacIntyres originally lived in Sleat on the Southern tip of the Isle of Skye. The MacIntyres moved from Sleat to the mainland on Loch Etive in Argyll. They settled at a place called Glen Noe on the North Slope of Ben Cruachan and the South shore of Loch Etive. Exactly when the MacIntyres arrived here is unclear, but is was sometime between 800 and 1200 AD, give or take a few hundred years. Once they arrived at Glen Noe the MacIntyres naturally became connected with the larger Clans in the area. They were foresters to the MacDougalls of Lorn and then with the Appin Stewarts. The largest clan bordering their small glen were the Campbells with whom they also share their war cry - Cruachan. It was either good fortune, good strategy or both, that the MacIntyre Chiefs often married Campbell's. The Campbell Chiefs also thought it was a good strategy and routinely had their daughters marry the Chiefs of neighboring clans. More often than not, this resulted in the Campbell's acquiring the other clan's territory and sometimes the entire clan when there was no heir except for the Campbell widow. Fortunately, MacIntyre Chiefs continued to produce heirs or outlive their wives, but that did not deter the Campbell's who eventually got the MacIntyre land anyway. MacIntyres are probably the only independent clan that has close connections with both the Campbells and MacDonalds, who were fierce rivals. It is Donald, the grandson of Sommerled, who is the progenitor of Clan Donald. However, it is highly likely that it was the nephew of Sommerled through his sister, who is the progenitor of Clan MacIntyre. His first name is variously called Maurice or Murdach and his surname MacArill, MacNeill or O'Neill. It is likely that the MacIntyre Chiefship predates by at least one generation and probably more that of Clan Donald, but MacIntyres lacked the power inherited by Sommerled's son and grandson. Sommerled and Thane of Argyll wanted the Western Isles which at that time were possessed by Olav the Red, Norse King of Mann and the Isles. Sommerled hoped to accomplish this without fighting by aiding Olav in his own conquests further South in England and by marrying Olav's daughter, Ragnhild. Olav didn't take the bait but Sommerled's nephew stole aboard Olav's galley and bore holes in the side above the water line and plugged them with wax. When Olav's galley went out to sea, the waves began to wash out the wax and the galley took on water. To save himself, Olav agreed to the marriage and the nephew saved the galley using wooden plugs he had prepared. There is reason to believe that the nephew's reward was Glen Noe and thenceforth he gained his nickname, 'the wright' or carpenter. His son was the son of the carpenter, the name that was inherited by the descendent from that time hence. This connection with Sommerled explains the number of similarities with Clan Donald, such as the white heather badge, and the galley, eagle and cross crosslet fitchee on the coat of arms. Of course, it is a habit of Clans with greater military or territorial strength to spread rumors that smaller clans are their Septs or inferiors. Clan Donald has used the similarities mentioned before to insist that MacIntyres are a Sept of Clan Donald and they do this to this day at Scottish gatherings. Not only is there no evidence for this but there is evidence to the contrary. In addition to what has already been mentioned, Clan Donald's own official historian fails to mention MacIntyres even once in his extensive and authoritative History of Clan Donald. To the contrary, in the 1994 edition of Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia, which is sponsored by The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs, the heroic role of the progenitor of Clan MacIntyre in achieving the marriage of Sommerled to Ragnhild, daughter of Olav the Red, is mentioned under MacDonald of MacDonald as predating the formation of Clan Donald. This heroic act was reason enough for Sommerled to give his nephew Glen Noe on the mainland to and to give him a Chiefship in his own right, if wasn't one already. The MacIntyre name may have originated at that time but the hereditary line probably went back much further. There is evidence that Maurice was connected with three royal lines, one Norse and two Irish (which at that time was called Scotia). In any event, his heroic and historic act clearly predates the formation of Clan Donald. The Standing Council includes the Chief of Clan MacIntyre along side the Chiefs of Clan Donald. Likewise, but not a blatantly, the Campbell's whisper that the MacIntyres are their feudal inferiors. This was never the case as evidence by the fact that James III, the MacIntyre Chief was not obligated to supply men at arms and did not personally fight on the side of the Campbell's and Government against Bonnie Prince Charlie. At the same time, a number of MacIntyres fought with the Stewart of Appin regiment and five died at Culloden for the Jacobite cause. It seems obvious that as Chiefs, MacIntyres held full rights to Glen Noe at some time in their history. That this was modified is also clear. It seems that in the early 1300 Glen Noe was still part of the Chief inheritance. However, the sons of the Chief apparently killed some Campbell's and the punishment was to require a symbolic payment of a fatted calf in December and a snowball in June. It was Donald II who accepted payment of a small sum of money in place of the symbolic calf and snowball. The Chief of Clan MacIntyre is called by one name, Glenoe, after the place in Scotland, on Loch Etive near Oban, where they lived for centuries until 1816. Although the MacIntyre Chiefs were recognized by other Clans and by the Kings of Scotland, it was only in 1991 that the Lyon Court of Scottish Heraldry gave their recognition to James Wallace MacIntyre of New York, the tenth Chief of Record. Glenoe's son, James Thomas MacIntyre, the younger, is age one. The Chiefs of Clan MacIntyre have alternated their given name between Donald to James since Donald, the second Chief of record. It was in 1822 that the MacIntyre Chiefs finally left Scotland and emigrated to the United States as did many other Scots. In 1955, the Lyon Court recognized and awarded arms to Camus-na-h-Erie, a cadet branch of descent from the younger brother of a Glenoe many years before written records are available.' MacIntyres have always been a small, industrious, and well-respected Clan that usually kept out of trouble by keeping out of politics and major battles. This is perhaps why they remained an independent clan. However, they lost clear title to Glen Noe as a free hold as punishment for an accidental homicide of a person belonging to Clan Campbell. The only other significant battle that affected the MacIntyres directly was at Culloden in 1746 where ten MacIntyres were killed or wounded as part of the Stewart of Appin regiment that supported Bonnie Prince Charlie. There is no record of fatalities of MacIntyres fighting for the Government. These fatalities were not the cause of MacIntyres leaving Glen Noe but Culloden was fatal to the highland way of life and governance. MacIntyres distinguished themselves in cultural activities. Duncan Ban MacIntyre, born in 1725 in Glen_Orchy on the other side of Ben Cruachan, is considered by scholars to be the 'Burns of the Highlands'. He spoke only Gaelic and in the oral Gaelic tradition composed and passed on his songs in public and private presentations. It was left to others to write down and publish his 'songs'. Although he fought against Bonnie Prince Charlie, he was imprisoned for a song he wrote against the Act or Proscription of the Highland Dress that was imposed after the '45 rebellion failed. His contemporary, James MacIntyre, third Chief of record, was also a poet and wrote with great force and sarcasm against the criticism of Scottish life by Samuel Johnson, the famous English writer and lexicographer. MacIntyres of Rannoch were hereditary pipers to the Menzies of Menzies. In the 1490s the MacIntyres were admitted as the sixteenth clan to the Clan Chattan Confederation. This confederation is probably the longest, continuous extant alliance in the history of the world! MacIntyres living in Cladich, not far from Glen Noe near Loch Awe, were highly acclaimed for their weaving and for some time their 'Cladich Garters' (stockings) were an essential part of the Highland Dress. It has been said that these garters were the forerunners to the 'Argyll Socks' that many a young lady knitted for her boyfriend in the United States in the 1940s and 50s. 17th century & Civil War As the family records have been lost, the Macintyre chiefs cannot be listed with any accuracy, but the first chief of record was Duncan, who married a daughter of Campbell of Barcaldine. The chief led the clan in support of the Duke of Argyll at the Battle of Inverlochy (1645) when the Clan Campbell of Argyll were surprised by Montrose and routed. Duncan died in 1695 and was buried in Ardchattan Priory in a tomb worthy of his rank. 18th century & Jacobite Risings Originally the MacIntyres held their land by right of sword but they had acquired feudal obligations to the Campbells, which were purely symbolic until the 18th century. James, the third chief, was born around 1727. He was sponsored by the Campbell, Earl of Breadalbane and studied law, being regarded as a good scholar and a poet. On his father's death he returned to Glen Noe. When Prince Charles Edward Stuart raised his father's standard at Glenfinnan in 1745, James Macintyre would have joined him but for the influence of his Campbell wife and neighbours. Many Macintyre clansmen, however, slipped away and fought for the Jacobites, like those who fought in the Appin Regiment at Culloden. On the other hand, the great Macintyre bard, Duncan Ban, fought for the government side at the battle of Falkirk (1746)after being hired to fight in place of a gentleman. His military career was less successful than his art, as the gentleman refused to pay him after Duncan lost his sword in the battle. A monument to the poet's memory was erected in 1859 near Loch Awe. When the Campbells of Breadalbane imposed a rent that progressively grew too great, first Duncan, then Donald, 4th & 5th Chiefs respectively, emigrated to America by 1806. Clan profile MacIntyre tartan, as published in 1842, in the Vestiarium Scoticum. Pipe Music: 'We Will Take The Good Old Way' (Scottish Gaelic: Gabhaidh Sinn An Rathad Mór) Midi file from macintyreclan.org

MacIver

The Clan MacIver is a Scottish clan and sept of several larger clans. The name MacIver is a sept name for the Clan Campbell and Clan MacKenzie. The Clan MacIver is also considered an Armigerous clan as there is no Chief recognised by the Lord Lyon of Lyon Court. Origins The surname MacIver is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic name Mac Íomhair (son of Íomhar). Íomhair is the Gaelic form of the Old Norse personal name Ivarr. The MacIvers of Argyll are said to have descended from an early Campbell, Iver Crom, while the MacIvers from northern Scotland are thought likely to be of Norse origin. The northern MacIvers/MacIvors were thought to have been among the ancient inhabitants of Kintail, of these the 'MacIvors, MacAulas, MacBollans, and Clan Tarlach' were thought to have descended from Norwegian families. According to legend, a stronghold of the MacIvers was the ancient fort of Dun Mor (Dunmore), located near Lochgilphead. Battle of Bealach na Broige Main article: Battle of Bealach na Broige The Battle of Bealach na Broige was a battle fought in 1452 between various north-western highland clans from the lands of Ross, against the followers of the Earl of Ross including the Dingwalls and Munros of Foulis. Though the date of the battle is obscure what is known is that the rising consisted of the 'Clan-juer' (Clan Iver), 'Clantalvigh' (Clan-t-aluigh, ie. Clan Aulay), and 'Clan-leajwe' (Clan-leaive, ie. Clan Leay). The Munros and Dingwalls pursued and overtook the rising clans at Bealach na Broige, where a bitter battle ensued, fed by old feuds and animosities. In the end the MacIvers, MacAulays and MacLeays where almost utterly extinguished and the Munros and Dingwalls won a hollow victory, having lost a great number of men including their chiefs. The MacIver Campbells The leading family of the MacIver Campbells were the MacIvers of Lergachonzie and Stronshira. A branch of the MacIvers were Captains of the Castle of Inveraray, where the standing stone in the grounds of the castle was said to have been the boundary between the lands of the MacIvers and the MacVicars. On June, 1564, at Dunoon, in an agreemant between Iver MacIver of MacIver of Lergachonzie, and Archibald Campbell, 5th Earl of Argyll, the Earl renounced all calps from those of the name MacIver, in return for a sum of money, though the Earl reserved the calp of Iver MacIver and his successors. It is thought that after this agreement many of the MacIver Campbells began changing their surname from MacIver to Campbell. Clan profile MacIver tartan. There is little evidence to account for this tartan, and it is thought to be of relatively recent origin. Clan Motto: Nunquam obliviscar (translation from Latin: I will never forget). Clan Badge: Bog Myrtle, and Fir Club Moss. Tartan There is little evidence to account for this tartan, and it is thought to be of relatively recent origin. The tartan is very similar to the Clan Macfie tartan.

Mackay

The Clan Mackay (Gaelic: Mac Aoidh) is an ancient and once powerful Scottish clan from the country's far north in the Scottish Highlands, but with roots in the old province of Moray. They played a powerful force in politics beginning in the 14th century, supporting Robert the Bruce. Mackays became famous for strength, courage and skill in soldiering and were involved in endless clan battles against Keiths, Rosses, Gunns, Sinclairs, Sutherlands and others, and wars abroad. In the centuries that followed they were very anti-Jacobite. They played an important role in the military activities of both Scotland and Europe. The Highland Clearances had dire ramifications for the clan, but since then they spread throughout the world and have provided it many famous and influential descendants. Battles & History Origins of the Clan Map of Dál Riata at its height, c. 580-600, in green. Pictish regions are marked in yellow. The Mackays are believed to descend from the ancient tribes that existed in Scotland called the Picts. However the name is also found from ancient times in Holland where the Mackays became noted for their many branches in the region. Each house acquiring a status and influence that was envied by the princess of the region. The name Mackay is also found in Ireland from ancient times when several tribes from the northern area of Ireland, which was once part of one of the ancient Scottish kingdoms known as Dál Riata, moved across the sea to Scotland. The Mackays in Scotland were seated in Strathnaver north of Sutherland. Although the exact origin of the Clan Mackay is unknown it is generally accepted that they belonged to the early Celtic population of Scotland, although, from their proximity to the Norse immigrants, it is not at all improbable that latterly the two races became largely blended. The most popular and accepted theory as to the origins of the chieftenship of the Clan Mackay, is that the chief was descended from the Pictish Royal House of MacEth. It is said that his clansmen were originally from Ireland, following two brothers deported after battle loss for the kingship in 335 A.D. They settled in Moray but were dispersed principally north to the Strathnaver region by order of King Malcolm IV of Scotland in 1160 who defeated Malcolm MacEth, Earl of Ross whose daughter Gormflaith married the Norse Harold, Earl of Caithness. Their son was called MacHeth who was raised to the chieftenship of his Clan Mackay in 1250. Scottish-Norwegian War 1260 - Iye Mor MacHeth married a daughter of Bishop Walter of Caithness. 1263 - The Clan Mackay participated in the Battle of Largs fighting in support of King Alexander III of Scotland. The Norwegian forces of King Haakon IV of Norway were defeated. Wars of Scottish Independence 1296 - Clan Mackay fight under William Wallace at the Battle of Stirling Bridge where they helped defeat the English during the Wars of Scottish Independence 1314 - Clan Mackay fight under Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn where they helped defeat the English. 1371 - Murder of two Mackay chieftains, father and son, at Dingwall Castle by Nicholas Sutherland of Duffus, head of one of the junior branches of Clan Sutherland. Much bloodshed followed, including a retaliatory raid on Dornoch in 1372. The cathedral was once again set on fire and many Sutherland men were hanged in the town square. After this, the feud quietened down as both sides were called away to fight against the English. 15th Century & Clan Confilcts A Victorian era romantic illustration of a Mackay clansmen by R. R. McIan. 1403 - Battle of Tuiteam Tarbhach was fought between the Clan Mackay and the Clan MacLeod of Lewis. This battle was fought at Tuiteam-tarbhach in the south west part of Sutherland where it meets Ross. Angus Mackay of Strathnaver married the sister of MacLeod of Lewis. MacLeod of Lewis found that his sister had been mis-treated and on his way home he decides to spoil Strathnaver and Brae-Chat in Sutherland. As a result the battle was fought in which MacLeod was killed. 1411 - Battle of Dingwall, where Clan Donald defeated the Clan Mackay. The two clans afterwards fought together at the Battle of Harlaw and chief Angus-Dow Mackay marries a daughter of Donald of the Isles. 1425 - Angus Du spoils Moray. 1426 - Battle of Harpsdale, Chief Angus Dow Mackay, with his son Neil, enters Caithness with all hostility, and spoils the land. The inhabitants of Caithness assembled with all diligence, and fought with Angus Dow Mackay at Harpsdale, where there was great slaughter on either side. Soon after King James I came to Inverness, of intention to pursue Angus Dow Mackay who submitted himself to the King's mercy, and gave his son Neil in pledge of his obedience in time coming. The King accepted, and sent Neil Mackay to remain in captivity on the Bass Rock, in the Firth of Forth, he was afterwards called Neil Bhasse or Whasse. 1431 - Battle of Drumnacoub, Angus Dubh Mackay defeats Angus Moray near Tongue. This banner is drawn from a fragment of stone. Angus married Elizabeth, sister to Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles. Her dowry was 100 fighting men from Lochaber. Their sons were known as the Abrach Mackays and had Elizabeth's arms whose supporters were Bears. 1438 - Battle of Ruoig-Hansett, The Caithness men overthrown at Sandside Chase by Neil Bhasse Mackay after his release from the Bass Rock. He skirmished with some of the inhabitants of that province at a place called Sanset, where he overthrew them with slaughter on either side. This conflict was called Ruaig-hanset, that is the Chase at Sanset. Neil Bhasse died shortly after. 1464 - Battle of Blare Tannie, between the Clan Keith, assisted by the Mackays against the Clan Gunn. The inhabitants of Caithness assembled an army and met the Mackays and Keiths at a place in Caithness called Blair-tannie. There ensued a cruel fight, with slaughter on either side. In the end the Keiths and Mackays had the victory. 1486 - Battle of Tarbat , The Mackays and the Clan Ross had long been at feud, again and again the Rosses had suffered molestation of their lands from their enemies and when at last, driven to desperation and thoroughly infuriated, they gathered their forces and marched against the Mackays, they were in the mood to teach them a severe lesson. The Mackays, with Angus Mackay of Strathnaver at their head, finding themselves fiercely attacked and being defeated by the Rosses, sought shelter in the church of Tarbat where many were slain. The church was set on fire and Angus Mackay and many of his clansmen were burnt to ashes. 1486 - Battle of Auldicharish, To take revenge on the Clan Ross, chief Ian Mackay helped by a force from Clan Sutherland marched south invading the territory of Clan Ross and began laying waste to it. Chief Alistair Ross gathered his forces of 2000 men and engaged in a long and desperate battle with the invading forces. In the end the battle went against the Rosses with the Mackays and Sutherlands gaining the upper hand. The Ross chief was killed along with many of his clan. 1493 - The Mackays invade the Rosses again, and take much spoil. 16th Century & Clan Confilcts 1505 - Battle of Achnashellach, Little is known of this battle which is often described as an obscure skirmish between the Clan Cameron and Clan Mackay. It is said that the Mackays were defeated and William Munro of Foulis, chief of the Clan Munro who assisted the Mackays was killed. 1513 - Battle of Flodden Field, Where John Riavach Mackay fell during the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The chief of Mackays, Aodh (Hugh) Mackay, was named by King James IV of Scotland as Lord of Strathnaver when he was ordered to bring his men to fight at the battle. 1517 - Battle of Torran Dubh, The Clan Sutherland encounter John Mackay and his company at a place called Torran Dubh, beside Rogart, in Strathfleet, where there ensued a fierce and cruel conflict and the Mackays were defeated. 1522 - Alexander Gordon (the Earl of Sutherland's eldest son) overthrew John Mackay of Strathnaver at Lairg, and forced him to submit himself to the Earl of Sutherland; unto whom John Mackay gave a bond of manrent and service. 1528 - The Mackays are associated with the Clan Forbes in the feuds of the latter. 1542 - Battle of Alltan-Beath, Chief Donald Mackay of Strathnaver decided to invade and molest the lands of Clan Sutherland. He burned the village of Knockartoll and stole many goods from Strathbrora. The Clan Sutherland and Clan Murray led by Hutcheon Murray of Abirscors with Gilbert Gordon of Garty attacked the Mackays at a place called Ailtan-Beath. After the battle the Mackays fled and much of the stolen booty was recovered. Donald Mackay was captured and imprisoned in Foulis Castle, Ross by commandment of the Queen Regent. 1542 - Battle of Solway Moss, where Iye Du Mackay was taken prisoner. 1544 - Mackay joins in the attack of Arran at Glasgow. 1548 - Mackay joins in the attack and capture of Haddington. 1555 - Battle of Garbharry, last battle between the Mackays and forces of the Earl Sutherland. 1560 - The Clan Mackay join the Clan MacLean and Clan MacLeod as part of the Gallowglass. A mixture of Scots and Vikings became a ferocious mercenary army who foughtfor Shane O'Neill in Ireland. 1562 - Battle of Corrichie, the Mackays support Mary, Queen of Scots against George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly. 1566 - Mackay and Clan Macleod of Assint burn Dornoch. 1571 - Mackay and the Master of Caithness burn Dornoch again. 1576 - Battle of Dail-Riabhach, Chief John Mackay and his brother Donald Mackay defeat their uncle Neil Mackay and take possession of Strathnaver. 1585 - Huistean Du Mackay at the siege of Marle. 1586 - Battles of Allt Camhna and Leckmelm, involving the Clan Mackay, Clan Gunn, Clan Sinclair, Clan Sutherland and Clan MacLeod. 1588 - Huistean Du joins the Earl of Sutherland, and marries his daughter the following year. 1590 - Clynetradwell, Near Broa, Donald Balloch Mackay heads a group of archers from Assynt, Strathnaver, Caithness and Orkney. They reach the Earl of Caithness in time to save him from defeat. (Balloch is a name for a birthmark or spot on his face). 17th Century, Thirty Years' War & Civil War Thirty Years' War 1612 - His son, Donald Mackay of Farr, captures the coiner Smith at Thurso after some sharp fighting. 1616 -(April) - Donald Mackay goes to London with his uncle, Sir Robert Gordon, and is knighted by James VI, at Theobalds. 1626 - Sir Donald Mackay embarks 3600 men at Cromarty for the Thirty Years' War under Count Mansfeld in the service of Christian IV of Denmark and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, alongside their allies, the Clan Munro and Robert Munro, 18th Baron of Foulis. 1627 - Sir Donald holds the Pass of Oldenburg, against overwhelming odds, with his regiment, and in the same year, while abroad, is created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by Charles I. 1628 (June 20) - Sir Donald Mackay created Baron Reay of Reay in the Peerage of Scotland by Charles I. 1629 - Christian IV of Denmark is replaced by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden as Leader of the Protestant cause, and Lord Reay having raised fresh troops in Scotland takes service under the latter. 1630 - Lord Reay accompanies his Regiment to Germany, and is at the capture of Stettin, Damm, and Colberg. 1631 - Reay is empowered by Charles I to raise another 2000 for service with Gustavus Adolphus. He quarrels with David Ramsay at the English Court and, having challenged him to a duel, both are imprisoned in the Tower of London to preserve the peace. 1632 - Gustavus is killed at the Battle of Lützen and Reay is not repaid large sums of money due to him by Gustavus and by Charles I. He has also domestic troubles and has to sell some of his estates, especially in Orkney. Civil War 1637 - He transfers his estates to his eldest son, John the Master of Reay. 1638 - The Marquis of Montrose, Lords Home, Boyd and Loudoun invite Lord Reay to meet them and others to consider the religious troubles of the time and sign the Covenant, which he does unwillingly, because of his long attachment to Charles I (click here for more information). 1639 -1641 - Reay stays at home. 1642 - He goes to Denmark and commands the Regiment of his son, Colonel Angus Mackay. 1644 - Like Montrose, Reay espouses again the cause of King Charles I in the English Civil War, and brings arms and money by sea to Newcastle. He aids Lord Crawford for several months in the defence of the city against the Scots Army. When the town is captured by General Leslie, Reay and Lord Crawford are sent as prisoners to Edinburgh Castle. 1645 - Following Montrose's victory at Kilsyth, Reay is liberated. 1646 - Montrose, having been instructed by King Charles I to disband his forces and seek his own safety, writes to Reay advising him to do likewise. Montrose narrowly escapes from Angus to Norway, and Reay from Thurso to Denmark. 1649 - Charles I executed at Whitehall on January 30th. Reay dies soon after at Bergen in Norway. His remains are sent home in a Danish frigate, and buried in the family vault at Kirkibol, Tongue. Neil Aberach falls at Thurso. John, 2nd Lord Reay, surprised and captured at Balveny Castle on the Spey, and imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. Lady Reay effects his escape. The place of Lord Reay's death remains uncertain - some have stated that he died in Bergen, others have stated he died in Copenhagen. There is no reference in Danish nor Norwegian state papers of 1648-9 and the records of Bergen were destroyed in the fire of 1702. Reference source Dr. Ian Grimble. 1651 - The Mackays at the Battle of Worcester. A company of Mackays was with the Duke of Hamilton at Worcester, England. They were led by Hugh Mackay, a nephew of General Hugh Mackay. They were used as a rear guard to allow the King and Prince Charles to escape. It was at this time when the Duke of Hamilton was mortally wounded. 1654 - The Mackays spoil Sutherland, in the rising under Middleton. 1680 - George, 3rd Lord Reay, succeeds his grandfather, and has Sir George Munro of Culrain as his guardian. 1689 - 100 men of the Clan Mackay occupied Brahan Castle to watch for movements of the Jacobite MacKenzies. 1689 - General Hugh Mackay of Scourie, who had served with the Scots Brigade in Holland, is made Commander-in-Chief in Scotland by William, Prince of Orange; is defeated at Battle of Killiecrankie but wins the campaign against Claverhouse. 1692 - General Hugh Mackay having returned to Holland to aid the Dutch in their conflict with the French under Louis XIV, falls at Steinkirk. Gen. Hugh Mackay, on being ordered to hold an untenable position, personally led his men into odds of 5 to 1 where he fell at the head of his regiment but the Mackays were victorious. 1697 - His nephew, AEneas Mackay, a son of the 2nd Lord Reay, is now Commander of the Mackay Regiment in the Dutch Service. Wounded and worn out with campaigning, he dies at Bath at the early age of 30 and is buried in the Chancel of Bath Abbey, where there is a tablet to his memory. His widow, a Dutch lady, returns to Holland with his only son, Donald, who grows up to command his father's regiment and become the founder of the branch of the Clan to which the Reay title passed in 1875. 18th Century, Colonial Wars & Jacobite Uprisings in Scotland Jacobite Uprisings 1715 - The Mackays are anti-Jacobite, and help to restrain Seaforth during the initial early Jacobite rising. The Mackays take the side of King George I and defend Inverness Castle against the Jacobites. 1719 - A detachment of men from the Clan Mackay fight under Ensign Mackay alongside men from the Clan Munro at the Battle of Glen Shiel where they defeated the Jacobites. 1745 - The Mackays are actively anti-Jacobite and support the British government with a force of over 800, which later became the famous 'Mackay Regiment', who went on to have success in Ireland later in 1795. Historian, Dr. Ian Grimble, outlines that the Mackays in Sutherland perceived that Prince Charles was stirring trouble that would bring disaster to the Highlands and did whatever was in their power to prevent the Prince's Jacobites advance or success of his armies. Among other deeds, they successfully waylaid a vessel taking supplies to the Prince and the Jacobites. 1746 - The Mackays Regiment along with Louden's Regiment help hold Sutherland and Caithness for the British Crown. 1746 - The Mackays intercept and capture, at Tongue, gold sent from France to the Jacobite leader Prince Charlie, and also capture the Earl of Cromarty at Dunrobin. Colonial Wars 1742 - At Fort Fredrica a group of Highlanders led by Charles Mackay ambush invading Spanish forces. This took place at St. Simons Island, GA, America. 1758 - During the French and Indian War; As a member of the 42d Royal Highland Regiment, 'The Black Watch', in 1758, Piper, William Mackay led the ill-fated charge on then French Fort Ticonderoga, which is in the area now known as New York. 1778 - Rob Donn, the Mackay poet, dies. 1795 - The Reay Fencibles embodied. 1798 - Reay Fencibles at the Battle of Tara Hill, near Dublin. 19th Century, Napoleonic Wars & Crimean War Napoleonic Wars 1802 - The Reay Fencibles disbanded at Stirling. 1806 - 'Mackay's Society' founded in Glasgow. 1815 - Battle of Waterloo, The 79th afoot Seaforth Highlanders formed a square upon being attacked by French Cavalry. Piper Kenneth Mackay, showing no fear, marches out of the square and plays the tune 'War or Peace' (Gogadh No Sith). Kenneth was presented with a set of Silver Pipes by the King's own hand for his bravery. 1815 - 1818 - The Strathnaver Clearances, by which the people were removed to make room for sheep. 1829 - The Reay estate sold to the Countess of Sutherland by Eric, 7th Lord Reay. Crimean War 1865 - During the battles in India, An assault was led on the fortification of Sercunderbah. The Mutineers were the 2nd Battalion of Punjabis. The only Sikhs regiment to mutiny had repulsed 2 attacks by British forces. Sir Colin Campbell, the Gen. in charge, shouts out an order, "Bring out the Tartan, let my own lads at them!" It was the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders, Sir Colin's best-loved regiment. Seven companies led by Pipe Major, John McLeod and seven other pipers ran forward playing the tune "The Haughs of Cromdell". The attack carried the fort. David Mackay won the Victoria Cross by taking the colours of the Punjabis. Later in the day David was shot while attacking a second fort of Shah Neijeef. He was returned to Britain for recovery. 1875 - On the death of Eric, 9th Lord Reay, who was unmarried, the title passed to the branch of the family resident in Holland and descended from John, 2nd Lord Reay (see note under 1697). Æneas Mackay, a Baron of the Netherlands, Vice President of the Council of State and holder of the Cross of the Order of the Netherlands, became 10th Lord Reay. He died in 1876. His son, Donald James Mackay, succeeded as 11th Lord Reay, left Holland and was made a Peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Reay of Durness (8th October, 1881) with a seat in the House of Lords. Was appointed Governor of Bombay (1885-90) and Under-Secretary of State for India (1894-95) and was Lord Lieutenant of Roxburghshire. 1900 - South Africa, L/Cpl. John Frederick Mackay serving with the Gordon Highlanders at the battle of Crow's Nest Hill, Nth. Johannesburg wins the highest award, the Victoria Cross. Falklands War 1982 During the Falklands War, Sgt. Ian Mackay the Platoon Sergeant of 4 Platoon, B Company, 3rd Battalion, The Parachute Regiment had to take over the platoon when his officer was shot in both legs. Sgt. Mackay attacked 3 machine gun positions and fell, mortally wounded attacking a fourth. He was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously. Chief The current chief of the Clan Mackay is Aaron Mackay. Varrich Castle Varrich Castle was the ancient seat of the chief of Clan Mackay but the chief later moved to Tongue House. Geography The Mackay homeland is Strathnaver, extending along the north coast from Caithness in the east, through Ross and Cromarty (before 1889, Ross and Cromarty), to Cape Wrath in the west. The southerly extent was the country of Sutherland. Dr Gary Mackay (see External links) describes the territory as stretched from Assynt in the west to Loch Naver, to the borders of Ross and just west of present day Thurso. Mackays of old were, however, to be found from the Orkney Islands to the Outer Hebrides. The pipes The 'Clan Tune' is Mackay's March. (According to J. Logan, there are several tunes associated with Clan Mackay. The 'salute', which is usually cited as the clan tune, is titled 'Brattach bhan Chlann Aoidh' or, in English, 'The White Banner of Mackay'. v. Logan, J. & McIan, R.R., The Clans of the Scottish Highlands - The Costumes of the Clans, London, 1847). The Clan has been associated with piping since time immemorial. Mackays were hereditary pipers to the MacKenzies. Kenneth Mackay became famous at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 by playing War or Peace in front of the regimental square of the Cameron Highlanders during a cavalry charge. Although pipers were not officially recognized as such until 1854, a Mackay piper was the first piper known to have served in a regular British army unit, in 1633 being transferred from the (continental) Scots Brigate to the (later) Royal Scots. The bagpipe music collection of Angus Mackay of Raasay (in 1843 appointed the first Piper to Queen Victoria) is the beginning of standardization of the classical piping form, the piobaireachd (pibroch). He wrote The Piper's Assistant (pre-1847) and The Tutor for the Highland Bagpipe (1878). He was preceded by William Mackay and in 1843 translated and revised his Complete Tutor for the Great Highland Bagpipe (1840). The name The name is a translation to English of the Gaelic 'Mac Aoidh,' meaning 'Son of Aodh.' or 'Son of Fire' The feminine form is 'Nic Aoidh,' meaning 'Daughter of Aoidh.' or 'Daughter of Fire' The feminine prefix 'nic' is the genitive form of 'ni.' The genitive form of 'mac' is 'mhic' (pronounced 'vik'), but this is not usually prefixed to root names that begin with a vowel. Instead, a slender vowel (usually 'i') is inserted behind the principal vowel, and an 'h' is placed before the initial vowel when it is used on its own (without a prefix): Aodh (pronounced 'ookh') > hAoidh (pronounced 'hoo-ey' - which is why the personal name Aodh/Aoidh/hAoidh is translated as 'Hugh' and 'Huey'), but no 'h' when there is a prefix - Mac/Nic Aoidh (Aoidh, pronounced 'oo-ey'). See end of next paragraph for details on prounnciation in the original Gaelic. Records from the 12th century show the spellings Mac Aedh, Mac Aed, and Mac Heth. 'Aed' is simply a transcription of the Gaelic alphabet form - with a dot over the 'd', to indicate aspiration - to the Roman alphabet, in which the dot is replaced by 'h'. The genitive case form of 'Aed/Aedh' is 'hAeid/hAeidh'. 'Heth' is a transcription of the genitive 'hAeidh', minus the 'i', to Scots/Norn/English - in which 'dh' represents the same sound as 'th'. The reader is reminded that all these form are basically attempts to render into Old Scots, Old English, and other languages, as accurately as possible, the sounds of what was then the Scottish dialect of Old Irish ' which, as a Celtic language, was very different from Scots, English and Norn(all Germanic languages). Originally the name Aedh would have been pronounced as /ɯiɣ/ in Old Irish, then later /ɯij/ in early Scots Gaelic. The sound /ɯ/ is a back unrounded high vowel with no precise equivalent in English or Scots, so it was variously rendered /i/ ee, /aj/ eye or /e/ ay in English and Scots. The variant spellings 'Mackay', 'MacKaye' and 'McKay' are common, and M'Kay is found in older records. Other variants include Y, Aytho, MacIye, Makky, Macky, McKoy, Maky, McKye, McKeye, Mackie, Mckie, Mackey, Key, Kay, McKy, McAy, McCei, MacCay, McCay, McCoy, Cay, Coy, Caw, McCaa, McCaw, McGaa, McGaw, Mackee, Makgie, McKee, McGee, McGhee, Gee, McKee, MacHery, Mahery, Ison, Eason, Easson, MacQuay, Quay, MacQuoid, Quoid, MacQuaid, Quaid, MacQuade, Quade, MacAvoy, McAvoy, Avoy, and many others. Septs of Clan Mackay Allan, Allanson, Andrews, Bane, Bain, Bayne, Beaton, Glassford, MacAllan, MacBain, MacHery, Macphail, McPhail, Macvail, Macvain, Macvane, Neilson, Nelson, Paul, Pole, Poleson, Polson, Reay, Scobie/Scobee, Stephens, Stephenson, Stevens, Stevenson, Williamson, and many others. The Forbes and Urquhart families may be closely related, and records before 1715 show close friendships among the three families. The most well known Mackay is Sir Tim Mackay who was assassinated by Englishmen David Taylor and Phillip Benson. The clan Mackay are also said by some to be descended from Siol Mhoirgunn or Clan Morgan - a claim in some doubt - so Morgan and Gunn are often included in the list of allied names. There are (or were) Mackay septs of Clan Chattan and other families. The form 'nic' is a contraction of 'nighean mhic,' meaning 'daughter of the son of', as well as the genitive form of prefix 'ni', which means 'daughter of'. Dwelly's Illustrated Gaelic to English Dictionary Aedh (Aodh, in modern form) is an ancient name of a fire god and, ultimately, is the Proto-Indo-European word for fire. In Scotland, Man and Ireland, the modern form of the name was Anglicised and Scotticised as 'Hugh' and 'Huey', from the genitive forms - hAodh ('hyoo' or 'hyookh') and hAoidh ('hyoo-ee'). Oxford Dictionary of First Names.

Mackenzie

Origins The Mackenzies were of Celtic stock and were not among the clans that originated from Norman ancestors. They are believed to be related to Clan Matheson and Clan Anrias, all three descending from the 12th century Gilleoin of the Aird. Based initially in Kintail, the clan was recorded at Eilean Donan on Loch Duich, a stronghold with which it was for many centuries associated. For several generations, the constable of Eilean Donan was traditionally Macrae of Inverinate, with the result that the Clan Macrae became known as 'Mackenzie's shirt of mail'. There were also strongholds at Kilcoy Castle and Brahan Castle and the Mackenzies of Tarbat had their seat at Castle Leod, in Strathpeffer in the 17th century. Traditional early history There was a tradition - not borne out, however, by any tangible evidence or confirmation and quite possibly invented by the Earl of Cromartie - that the family deduced its descent from a member of the House of Geraldine, in Ireland (whence sprang the noble families of Leinster, Desmond, &c.), who, with a considerable number of his followers, was stated to have settled in Scotland about the year 1261 and to have so powerfully aided King Alexander III in repelling the invasion of Haco, King of Norway. He was reportedly rewarded by a grant of the lands of Kintail, in the County of Ross, which were erected into a free Barony by charter, dated 9th January 1266. Therefore, Colin Fitzgerald was the first feudal Baron of Kintail. His grandson, who in the Gaelic was called Coinneach MacChoinneach (Kenneth son of Kenneth), 3rd Baron of Kintail, became corrupted in English into Mackenzie (pronounced: MacKenny) and hence arose all the families of MacKenzie in Scotland. The name 'Mackenzie', therefore, coming from the Gaelic: 'MacCoinneach' meaning: 'Son of the Fair One'. In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Mackenzie is said to have been among the clans who fought against the English. The Clan Mackenzie fought on the side of King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Inverurie (1308) against the forces of the Clan Comyn who were rivals to the throne. Chief Ian Mackenzie is said to have led a force of five hundred Mackenzies at the Battle of Bannockburn 1314 where the English were defeated. Later in the 14th century the Mackenzies are said to have become involved in battles against their powerful neighbour the Earl of Ross and his allies. This resulted in the capture and subsequent execution of chief Kenneth Mackenzie in 1346. Soon after this it appears that his successor, chief of the clan Mackenzie was living in an island castle in Loch Kinellan near Strathpeffer in Easter Ross and it was from this base that the clan was to advance westward once again to Kintail. History The earliest likeness of a Mackenzie - the effigy of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail (d. February 7, 1491/1492) located at Beauly Priory. Early history The earliest contemporary record of a Mackenzie is of Alexander Mackenzie of Kintail (Alexandro McKennye de Kintaill) who is listed as a witness to a charter by John of Islay, Earl of Ross, and Lord of the Isles on November 4, 1471. The earliest known likeness of a Mackenzie is that of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie (d. February 7, 1491/1492), whose effigy can be seen at Beauly Priory. He is the first Mackenzie to be buried at Beauly Priory. It has been attested that previous members of his family were buried at Iona, however there is no actual evidence in proof of this. 15th century & clan conflicts Battle of Bealach nam Broig, 1452, Fought north-west of Ben Wyvis between the a force of Munros and Dingwalls against a force of western tribes loyal to MacKenzie of Kintail who had taken hostage the Earl of Ross's son. The Munros and their allies rescued the Ross hostage and exterminated their enemies but with the loss of their chiefs, George Munro of Foulis and William Dingwall of Kildun. Battle of Blar-na-Pairc, 1477, Fought between the Clan MacKenzie and Clan MacDonald. The MacDonalds were defeated. Battle of Sauchieburn, 1488 the Clan Mackenzie fought under Hector Roy Mackenzie on the side of King James III of Scotland against an army of Scottish nobles who favored the King's then-15-year-old son, Prince James. Raid on Ross 1491, a conflict that took place in 1491 in the Scottish Highlands. It was fought between the Clan Mackenzie against several other clans, including the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh, Clan MacDonald of Clanranald the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh. Battle of Drumchatt, 1497, In 1495 King James assembled an army at Glasgow. Then on May 18th many of the Highland Chiefs made their submissions to him, including the Mackenzies and Munros. Soon after this Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh and his clan rebelled against the King. He invaded the fertile lands of Ross-shire where he was defeated in battle by the Munros and MacKenzies at a place called Drumchatt where he was driven out of Ross-shire. He escaped southward amongst the Isles but was caught on the island of Oransay, by MacIain of Ardnamurchan, and put to death. 16th century & clan conflicts During the Anglo-Scottish Wars chief John Mackenzie led the clan at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 and the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547 where he was captured by the English. This was the last major battle between the Royal Scottish and Royal English armies. The Mackenzies paid a ransom for his release. The growing importance of the Clan Mackenzie was vividly demonstrated in 1544 when the Earl of Huntly, the Lieutenant of the North, commanded John Mackenzie of Killin to raise his clan against Clan Ranald of Moidart. The Mackenzie chief refused and Huntly's supporters, the Clan Grant, Clan Ross and Clan MacKintosh declined to attack the Mackenzies. From that time the Mackenzies were recognised as a separate and superior force in the north-west. On the 13th of December 1545, at Dingwall, the Earl of Sutherland entered into a bond of manrent with John Mackenzie of Kintail for mutual defense against all enemies, reserving only their allegiance to their youthful Queen, Mary Stuart. Battle of Langside, 1568, Clan Mackenzie fought on the side of Mary Queen of Scotts against the forces of her half brother James Stewart, Earl of Moray. Fortrose 1569, With the Munros the Mackenzies were often at feud, and Andrew Munro of Milntown defended and held, for three years, the Castle Chanonry of Ross, which he had received from the Regent Moray who died in 1569, against the Clan Mackenzie, at the expense of many lives on both sides. The feud was settled when the castle was handed over to the Mackenzies peacefully as the Mackenzies had gained more legal right to own the castle. Battle of Logiebride, 1597, A fight broke out at a fair in Logiebride which almost put the whole of Ross-shire into combustion. The fight began between John Macgillichallum (brother to the Laird of Raasay) and Alexander Bane (brother to Duncan Bane of Tulloch). The Munros took the side of Alexander Bane and the MacKenzies took the side of John Macgillichallum. John Macgllicham was killed along with John Mac-Murdo Mac-William and three others from the Clan MacKenzie. Alexander Bane escaped but three on his side were also killed; John Munro of Culcraggie, his brother Hutcheon Munro and John Munro Robertson. 17th century & Civil War Battle of Morar, 1602,fought between the Clan Mackenzie and Clan MacDonell of Glengarry. In 1623, the clan chief was made Earl of Seaforth, a title in the peerage of Scotland taking his title from a sea loch on the island of Lewis. In 1645, Lord Seaforth led a large force of Scottish Covenanters. They fought against James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose who was the commander of the Royalist forces in Scotland at the Battle of Auldearn in 1645. In 1646 during the Civil War the Clan MacKenzie was still in possession of the Castle Chanonry of Ross, however James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose laid siege to the castle and took it from the MacKenzies after a siege of four days. The MacKenzies retook the castle again in 1649. In 1649 a large force stormed Inverness Castle. Among the commanders were Thomas Mackenzie of Pluscardine, Colonel John Munro of Lemlair, Colonel Hugh Fraser and Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty. They were all opposed to the authority of the current parliament. They assaulted the town and took the castle. They then expelled the garrison and raised the fortifications. However on the approach of the parlimentry forces led by General David Leslie all of the clans retreated back into Ross-shire. However the MacKenzies left a garrison of men in Inverness Castle and Leslie withdrew to deal with a rising in the south. During the year several skirmishes took place between these parties. The MacKenzies retook the Castle Chanonry of Ross from the current Parliamentary forces. However, the Parliamentary forces, led by a Colonel Kerr soon after took the MacKenzie's Redcastle and hanged the garrison. Battle of Mulroy, 1668, Fought between the Clan Mackenzie and Clan Mackintosh against the Clan MacDonald and Clan Cameron. In 1672 Ardvreck Castle was attacked and captured by the Mackenzies, who took control of the Assynt lands. In 1726 they constructed a more modern manor house nearby, Calda House, which takes its name from the Calda burn beside which it stands. The house burned down under mysterious circumstances one night in 1737 and both Calda House and Ardvreck Castle stand as ruins today. During the Williamite War in Ireland the Clan MacKenzie led by their Chief Kenneth the Earl of Seaforth are believed to have supported King James at the siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in 1690. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings 1715 to 1719 Jacobite Rising In 1715 the Earl of Seaforth, chief of MacKenzie led a force of 3000 men headed by the Clan MacKenzie which also included men from the Clan MacDonald, Clan MacKinnon, Clan MacRae and the Clan Chisholm. He was opposed by Colonel Col. Robert Munro of Foulis who had formed a camp at the Bridge of Alness with 600 men including men from Clan Ross. Munro was soon joined by the Earl of Sutherland and the chief of Clan MacKay who both brought with them only a portion of their clans and expected support from the Clan Grant did not arrive. The Earl of Seaforth's forces advanced on the Sutherland's camp who made a quick retreat to avoid contact with their more powerful foe. It is said that the Earl of Seaforth himself said that they made a wise move. Soon afterwards a council of war was held between the two sides and the Sutherlanders and MacKays peacefully moved back north to their own territory, while much of the Ross's and Munro's lands were ravaged. Inverness 1715, During the early Jacobite Uprising the MacKenzie Jacobite garrison at Inverness were trapped by the Clan Fraser. The Clan MacDonald of Keppoch did attempt to relieve the MacKenzies, but their path was blocked by the Frasers, and Keppoch was forced to retreat. Inverness was surrendered to Simon Fraser of Lovat upon the very day when the Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought and another Jacobite force was defeated at the Battle of Preston. Soon after this 31 year old Colonel Robert Munro of Foulis marched into the town of Inverness with 400 Munros and took over control as governor from Fraser. Government troops arrived in Inverness towards the end of February, and for some months the process of disarming the rebels went on, helped by a Munro detachment under George Munro of Culcairn. The clan rivalries which had erupted in rebellion were finding an outlet in local politics. The MacKenzie's position as Earl of Seaforth came to an end in 1716, and it seems to have been arranged that while the Clan Ross held the county seat the Munros would represent the Tain Burghs. To secure the burghs, control of three out of the five was necessary. Ross ascendancy was secure in Tain, and from 1716 to 1745 the Munros controlled Dingwall. The Clan MacKenzie under their chief supported the Jacobites during the uprisings. Many men from the clan fought at the Battle of Glen Shiel in 1719 where they were defeated by Government forces headed by the Munros and where the MacKenzie chief was wounded. In 1720 a force of men from the Clan Ross, led by chief William Ross 6th of the Pitcalnie line and his brother Robert went on a rent collecting expedition into the lands of the MacKenzies. They were confronted by a force of 300 men from the Clan MacKenzie and Clan MacRae, led by a Colonel Donald Murchison. The Rosses were outnumbered and after a short battle some discussion took place between the two sides and the Rosses withdrew realising that further resistance was useless. The next day chief William Ross died of his wounds. 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Rising George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie led the Clan MacKenzie at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) where they were victorious in helping to defeat British Government forces. The MacKenzies then went on to lay waste to the lands of the Clan Munro who supported the government and burn down Foulis Castle. They also went on to lay waste to the lands of the Clan Sutherland and the Earl of Sutherland who also supported the government and captured Dunrobin Castle, although the Earl of Sutherland himself escaped through a back door. However soon afterwards as the Earl of Cromartie and his forces were travelling south to meet Charles Edward Stuart they were attacked by the Clan Sutherland near Bonar Bridge which is in Clan Munro country. The Earl of Sutherland himself had already escaped south to join the Duke of Cumberland's army after his lands had been wasted. However, many of his clan still remained in the hills, commanded by a man from Golspie who attacked the MacKenzies. Most of the Jacobite officers were captured, many of the men were killed and the rest were driven onto the shore where several were drowned trying to swim the Bonar Firth. Thus the Clan MacKenzie were prevented from joining the Jacobite army at the Battle of Culloden. Soon afterwards George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie and his son were surprised and captured at Dunrobin Castle. The Earl of Cromartie's titles were then forfeited. However a number of MacKenzies later took the side of the British government in one of the Independent Companies under Captain Colin MacKenzie. It is recorded that the MacKenzie Company was at Shiramore in Badenoch in June 1746 and it included many of them from Kintail as well as more than sixty men from the Clan MacRae. War in France and India Born in 1754 Francis Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, the last Lord Seaforth raised a regiment for the British Army in 1778, the 72nd, and the clan produced another the 78th in 1793. Both had distinguished records fighting against Napoleon and were later amalgamated into the Queen's Own Highlanders. During the Wars in India, Colin Mackenzie (1754 - 1821) was Surveyor General of India, and an art collector and orientalist. He produced many of the first accurate maps of India, and his research and collections contributed significantly to the field of Asian studies. In 1799, he was part of the British force at the Battle of Seringapatam. He also fought in the Napoleonic Wars. The modern Clan Mackenzie Castle Leod, seat of the chief of Clan Mackenzie. Throughout the 19th century Clan Mackenzie was without a chief that was recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. In 1979, Roderick Grant Francis Blunt-Mackenzie, 4th Earl of Cromartie legally changed his surname to Mackenzie and was appointed chief of Clan Mackenzie by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Although not descended from a Mackenzie in the male line (his father was born a Blunt and later changed to Blunt-Mackenzie after marrying Sibell Lilian Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, Countess of Cromartie) he inherited his titles and Mackenzie descent through his mother (even she only claims a Mackenzie descent as a great-great-great-great-granddaughter of George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie). On his death in 1990 his son John Ruaridh Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Cromartie succeeded as chief of Clan Mackenzie. The Earl of Cromartie still owns lands in clan country however, the largest remaining Mackenzie landowner by some margin is Mackenzie of Gairloch, with an estate which extends to over 50,000 acres (like the clan chief, Mackenzie of Gairloch has inherited his clan name and lands through the female line). The current chief is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. The current chief of Clan Mackenzie lives at Castle Leod, which is thought to date from the 16th century. The chief has leased the unoccupied old tower to the Clan Mackenzie Charitable Trust (CMCT) for 99 years. In 1991 it was announced that the castle was planned to be restored. The restoration was to include a clan genealogical centre that would be open to the public. During the 1990s there was extensive work done on the tower. In 2002 the Highland Buildings Preservation Trust (HBPT) was contacted, and public funding was sought to cover the costs of restoration. Because of concerns of physical and legal separation between the clan chief and the tower, the chief decided that the conditions of public funding were too onerous. Clan profile The Mackenzie dress tartan is a modern tartan. The Mackenzie tartan, otherwise known as the regimental tartan of the Seaforth Highlanders. Clan chief, crest badge, and slogan Clan chief: John Ruaridh Grant Mackenzie, 5th Earl of Cromartie (1861), Viscount Tarbat of Tarbat, Baron Castlehaven, Baron MacLeod of Castle Leod, Chief of Clan Mackenzie. Chiefs of Clan Mackenzie are title as Caberféidh (translation from Scottish Gaelic: 'Deer's antlers'). This Gaelic title is derived from the crest of a stag's head in the old Mackenzie Coat of Arms.
 Crest badge: Note: crest badges usually consist of the clan chief's heraldic crest and heraldic motto, encircled with a strap and buckle. Chief's heraldic crest: A mountain in flames Proper. Chief's heraldic motto: LUCEO NON URO (translation from Latin: 'I shine not burn'). Clan slogan: Tulach Àrd (translation from Scottish Gaelic: 'The high hill' or 'The high knoll' or 'The high hillock). The slogan is derived from the mountain which was the Mackenzie rallying point or gathering place in Kintail.
 Tartan There are several tartans associated with the name Mackenzie. Mackenzie. The tartan is the regimental tartan of the Seaforth Highlanders, which was raised in 1778 by the Earl of Seaforth. The tartan is recorded in the Collection of the Highland Society of London in 1816.
 Mackenzie dress. Mackenzie hunting. Mackenzie Millennium, also known as Mackenzie 78th Highlanders. This tartan, according to the Clan Mackenzie Society of Scotland and the UK website, was recently 'discovered' and recreated for the 'Millennium Gathering'. The society currently sells this tartan.
 Origin of the name The surname Mackenzie is of Scottish origin and derived from Gaelic. The name is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Mac Coinnich, which is a patronymic form of the personal name Coinneach meaning 'comely' or 'handsome'. Today personal name Coinneach is generally Anglicised as Kenneth however Kenneth was originally used as an Anglicisation of different Gaelic personal name - Cionaodh. The Anglicised Mackenzie had originally been pronounced 'Mackaingye' - with a modern English Y sound represented with the letter yogh ȝ. In the 18th century it became popular write and pronounce the name with what is the equivalent of a modern English Z sound, because of the similarity of the letter yogh and letter Z. Today there are several Lowland Scots words and several Scottish names that have been affected in a similar way (example: the surname Menzies). Associated names There are several variations of the surname Mackenzie. The following list of names are considered by the 'Clan Mackenzie Society of Scotland and the UK' as septs of Clan Mackenzie. Charles Charleson Clunes Clunies Cross Iverach Iverson Ivory Kenneth Kennethson Kinnach Kynoch Macaweeney MacBeolain MacBeath MacBeth MacConnach MacCure Maceur MacIver MacIvor MacKenna MacKenney MacKerlich MacKinna MacKinney MacKinnie MacLeay MacMurchie MacMurchy MacQueenie MacThearliach MacVanish

Mackinnon

Clan Mackinnon or Clan Fingon is a Highland Scottish clan associated with the islands of Mull and Skye, in the Inner Hebrides. Arms of the Chief and the Mackinnon of Mackinnon Popular tradition gives the clan a Dalriadic Gaelic origin. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene named the clan as one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin - who according Skene could all trace their ancestry back to Alpin, father of Cináed mac Ailpín. Popular tradition has been until recently to consider Cináed mac Ailpín the first King of Scots and a Gael, however recent research has shown he was actually a Pictish king and likely a Pict himself. Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk speculated that Clan Mackinnon belonged to the kindred of Saint Columba, noting the Mackinnon Arms bore the hand of the saint holding the Cross, and the several Mackinnon abbots of Iona. Though little is known of the early history of the clan, it is likely to have served under the Lords of the Isles. After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles in 1493 the clan would have gained some independence, and was at various times allied or at war with neighbouring clans such as the MacLeans and the MacDonalds. The clan supported the Jacobites in the 17th and 18th centuries, and tradition has the chief of the clan aiding in the escape of Bonnie Prince Charlie in his flight to France. Because of their support for the last Jacobite rebellion the Mackinnon chiefs lost the last of their ancient clan lands. Origins Little is known of the early history of the clan. The 19th century historian W. F. Skene gave the clan a descent linked to the clans of Siol Alpin. He claimed that the Finguine who appears in the MS of 1450 was the brother of the Anrias of whom the Clan Gregor claim descent from in about 1130. Because of the clan's early association with the Lords of the Isles there is no trace of early history of the Mackinnons as an independent clan. On the forfeiture of the last Lord of the Isles in the 1490s the clan at last gained some independence, though the Clan Mackinnon was always a minor clan and never gained any great power. Myth and Legend Caisteal Maol near Kyleakin. According to legend, the castle of Dunakin (today known as Caisteal Maol), near Kyleakin, was built by a Norwegian princess, known as 'Saucy Mary', who married Findanus the claimed ancestor of Clan Mackinnon. The princess was to have collected the tolls of ships sailing through the narrows between the castle and the mainland, though Norse ships were exempt from her toll. To ensure that her taxes were paid a chain was stretched across the kyle. On her death she was buried beneath a cairn on Beinn na Cailleach (the mountain of the old woman). Clan history According to the historian Donald Gregory the first authentic record of the clan is found in an indenture between John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and the Lord of Lorn, in 1354. In the indenture, Lorn agreed to hand over the Isle of Mull and other lands, if the castle of Cairn na Burgh, located on Cairn na Burgh Mòr in the Treshnish Isles, was not delivered into the keeping of any of Clan Finnon. Sometime after the death of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles, in 1386, John Mór (younger son of John of Islay) rebelled against his elder brother Domhnall, in an attempt to take the Lordship of the Isles for himself. According to a manuscript relating the history of the MacDonalds, written in the 17th century, it was Finnon, known as the Green Abbot, and 'a subtle and wicked councillor', who persuaded John Mór to revolt against his brother. It further states that the eloquent Green Abbot then persuaded the MacLeans and MacLeods of Harris to aid in John Mór's revolt, and acquire islands for themselves. Though assisted by his allies, John Mor was defeated, and by and by 1395 had fled to Ireland. John Mór was later pardoned by his brother, though the MacDonald history states that the Green Abbot's kinsman, the Mackinnon chief, was hanged for his part. The Green Abbot himself, was spared only because he was a churchman, and spent the rest of his life on Iona. The earliest record of the Mackinnons is of Lachlan Makfingane, who witnessed a charter by Donald de Ile, dominus Insularum, to Hector Macgilleone, dominus de Doward, on November 1, 1409. Later in 1467, Lachlann M'Fynwyn de Myschenys, witnessed a charter by the Lord of the Isles. According to the 17th century MacDonald manuscript, in a description of the Lord of the Isles' Council of the Isles, 'MacFinnon was obliged to see weights and measures adjusted'. Clan Fingon and the abbacy of Iona MacKinnon's Cross, Iona. The early clan seems to have had a close connection with the abbacy on the small Inner Hebridean island of Iona. The abbacy of Iona was first founded in 563 by Saint Columba, and many following abbots were selected from his kindred (Cenel Conaill: descendants of Conall Gulban, who was Columba's great-grandfather and the founder of Tír Conaill). Moncreiffe speculated that the Mackinnons were also of the this kindred, and noted their Coat of Arms bore the hand of the saint holding the Cross. Several 'Mackinnons' were Benedictine Abbots of Iona, who were leaders of the Benedictine monastic community on the island of Iona. Finghuine MacFhionghain (fl. 1357-1405), and Eoin MacFhionghain (John Mackinnon, son of Lachlan Mackinnon) (1467-1498) who was the last Benedictine Abbot of Iona. His tomb lies in Iona to this day, along with the shaft of a Celtic cross, known today as Mackinnon's Cross, dedicated in 1489 to himself and his father (Lauchlan), which is inscribed: 'Hec Fingone: et: eivs: filii: Johannis: X: abbatis de Hy: facta: anno: Domini: måccccålxxxåixå'. An independent clan After the forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles the Mackinnons tended to follow the MacLeans of Duart, though occasionally the clan sided with the MacDonalds of Skye, in the MacDonald's battles with the MacLeods. The name of the chief of the clan in 1493 is unknown, though in 1515 the chief was Neil Mackinnon of Mishnish. Two years later, in 1517, Neil and several others, described as 'kin, men, servants and partakers' of Lauchlan Maclean of Duart, were included in a remission which was obtained for their part in the rebellion of Sir Donald Macdonald of Lochalsh. In 1545, Ewen, the chief of the clan, was one of the barons and council of the Isles who swore allegiance to the King of England, at Knockfergus in Ireland. Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, in his A Description of the Western Isles of Scotland Called Hybrides, in 1549, described the Mackinnon controlled lands at that time. On Skye were the lands of 'Straytsnardill' (Strathairdle, of which later Mackinnon chiefs were designated), and 'the castill of Dunnakyne perteining to Mackynnoun; the castill Dunringill, perteining to the said Mackynnoun'. Munro also described the neighbouring island of Pabay as follows, 'At the shore of Sky foresaid, lyes ane iyle callit Pabay, neyre ane myle in lenthe, full of woodes, guid for fishing, and a main shelter for thieves and cut-throats. It perteins to M'Kynnoun'. Of the island of Mull, Monro stated that, 'this iyle pertains pairtly to M'Gillayne of Doward, pairtly to M'Gillayne of Lochbowy, pairtly to M'Kynnoun, and pairtly to the Clandonald of awld'. In 1579, Fynnoun MacKynnoun of Strathardill, and his son Lachlane Oig, were reported to James VI, along with Maclaine of Lochbuie and the MacLeans, by John, Bishop of the Isles. The Bishop of the Isles complained to the Scots king that these men were preventing him from receiving the rents of his See. According to MacLean family tradition, sometime after the battle of Lochgruinard in 1598, the MacLeans led by Hector MacLean invaded the MacDonald island of Islay, accompanied with MacLeod of Dunvegan, the Cameron of Lochiel, Mackinnon, and MacNiel of Barra, with their followers. MacLean and his men engaged the MacDonalds 'at a place called Bern Bige, attacked and defeated them, and afterwards ravaged the whole island in revenge for the slaughter of the Macleans at Lochgruinart'. On July 12, 1606 Lauchlan Mackinnon of Strathairdle and Finlay Macnab of Bowaine, entered into a Bond of Friendship and Manrent. In the bond the two chiefs claimed to 'come from ane house and one lineage', and promised to lend aid to each other. The chief of Clan Mackinnon signed his name, Lauchland, mise Mac Fingon. This bond was seen as further proof, by Skene, that the Mackinnons were descended from Siol Alpin. Another bond of manrent, this time between the Mackinnons and MacGregors, has also been seen as proof of a Siol Alpin descent. On 1671, in Kilmorie, Lauchlan Mackinnon of Strahairdle and James Macgregor of Macgregor, entered into the bond, stating that the two chiefs descended 'fra twa breethren of auld descent'. In 1609, the chief of the clan, Lauchlane McKynnoun of that Ilk, was one of the highland chiefs and leading men who witnessed the statutes known as the Statutes of Iona, which were enacted to bring the Western Isles under the control of the Scottish Government. In Support of the Stuarts During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms the Mackinnons followed the Marquess of Montrose, and took part in the Battle of Inverlochy on February 2, 1645. The chief of Clan Mackinnon, Lauchlan Mackinnon, raised a regiment in aid of Charles II, and was present at the Battle of Worcester. It is said that he was made a Knight Banneret at this battle, though this is thought improbable as such a custom was by then very much obsolete. (A knight banneret was created by a sovereign on the field of battle and could lead vassals under his own banner). Although considered a relatively minor clan, it seems to have been of considerable strength. Clan Mackinnon took part in the Jacobite Risings, supporting the Stuarts, in the 1700s. In 1715, 150 Mackinnons fought with the Macdonalds of Sleat, at the Battle of Sherrifmuir. Because of this the chief of the clan was forfeited, though he eventually received a pardon on January 4, 1727. In the rebellion of 1745, the chief, then old and infirm, joined the forces of Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) with a battalion of men. Lord President Duncan Forbes estimated that the Mackinnon force of that time was about 200 men. Following the defeat of the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden, Charles Edward Stuart fled to the west coast of Scotland in order to flee to France. Tradition has the Mackinnons aiding the prince, with the chief concealing him in a cave, and the chief's wife bringing the prince refreshments of cold meat and wine. The Mackinnon chief was later captured by Government troops and spent a year in confinement before being put on trial, with his life at stake, in Tilbury Fort. Mackinnon was eventually spared his life and pardoned because of his advanced age, and it is said that upon leaving the court room the Attorney General asked him 'If King George were in your power, as you have been in his, what would you do?', with Mackinnon replying, 'I would do to him, as he has this day done to me; I would send him back to his own country'. Because of the chief's support of the Jacobite rebellion they lost Strathardle in 1765, and have since been held landless in their ancient clan lands. The last chief of the senior line died unmarried in 1808; he was the great-grandson of John, elder son of Lachlan Mor who fought at the Battle of Worcester. The chiefship then passed to a representative of Lachlan Mor's second son, Donald. This Donald had apparently been taken prisoner at the Battle of Worcester and later travelled to the West Indies. It was his great-great-grandson, William Alexander Mackinnon, who became thirty-third chief in 1808. A later attempt by the Mackinnons of Corriechatachan (a cadet branch) to claim the chiefship generated a great deal of controversy and a certain amount of local support in Skye, but proved ultimately fruitless. The thirty-fifth chief of the clan was Francis Alexander Mackinnon. Today the present chief is Madam Anne Gunhild Mackinnon of Mackinnon, 38th Chief of the Name and Arms of Mackinnon. The current chief is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Clan profile Clan Mackinnon tartan as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. Today there are many different tartans attributed to the Mackinnons. Origin of the name The surname Mackinnon is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic Mac Fhionghuin, which is a patronymic form of the Gaelic personal name meaning 'fair born' or 'fair son'. This personal name appears in the Book of Deer, in the genitive form as Finguni. In the Annals of the Four Masters, a Fínghin, described as 'anchorite and Bishop of Iona', is recorded as dying in 966. Middle Irish forms of the name are Finghin and Finnguine, while the Modern Irish is Findgaine. These names are thought to derive from the prehistoric Gaelic Vindo-gonio-s (translation: 'fair-born'). The Anglicised Mackinnon has also been thought to derive from the Gaelic Mac Ionmhuinn, a similar patronymic name meaning 'son of the beloved one'. In consequence some 'Mackinnons' have Anglicised their name to Love or Low, although very few of people with these surnames actually derive their name this way, and most have no connection with the Mackinnons. Clan Mackinnon genealogy according to the MS of 1450 According to Skene, the manuscript of 1450 proved that Clan Mackinnon was a branch of Clan Gregor. Skene maintainded that the Finguine listed, was the brother of Anrias in the Clan Gregor genealogy. The genealogy within the manuscript is as follows (original spelling in italics): Niall, son of Colum, son of Gillabrigde, son of Eogan, son of Gillabrigde, son of Saineagain, son of Finlaeie, son of Finguine, from whom sprung clanfinguin, son of Cormac, son of Airbertaig, son of Muircheach, son of Fearchair oig. Clan crest, motto, badge and slogan Mackinnon Hunting tartan. This modern tartan was registered with Lyon Court in 1960, and is based upon the Mackinnon tartan found in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum. Crest badge: Note: crest badges consist of the clan chief's heraldic crest and heraldic motto, encicled with a strap and buckle. Clan chief's crest: A boar's head erased, argent, holding in its mouth a deer's shankbone, proper. A Mackinnon legend that is supposed to explain the chief's crest is of a Mackinnon who was hunting on the shores of Loch Scavaig in Skye. After becoming separated from his hunting party the Mackinnon spent the night in a cave for shelter. While preparing some venison which he was about to cook over an open fire he was attacked by a wild boar which charged into the cave. Mackinnon then drove the butchered deer's leg into the mouth of the boar, jamming it open, before killing the wild animal.
 Clan chief's heraldic motto: AUDENTES FORTUNA JUVAT (translation from Latin: 'Fortune assists the daring' or 'Fortune favours the bold'). Clan badge: Scots Pine. Clan slogan: Cuimhnich bas Alpein (translation from Gaelic: 'Remember the death of Alpin'). Clan chief The chief of Clan Mackinnon is Madam Anne Gunhild Mackinnon of Mackinnon, 38th Chief of the Name and Arms of Mackinnon. Cadet branches/tacksmen Mackinnon of Borreraig Mackinnon of Corriechatachan Mackinnon of Elgol Mackinnon of Gambell Mackinnon of Keanouchrach (Chinn Uachdaraich) Mackinnon of Kyle Mackinnon of Mishnish Clan septs Septs were clans, families, or groups of people who were absorbed into a larger clan for mutual benefit. Septs that have been attributed to Clan Mackinnon are as follows: Kinnon. Love. MacKinney. MacKinning. Mackinven. MacMorran.

Mackintosh

Clan Mackintosh is a Scottish clan from Inverness with strong Jacobite ties. The Mackintoshes share a common history with the Chattan Confederation. Origins of the clan Shaw, son of Duncan Macduff, accompanied King Malcolm IV of Scotland to Morayshire to suppress rebellion in 1160. In 1163 he was granted land in the Findhorn valley and made constable of Inverness Castle. Upon Shaw's death in 1179, his son, Shaw the second became chief and was confirmed by William I of Scotland the Lion. Probably the earliest authentic history of Mackintosh is traceable to Shaw or Search Macduff, a cadet son of the third Earl of Fife. The son of Macduff, for his support of King Malcolm IV, was awarded the lands of Petty and Breachley in Invernesshire and was appointed Constable of the Castle thereto. Assuming the name Mac an Taoiseach which means 'Son of the Chieftain', he became the progenitor of his own clan. Scottish-Norwegian war In 1263 the Clan Mackintosh fought at the Battle of Largs in support of King Alexander III of Scotland against King Haakon IV of Norway. The fifth Chief of the Clan Mackintosh was killed during the battle, he was called Farquhar Mackintosh. In 1291, Angus, sixth chief of Mackintosh, married Eve, the heiress of Chattan Confederation. This marriage brought the Chattan lands of Glenloy and Loch Arkaig under Mackintosh control. Since this time, the Chattan Confederation has been led by the Mackintoshes, although this has been challenged unsuccessfully by the Macphersons. Wars of Scottish Independence Chief Angus Mackintosh later supported Robert I of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence. He led the Clan Mackintosh at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 where the English were defeated. He is placed second in the list of chiefs given by General Stewart of Garth as present in this battle. 14th century & clan conflicts Clan Mackintosh were involved in many clan battles mostly against Clan Cameron with whom they had an extensive feud which lasted over 350 years: Battle of Drumlui, 1337: a dispute between the Clan MacKintosh and Clan Cameron over land at Glenlui and Loch Arkaig. The Camerons were defeated but started a 350 year feud. Battle of Invernahoven, 1370: fought between the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan MacKintosh, Clan Macpherson and Clan Davidson. Battle of the North Inch, 1396: in the aftermath of the battle of Invernahoven the Camerons did not wait long to take their revenge on the Mackintoshes and the Chattan Confederation. The feud between them had become so fierce and bloody that the King Robert III was made aware of it. The King brought the two rival chiefs of Clan Cameron and Clan Mackintosh together and decided it would be resolved by the sword. The King ordered part of the river near the city of Perth to be enclosed with a deep ditch in the form of an amphitheatre with seats and benches for the spectators; his majesty himself sitting as the judge on the field. Crowds and combatants appeared. The clans chose thirty of their best warriors each to take part. Four of the Mackintoshes survived the battle but they were all mortally wounded. One Cameron survived and escaped by swimming across the River Tay. The Mackintoshes regained all their lands that had been taken from them. 15th century & clan conflicts Battle of Harlaw, 1411: the Clan Mackintosh fought in support of Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles, chief of Clan Donald. Other clans of the Chattan Confederation fought under the standard and command of the Mackintosh chief. Image:Clan Mackintosh modern tartan.png Clan Mackintosh modern tartan Battle of Split Allegiances, 1429: this conflict was between forces led by Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross, 3rd Lord of the Isles and the Royalist army of King James I of Scotland. Battle of Palm Sunday, 1429: fought between the Clan Cameron against the Clan Mackintosh and the Chattan Confederation. Battle of Inverlochy (1431): the Clan Mackintosh together with their old enemies the Clan Cameron fought against the Clan Donald whose chief Alexander of Islay, Earl of Ross had been imprisoned by the King. The MacDonalds were led by Alexander's nephew, Donald Balloch, and they defeated the army led by the Earl of Mar. Battle of Craig Cailloch, 1441: Clan Mackintosh, at the instigation of Alexander, Lord of the Isles, began to invade and raid the Clan Cameron lands. A sanguinary conflict took place in this year at Craig Cailloch between the Camerons and the Mackintoshes in which Mackintosh's second son, Lachlan 'Badenoch' was wounded and Gillichallum, his brother, killed. Battle of Clachnaharry, 1454, John Munro of Milntown, uncle of Foulis, took the clan on a private raid into Perthshire, Clan MacKenzie country. On their way home with their captured cattle the Munros had to pass through Clan Mackintosh country and an amount of 'road collop' or passage money was demanded. There was a dispute over the amount and the Munros sent their spoils on ahead hotly pursued by the Mackintoshes who overtook them at Clachnaharry. Raid on Ross 1491: a conflict that took place in the Scottish Highlands. It was fought between the Clan Mackenzie against several other clans, including the Clan MacDonald of Lochalsh, Clan MacDonald of Clanranald the Clan Cameron and the Chattan Confederation of Clan Mackintosh. They then proceeded to Inverness where they stormed the Inverness Castle and Mackintosh placed a garrison in it. 16th century and clan conflicts Battle of Bun Garbhain, 1570: Fought between the Clan Cameron and Clan Mackintosh. Donald Dubh Cameron, XV Chief of Clan Cameron, had died, leaving an infant son, Allan, at the head of the clan. During the battle the chief of MacKintosh is believed to have been killed by Donald 'Taillear Dubh na Tuaighe' Cameron, (son of the XIV Chief of Clan Cameron), with a fearsome Lochaber axe. In 1592 the Clan Mackintosh captured and destroyed Auchindoun Castle in Auchindoun near Dufftown which then belonged to the Clan Cochrane. The castle later passed to the Clan Ogilvy. Battle of Glenlivet, 1594: the Clan Mackintosh and Chattan Confederation fought on the side of the Earl of Argyll along with Clan Campbell, Clan Stewart of Atholl and Clan Forbes. They were defeated by the Earl of Huntly's forces which consisted of Clan Gordon, Clan Comyn and Clan Cameron. 17th century and civil war During the Civil War of the 17th century the Clan Mackintosh were staunch royalist supporters of the King. They fought in the royalist army which was commanded by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. Stand-off at the Fords of Arkaig 1665: the Clan Chiefs of Clan Mackintosh and Clan Cameron were ordered by the Privy Court to end the dispute over the lands near Loch Arkaig once and for all. While Mackintosh was declared to have the legal right Cameron was declared to be the owner. Cameron was ordered to pay Mackintosh a large sum of money for the land but Mackintosh refused this. Soon after, Clan Mackintosh along with the Chattan Confederation assembled an army of 1500 men. Camerons had raised a force of approximately 1000 men who took up a defensive stance at Achnacarry. Camerons biographer records that there were 900 men armed with guns and broadswords and a further 300 men armed with bows. However, just as Clan Cameron commenced their attack the powerful Clan Campbell appeared on the scene. John Campbell, Chief of Campbells brought with him 300 men and declared that he would fight against whichever side initiated the impending battle. The Cameron Chief, Ewen soon withdrew all his troops. As a result one of the bloodiest feuds in Scottish history came to an end after 360 years. On September 20th 1665 a contract was signed by both Chiefs of Cameron and Mackintosh with Cameron agreeing to buy the lands from Mackintosh. Then at a place called Clunes around 24 men from each side met face to face and shook hands for the first time in generations. Here they exchanged swords as a token of reconciliation and drank together. Battle of Mulroy, 1668: Clan Cameron and Clan Mackintosh were at peace and Cameron Chief Sir Ewen was responsible for keeping the peace between his men and their former enemies. However, when the Chief Sir Ewen Cameron was away in London a feud broke out between Clan MacDonald of Keppoch and their enemies Clan Mackintosh and Clan MacKenzie. As the Cameron Chief was away he was not able to hold back his clan and the combined forces of Cameron and MacDonald defeated the Mackintoshes and MacKenzies. 18th century and the Jacobite uprisings During the 18th century the Clan Mackintosh supported the Jacobite cause and the House of Stewart. On 15 September 1715 the Clan Mackintosh fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Sherrifmuir where the Jacobites were defeated by British government forces. Lady Anne Farquharson-Mackintosh By the time of the 1745 rebellion Angus Mackintosh, the chief of Clan Mackintosh, had become a commander in the British Black Watch regiment. While he was away on duty his wife, Lady Anne Farquharson-Mackintosh rallied 350 men of the Clan Mackintosh and Chattan Confederation to the Jacobite standard at the Battle of Culloden in April 1746. Angus was captured at the Battle of Prestonpans and was paroled to his wife. She famously greeted him with the words, 'Your servant, captain' to which he replied, 'your servant, colonel' thereby giving her the nickname 'Colonel' Anne. The night before the Battle of Culloden, Charles Edward Stuart spent the night at the Mackintosh home on Loch Moy. To prevent the troops from Inverness descending on the estate in surprise during the night, Lady Anne Farquharson-Mackintosh sent her youngest son along with the blacksmith and two other retainers to watch the road from Inverness. Sure enough, during the night Hanoverian troops were witnessed marching down the road. The Mackintosh defenders started beating their swords on rocks, jumping from place to place and shouting the war cries of different clans in the Chattan Confederation. Thinking that they had been ambushed, the British troops retreated to Inverness. There was only one casualty of this incident, the piper for the English troops, possibly a famous McCrimmon, was killed. At Culloden, the Mackintosh Clan was the first to charge the British troops. They broke through the first two ranks, but then found themselves trapped behind the lines. Almost all of the Mackintosh warriors were killed. Castles Moy Hall is the current seat of the chief of Clan Mackintosh. Moy Castle on Moy Island, on Loch Moy was the original seat of the chief of Clan Mackintosh. Clan profile Gaelic Name: Mac-an-Toiseach Origin: Gaelic 'Toiseach' - leader, chief or captain. According to clan historians, the first chief of the clan was Shaw, second son of Duncan MacDuff, Earl of Fife, Royal house of Dalriada. The name therefore has been thought to mean 'son of the chief'. Crest: A cat-a-mountain salient guardant Proper Mottos: Touch Not The Cat Bot A Glove ('Touch not the cat without a glove') & Loch Moigh - Rallying Cry Arms: The Arms in the hoist and of two tracts Or and Gules, upon which is depicted the Crest in the first compartment, and a sprig of red whortleberry in the second and third compartments, along with the Slughorn 'Loch Moigh' in letters Or upon two transverse bands Azur. Clan chiefs The current Chief is John Mackintosh of Mackintosh. He has been chief since 1995 and currently resides in Singapore as a teacher at Nanyang Girls' High School. The following table is a list of some of the previous chiefs of Clan Mackintosh. Name (+ Gaelic Name) Died Further info Malcolm Mackintosh, 33rd chief 1995 Kenneth Mackintosh, 32nd chief 1976 Served in the Army of North Africa, World War II. Duncan Alexander Mackintosh, 31st chief 1966 Fought in the Boer War. Arbell Mackintosh, 30th chief Grandaughter of previous chief. Seated at Dalcross Castle. Worked for the Red Cross during World War II. Lachlan Mackintosh, 29th chief Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, commanded the destroyer, Medea in World War I. Alfred Donald Mackintosh, 28th chief 1938 Officer in the Highland Light Infantry and later commanding officer of 3rd (Militia) Battalion of the Cameron Highlanders. Convener of Inverness-shire County Council, Lord Lieutenant of Inverness 1905 - 1938 Alexander Aneas Mackintosh, 27th chief 1875 Commanded 10th Roy Bridge Company, 1st Administrative Battalion, Inverness-shire Rifle Volunteers, known as Mackintosh's Company. Married a daughter of Sir Fredrick Graham of Netherby in 1875. Alexander Mackintosh, 26th chief Continued his father's trading business. Fought in the War of American Independence, saving a garrison on Lake Huron from starvation after running a gauntlet of fire from American riflemen on both sides of the River St Claire. Later returned to Scotland with his father where he succeeded as chief. Angus Mackintosh, 25th chief 1833 Succeeded his brother as chief. Set out to Detroit in 1777 after the American War of Independence and became a successful merchant in the Indian trade. In 1799 moved across the Detroit River into Upper Canada and built a house called Moy Hall near Sandwich. Married Archange St Martin, daughter of an officer of the French Army. Later returned to Scotland and died at Daviot House. Alexander Mackintosh, 24th chief 1827 Succeeded his second cousin as chief. Eldest son of Duncan Mackintosh of Castle Leathers. Became a merchant in Jamaca, built a house there called Moy Hall. Later returned to Scotland and built Daviot House on the bank of the River Nairn. Aneas Mackintosh, 23rd chief 1820 Succeeded his uncle as chief. Raised a company of men for the 2nd Battalion of Frasers Highlanders under Simon Fraser, son of Lord Lovat, to fight in the Wars of American Independence. Fought at the Battle of Brooklyn. Built the third Moy Hall in Scotland after the second one burnt down. Angus Mackintosh, 22nd chief 1770 Succeeded his brother as chief. Held a commission in the British Black Watch regiment under King George II of Great Britain, however his clan supported the Jacobite cause under the leadership of his wife, Lady Anne Farquharson-Mackintosh while he was away on duty and Angus was not with his clansmen who fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden. William Mackintosh, 21t chief 1740 Succeeded his second cousin as chief, grandson of the 17th chief. Married Christian Menzies of Castle Menzies. Lachlan Mackintosh, 20th chief 1731 Supported the Jacobite rebellion of 1715, was captured and imprisoned along with his kinsmen, Mackintosh of Borlum at the Battle of Preston (1715). Borlum escaped to France after five months in prison. He later returned to Scotland in 1719 and was present at the Battle of Glenshiel where the Jacobites were defeated by government forces. Lachlan Mackintosh was released from prison in 1716. Lachlan Mackintosh, 19th chief 1704 Continued to dispute with the Camerons the lands of Glenoy and Loch Arkaig. Was captured by MacDonalds at the Battle of Mulroy in 1688 but was later rescued by the Clan Macpherson. Was presented with the sword used by Viscount Dundee who was killed at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. The sword is now preserved in Moy Hall. William Mackintosh, 18th chief 1660 Succeeded as chief aged nine. Later supported the King during the Civil War. Was made a Lieutenant under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1644. Died soon after The Restoration of King Charles II. Lachlan Mackintosh, 17th chief. 1622 Succeeded in minority under the tutorship of his uncle, William Mackintosh of Benchar who reunited the Chattan Confederation under a bond of union in 1609. Lachlan Mackintosh was knighted by the King in 1617. Lachlan Mor Mackintosh, 16th chief 1606 Succeeded as chief in 1550, aged seven, only son of William. Brought up by Donald Mackintosh, great grandson of Malcolm Beg Mackintosh, 10th chief. Said to have joined the Munros and Frasers in taking Inverness Castle on behalf of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1562. Fought at the Battle of Corrichie against the Earl of Huntly, later fought in support of Huntly at the Battle of Langside. First chief to be buried at Petty, which became the hereditary burial ground for Mackintosh chiefs. Married a daughter of MacKenzie of Kintail. His younger son, William founded the Mackintosh of Borlum branch. William Mackintosh, 15th chief 1550 Aged three when his father died, he was brought up by his uncle, the Earl of Moray which led to a feud between the Earl and the tutor Hector Mackintosh, son of Ferquhard Mackintosh, 12th chief. William became chief in 1540, however he was accused by Lachlan Mackintosh, the son of the man who murdered his father of conspiring to kill the Earl of Moray. William was sentenced to death in 1550 but after protests by Thomas Menzies, because of an unfair trial, William is said to have been taken into captivity by the Earl but was never seen again. Lachlan Mackintosh, 14th chief 1524 Brother of William. Married Jean Gordon, daughter of Alexander Gordon of Lochinvar. Murdered by his nephew, John, son of his half brother, Malcolm in 1524. William Mackintosh, 13th chief 1515 Succeeded his cousin Ferquhard Mackintosh as chief. Murdered by his second cousin John in 1515. Ferquhard Mackintosh, 12th chief Whilst under his father's chieftaincy, joined Alexander MacDonald of Lochalsh during a raid on Ross in 1491 in a feud against the Clan MacKenzie. Was imprisoned along with MacKenzie of Kintail in Edinburgh Castle in 1495. Ferquhard is said to have escaped but was later captured and imprisoned again until being released after the Battle of Flodden in 1513 where the King was killed. Duncan Mackintosh, 11th chief 1496 Malcolm Beg Mackintosh, 10th chief Son of William Mackintosh, 7th chief. Said to have supported Donald of the Isles at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411 where 16th century historian, Sir Robert Gordon states that Mackintosh of Mackintosh was killed but this is thought not to have been Malcolm Beg Mackintosh. Malcolm is said to have been present at the dinner where the Comyns were killed in the Castle of Nairn 1424. Malcolm is also said to have fought in against the Camerons in 1441 where his son Gillichallum Mackintosh was killed. Malcolm's grandson, 'Malcolm Og', through his fourth son is said to have fought and might have been killed at the Battle of Clachnaharry in 1454. Ferquhard Mackintosh, 9th chief Abdicated from his clan and gave up the claims of his sons to succeed as chiefs after just two years as chief. He kept only the lands of Kyllachy and Corrnuvoy in Strathdearn, which his family held for the next two hundred years. Lachlan Mackintosh, 8th chief 1407 Fought in battle against the Clan Cameron in 1370. To old to fight at the Battle of the North Inch in 1396, where the men of Chattan were led by Shaw Mackintosh. William Mackintosh, 7th chief 1368 Began the feud with the Clan Cameron and fought against the English at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346. Angus Mackintosh, 6th chief of Clan Mackintosh and 7th chief of the Clan Chattan 1345 Brought up by his uncle, Alexander of Isla. Fought against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, under Randolph, Earl of Moray. His lands of Meikle Geddes, Rait Castle and Inverness Castle were taken by the Clan Comyn. Married Eva, the daughter of Gilpatric Dougal Dall, the 6th chief of Clan Chattan. After Gilpatric's death Angus became chief of both Clan Mackintosh and Clan Chattan. Ferquhard Mackintosh, 5th chief 1274 Fought in support of Alexander III of Scotland against the Norwegians. Killed in a duel in 1274. Shaw Mackintosh, 4th chief 1265 Son of Ferqhuard, 3rd chief's brother. Acquired the Castle of Rait and the lands of Meikle Geddes. Ferquhard Mackintosh, 3rd chief 1220 Brought up by his kinsman, Malcolm, Earl of Fife in an agreement with Bishop Moray. Quoted as Senschal of Badenoch. Shaw Mackintosh, 2nd chief 1210 Received confirmation of his father's lands from King William. Made Chamberlain of the Crown Revenues. Shaw MacDuff, 1st chief 1179 Shaw MacDuff is said to have taken the name Mackintosh and was made keeper of Inverness Castle. Son of the 3rd Earl of Fife, said to descend from Ferchar Fader son of Ferndach, King of Dál Riata who died in 697. Septs of Clan Mackintosh Adamson, Ayson, Clark, Combie, Crerar, Dallas, Doles, Elder, Easson, Eason, Esson, Glen, Glennie, Hardie, Hardy, Heggie, MacAndrew, MacAy, MacCardney, McCombie, McFall, McIntosh, MacCombie, MacCombe, MacComie, M'Conchy, McGlashan, MacHardie, MacHardy, MacHay, MacKeggie, M'Killican, MacNiven, MacOmie, MacRitchie, MacThomas, Niven, Noble, Paul, Ritchie, Seawright, Siveright, Shand, Shaw, Tarrill, Tosh, Toshach.

Maclachlan

Clan Maclachlan, also known as Clan Lachlan, is a Highland Scottish clan that historically centred on the lands of Strathlachlan on Loch Fyne, Argyll on the west coast of Scotland. The clan claims descent from Lachlan Mor, who lived on Loch Fyne in the 13th century, and who has left his name upon the countryside he once controlled: places such as Strathlachlan, Lachlan Castle and Lachlan Bay. Tradition gives Lachlan Mor a descent from an Irish prince, Anrothan O'Neill. Clan Maclachlan has been associated with other clans, such as Clan Lamont, Clan MacEwen of Otter, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens: as all claim descent from Anrothan O'Neill who left Ireland for Kintyre in the 11th century. From this descent the clan claims a further descent from the legendary Niall Noigíallach, High King of Ireland, who lived from the mid 4th century to early 5th century. The clan took part in the Jacobite Risings as loyal supporters of the Stuart kings of Scotland. The seventeenth chief of the clan was killed in the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Following the Jacobite defeat, a Government warship is said to have damaged the clan seat of old Castle Lachlan. Today the clan is alive and lives as the Clan Maclachlan Society and the Lachlan Trust. The Lachlan Trust is a registered Scottish charitable organisation which takes donations to preserve the heritage of Clan Maclachlan. The Clan Maclachlan Society consists of eight branches around the world, including Australia, Britain & Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States of America. History Origins Clan Maclachlan claims descent from Lachlan Mor, who lived on the shores of Loch Fyne in the 13th century. Lachlan belonged to the family who originally emigrated from Ireland to Scotland in the 11th century. The progenitor of this family, Anrothan, son of Aodh O'Neil, king of the north of Ireland, is said to have married the heiress of the King of Scots and gained lands campaigning there. Moncreiffe wrote that it was more likely Anrothan married a local king of Argyll or a sub-king of Cowal. Through this marriage, Anrothan's descendants gained control of the lands of Knapdale and Cowal, and several Scottish clans claim a descent from him including Clan Lamont, Clan MacEwen of Otter, Clan MacNeil of Barra, and the MacSweens who became the Irish Sweeney Clan who left Scotland and returned to Ireland in the 14th century as leaders of Gallowglass. Early history The ruinous old Castle Lachlan, overlooking Lachlan Bay on Loch Fyne. The castle now in ruins was built sometime in the 15th century, and finally abandoned in the 18th century. In about 1230 Gilchrist Maclachlan was witness to a charter of Kilfinan granted by Laumanus, ancestor of Clan Lamont. The first documentary evidence of the clan's ownership of lands was recorded in 1292, when Gilleskel Maclauchlan received a charter of his lands in Ergadia from John, King of Scots. According to the historian G. W. S. Barrow, Gillespie Maclachlan appears in the Ragman Rolls, when the magnates of Scotland signed their allegiance to Edward I of England, in 1296, 'clerks of this period writing Anglo-French documents often had difficulty with the name Lachlan, and rendered it by some form of the more familiar name Rothland, or Roland. Thus, unnoticed by historians of Clan Lachlan, Gillespie MacLachlan figures on the Ragman Roll as 'Gilascope fiz Rouland, de counte de Perth''. Sometime between 1306 and 1322 Gillespie received, in charter from Robert I of Scotland, the ten pennyland of 'Schyrwaghthyne' (Strathlachlan) and other lands. He also appears on the list of Scottish magnates who sat at the first Parliament of the king of Scots at St Andrews, in 1309. Gillespie was one of the sixteen Scottish magnates who signed a letter to Philip IV of France in 1309. The King of France had asked for Scottish assistance in a Crusade he was forming, with the Scots answering that they were at war with England and had their hands full. His name appears on one of the seal tags with that letter, though the actual seal that had been attached to the tag has since been lost. In 1314 'Guyllascop Maclouchlan in Ergadia' (Gillespie Maclachlan of Argyll) granted forty shillings sterling to the Preaching Friars of Glasgow, the sum of which were to be paid from his pennylands of Killbride near Castle Lachlan. ('juxta castrum meum quod dicitur Castellachlan'). Gillespie was dead by 1322 and was succeeded by Patrick his brother. Patrick married a daughter of James the Steward of Scotland, and had a son, Lachlan, who later succeeded him. In 1410 Iain Maclachlan, lord of Strathlachlan, ('Johonne Lachlani domino de Straithlaon'), witnessed a Lamont charter. In 1456 Lachlan's son, 'Donaldus Maclachlane dominus de Ardlawan' ('Ardlachlan', or Castle Lachlan), like his ancestor Gillespie, granted the Preaching Friars of Glasgow six shillings and eight pence per year, from the same pennylands of Killbride beside his home Castle Lachlan. One tradition of the Maclachlan lairds was thought to date from the era of the Crusades. The tradition was that the laird of Strathlachlan (Maclachlan of Strathlachlan) and the laird of Strachur (Campbell of Strachur) would attend the funerals of each other and 'lay his neighbour's head in the grave'. This tradition was thought to originate from the Crusades because, 'it is said the heads of these two families went together to the war, and each solemnly engaged with the other to lay him in his family burying-place if he should fall in battle'. Late 15th century onwards Kilmorie Chapel following renovations in 2006. It is located between the old and new Castle Lachlan, and is the traditional burying ground of the chiefs of Clan Maclachlan. In 1487 Iain Maclachlan of Strathlachlan, witnessed a bond by Dougall Stewart of Appin to Colin Campbell, 1st Earl of Argyll. Iain died sometime around 1509 and his son Gillescop (or alternately Archibald) married a daughter of Iain Lamont of Inveryne, the chief of Clan Lamont. Iain was succeeded by his son, Lachlan, who later on forcibly ejected Archibald Lamont of Stroiog from his lands. For this, the Maclachlan chief was summoned before the Privy Council, which ruled that even though Lachlan claimed Lamont lands through his maternal grandfather (the chief of Clan Lamont), that a Lamont heir was more preferable to a Maclachlan heir. Lachlan died sometime between 1557 and 1559, and was succeeded by his second son, Archibald. In 1587, the chief of the clan, 'M'Lauchlane', appears on the roll of names of the landlords in the highlands and the isles, on whose land broken men dwelt. Archibald had only daughters and in turn was succeeded by his nephew Lachlan Og ('Lauchlane oig Macklauchlane his brothers sone'). Not long after assuming the chiefship, Lachlan Og was forced to resign some of his lands to the chief of the Lamonts, because of the murder of Robert Lamont of Silvercrags by Lachlan Maclachlan of Dunnamuch. Lachlan Og led the clan in the Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll's campaign against Sir James Macdonald of Islay and his rebellion in 1615. Lachlan Maclachlan of that Ilk was succeeded by his son Archibald, who is reckoned as the fifteenth chief of the clan. In 1680 Archibald had his lands erected into a Barony by Charles II of England called the Barony of Strathlachlan which was centred around Lachlan Castle. To this day the chief of the clan is styled as Baron of Strathlachlan. Jacobite Risings The most common 'Maclachlan' tartan today. The tartan was published 1850, though 'it would appear to have a longer history than might be gathered from the date of its registration'. The Maclachlans were loyal Jacobites. They were said to have been present at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. In the Jacobite Rising of 1715 Lachlan Maclachlan of that Ilk 'signed the Address of Welcome to the Old Chevalier, the rightful King James VIII Stuart, on his landing in Scotland'. Archibald Brown, in The History of Cowal, wrote, 'The chief of MacLachlan appeared with the Ear of Mar at Sheriffmoor as Colonel in the Pretender's army, and for this act it is said Campbell of Ardkinglas followed MacLachlan like a sleuthhound for five years and shot him dead in 1720″. Lachlan, the seventeenth chief of Clan Maclachlan played a part in the Jacobite Rising of 1745, and lost his life leading the clan at the Battle of Culloden. Lord President Duncan Forbes estimated that the Maclachlan force of that time was about 200 men. In 1748, Rev. John MacLachlan of Kilchoan, in a letter to Rev. Robert Forbes, Bishop of Ross and Caithness, wrote, " I hope you'll take notice of Collonel MacLachlan of that Ilk, whom the newspapers and magazines neglected. 'Tis true he got but few of his clan rais'd, because most of them are situated amidst the Campbells. However he attended the Prince at Gladsmuir, and march'd with him to Carlyle, from whence he was detach'd by the Prince with an ample commission and 16 horses to lead on to England the 3,000 men that lay then at Perth... ...The Collonel join'd us again at Stirlin, and when we retir'd to Inverness the Prince made him Commissary of the army. At the battle of Culloden he had a regiment of 300 men, whereof 115 were his own people and 182 were Mackleans, who chose to be under his command, seeing their chief was not there. The said Collonel being the last that received orders from the Prince on the field of battle, he was shot by a canon ball as he was advancing on horseback to lead on his regiment, which was drawn up between the Macintoshes and the Stewarts of Appin. " Following the Jacobite defeat a Government ship sailed up Loch Fyne and shelled Castle Lachlan, forcing the chief's family to abandon their residence, and in Edinburgh the Maclachlan colours were burned on the orders of the Duke of Cumberland. It had been assumed that the chiefs lands had been forfeited for his support of the Young Pretender and the Jacobite cause, but it was ruled that he had been killed before he could be attainted. The chief of the Campbells, the Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, who although helped crush the Jacobite forces, aided Donald, son of the deceased Maclachlan chief, and helped saved his lands. On February 12, 1747 Donald Maclachlan of that Ilk received a charter for his lands 'at the intercession of the Duke of Argyll', though it was considerably unpopular decision at the time, and Maclachlan's estates were 'surveyed but afterwards found not to be forfeited'. The modern clan New Castle Lachlan, the residence of the current chief of the clan. This house has been divided, with the chief renting out half of the 'castle'. In the early 19th century, a new Castle Lachlan was built for the chiefs of the clan, and it remains the seat of the clan to this day. The last of the male line chiefs of Clan Maclachlan was John Maclachlan who died in 1942. He was succeeded by his daughter, the twenty-fourth chief of the clan, Marjorie Maclachlan of Maclachlan. Under her the Clan Maclachlan Society was formed in 1979, and on her death in 1996, she was succeeded by her eldest son Euan John Maclachlan of Maclachlan, Chief of Clan Maclachlan, 25th of Maclachlan and Baron of Strathlachlan, who is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Today the clan is alive and lives as the Clan Maclachlan Society and the Lachlan Trust. The Clan Maclachlan Society consists of eight branches around the world, including Australia, Britain & Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States of America. The Lachlan Trust is a registered Scottish charitable organisation which takes donations to preserve the heritage of Clan Maclachlan. The trust, in part with Historic Scotland and the Heritage Lottery Fund, helped raise £100,000 for the preservation of Kilmorie Chapel, the traditional burying place of the chiefs. The project was completed in 2006, as a memorial to the twenty-fourth chief (the present chief's mother). Future projects may involve the preservation of old Castle Lachlan. Castle Lachlan Castle Lachlan lies on the eastern shore of Loch Fyne, near Newton. According to the Clan Maclachlan Society website, the original castle dates back to the 13th century. The original castle was later replaced in the 15th century with the keep or tower that today is in ruins. The ruinous castle lies about 70 feet (21.3 m) north to south, 54 feet (16.5 m) east to west, and at its highest point 43 feet (13.1 m) feet high. The new Castle Lachlan which stands about a ten minute walk away from the ruinous old Castle Lachlan, is the seat of Clan Maclachlan. It was first built in the late 18th century, with the construction overseen by Donald Maclachlan. The new house was first built in the Queen Anne Style, then later at the end of the 19th century the 'castle' was transformed into the Scottish baronial house that stands today. The castle, upon the 1,500 acres (2.3 sq mi/6.1 km²) estate, has been divided in two with the chief residing in one part and the second available for rent. Clan profile The Clanlavchlan (Clan MacLachlan) tartan as published in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum, first published in 1845. Maclachlan hunting tartan, first published in 1893. Old Maclachlan tartan. Since 1974 it has been used as a tartan for Clan Moncreiffe. Clan chief The current chief of Clan Maclachlan is Euan John Maclachlan of Maclachlan, Chief of Clan Maclachlan, 25th of Maclachlan and Baron of Strathlachlan. The chief's seat is new Castle Lachlan. Origin of the name Further information: Lochlann Clan Maclachlan claims as its eponymous ancestor Lachlan Mor. The surname Maclachlan is an Anglicised form of the Gaelic Mac Lachlainn which is the patronymic form of the Gaelic personal name Lochlann meaning 'stranger'. Lochlann was originally a term to describe Scandinavia, composed of the elements loch (meaning 'lake' or 'fjord') + lann (meaning 'land'). Clan symbolism Members of Scottish clans show their allegiance to their clan and chief where crest badges. These are usually worn on a bonnet. Crest badges are usually made up of the chief's heraldic crest surrounded by a strap and buckle with the chief's heraldic motto or slogan. The crest badge used by members of Clan Maclachlan contains the Latin motto FORTIS ET FIDUS, which translates to 'strong and faithful'. The blazon of the crest within the badge is (Issuant from a crest coronet of four (three visible) strawberry leaves Or) a castle set upon a rock all Proper. Another clan symbol used to show a clan member's affiliation is a clan badge or plant badge. Consisting of a particular plant, these badges are sometimes said to be the original means of identification used by Scottish clans. Clan Maclachlan has two clan badges attributed to it. These include: rowan (or mountain ash) and lesser periwinkle. Many clans are also attributed pipe tunes. Clan Maclachlan's pipe music is Moladh Mairi (translation from Gaelic: 'In Praise of Mary'). Tartan There are several tartans attributed to the clan. Standard, or Modern. The most popular MacLachlan tartan today. First published in Smibert's The Clans of the Highlands in 1850. Dress. First published in 1845 in the Vestiarium Scoticum. The Vestiarium, shown to be a forgery, is the source of many of todays clan tartans. Maclachlan hunting, or Old MacLachlan. First published in 1893. This sett appears in the Collection of the Highland Society, 1812. Although one of the oldest tartans this sett has never been very popular with the clan. Small MacLachlan, or Old Maclachlan, also known as Moncreiffe. This tartan was in the Wilsons of Bannockburn pattern book of 1790, listed as # 66. Over time the tartan had become associated with the Maclachlans. In 1974 the chief of Clan Moncreiffe, Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk, asked the 24th chief of Clan Maclachlan, Madam Maclachlan of Maclachlan, to be assigned the right to use this tartan, as the colours of it matched the colours in his Coat of Arms. Today it is known as a Moncreiffe tartan.

Maclaine of Lochbuie

History The Maclaines of Lochbuie, Mull are descended from Gillean-na-Tauighe, (Gillean of the Battle Axe), a fierce warrior who lived in the thirteenth century. He is said to have fought, along with his sons, at the battle of Largs in 1263. Gillean's great-grandson, Iain Dubh, or Black John, had two sons, Eachann Reaganach (Hector the Stern), and Lachainn Lubanach (Lachlan the Wily). Hector and Lachlan were granted independent charters to lands on the Isle of Mull from John, 1st Lord of the Isles (MacDonald); Hector at Lochbuie, and Lachlan at Duart. Thus the two dominant branches of the family were formed: the Maclaines of Lochbuie and the Macleans of Duart (the Maclaine family used the Maclean spelling until around 1750). Many of the clansmen at Lochbuie retained other spellings of Maclaine or Maclean, such as Maclayne, McClain, and McLain. Various smaller families intermarried or banded together with the Maclaines, including the McFadyens, MacCormacks, Blacks, Beatons, MacGillivrays, Huies, MacAvoys and Pattons (all with over 200 different spellings). They were all accepted into the clan as loyal members. John Mor Maclaine, the seventh chief, was renowned as an excellent swordsman. When an Italian master-at-arms challenged Scottish nobles to meet him in duel John Mor accepted the challenge, and fought and killed him in the presence, and to the delight, of the king and the court. His son, Hector, eighth of Lochbuie, initiated the spelling of the surname 'Maclaine', which by the middle of the 18th century became the accepted spelling by subsequent chiefs. The Maclaines of Lochbuie are recognised by the Lord Lyon as a 'Branch Clan' within Clan Gillean (aka Clan Maclean). Even though the Maclaines consider themselves an independent clan from the other Macleans, Scottish history has shown this to be untenable. Lands Hector received his lands in the Hebrides from John, 1st Lord of the Isles in the fourteenth century, around 1350 to be precise. There on the island of Mull laid Lochbuie to the South and Duart to the East. Hector chose to build his castle, Moy Castle, at the head of the loch. Moy Castle was a beautiful Scottish towerhouse, and it remained the home of Maclaine chieftains until 1752, when Lochbuie House was built not far from the castle. Lochbuie House is a Georgian style house that sits just behind Moy Castle, overlooking Lochbuie. Moy Castle and Lochbuie House are still standing today. Lochbuie House is now owned by the Corbett family. Moy Castle is not accessible due to its old age. The years have taken their toll on the old castle. Another interesting thing about Lochbuie is its stone circle. Over the years the Lochbuie branch has held lands in Mull, Scarba, Jura, Morvern, Locheil, and Tiree. Lands were also granted in Duror and Glencoe but were never taken. Arms and insignia Arms Quarterly: 1st argent, a lion rampant gules; 2nd or, a lymphad, sails furled, oars in saltire sable, flagged gules, in base vert a salmon naiant proper; 3rd or, a dexter hand fessways coupled gules, holding a cross-crosslet fitcée azure; 4th azure, a tower embattled argent masoned sable. Clan Badge A branch of laurel and a branch of cypress in saltire, surmounted of a battleaxe in pale, all proper. The motto reads: Vincere vel mori (Latin: To conquer or die) Plant Blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) Tartan Maclaine Dress tartan Maclaine Hunting tartan Mull District tartan Maclaine Dress Maclaine Hunting Mull District Pìobaireachd The clan's Pìobaireachd is Cumha Mhic Ghilleathain (Maclaine of Lochbuie's Lament) Clan Legends The Resourceful Chief - Hector, 1st Lochbuie When Hector was granted a charter to lands on the Isle of Mull by the Lord of the Isles in the fourteenth century, he was given permission to build a castle at Lochbuie 'as big as the skin of an ox.' Hector cleverly cut the skin into a continuous thin sliver and laid it end-to-end to establish the size of the castle; the same story is told of Dido of Carthage. Ewan 'The Headless' Members of the Maclaine clan shun the nocturnal sound of clattering hooves and a jingling bridle. They fear the sight of a spectral horse bearing a headless rider who forebodes death. The name of the rider is Ewan, son and heir of Chief Iain Og, 5th Lochbuie. Ewan envied the Chief's wealth and position and this eventually developed into a feud between father and son. In 1538 the two men sought to settle the matter by force of arms. Father and son led their partisans into battle and Ewan was beheaded by one of Iain's followers. From that time on legend has it that Ewan 'The Headless' rides to harvest the souls of Lochbuie Maclaines. Note that the central figure of this legend is not the same as The Headless Horseman, who is a fictional undead and ghost character created by Washington Irving who appeared in The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Clan Chiefs Chief Name Birth Death 1 Hector 1330 1407 2 Murdoch - - 3 John - - 4 Hector - 1478 5 John 1470 1538 6 Murdoch 1496 1568 7 John - - 8 Hector 1555 1614 9 Hector 1575 1628 10 Murdoch - 1662 11 Lachlan 1614 1685 12 Hector 1697 1706 13 Murdoch - 1727 14 John - - 15 Lachlan - 1743 16 Hector - 1745 17 John 1700 1778 18 Archibald 1749 1784 19 Murdoch 1730 1804 20 Murdoch 1791 1818 21 Murdoch 1814 1850 22 Donald 1816 1863 23 Murdoch 1845 1909 24 Kenneth 1880 1935 25 Gillean 1921 1970 26 Lorne 1945 -

MacLaren

Origins of the clan The origins of the clan are uncertain but by tradition the MacLarens are descended from a man called Lorn who was the son of Erc who landed in Argyll in 503 A.D. However there is no concrete evidence of Lorn being the progenitor of the family. A more likely origin of the clan is that they are of Celtic stock and take their name from a 13th century abbot called Laurance of Achtow. This theory is also supported by the MacLaren rallying cry which in gaelic is: 'Creag an Tuirc' which means 'Boars Rock'. The rock in question is near Achtow in Balquhidder. The Clan MacLaren's lands are in Perthshire. It is also believed the MacLarens were followers of the ancient Earl of Strathearn and were cadets of that ancient house when they fought at the Battle of the Standard under King David I of Scotland in 1138. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan MacLaren fought for King Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. 15th century & clan conflicts The MacLarens were a warlike clan and had many feuds with their neighbouring clans. However they forged a powerful alliance with the House of Stuart or Clan Stuart when a daughter of the MacLaren family married a Stuart Lord of Lorn in the 15th century. The first son of this union was called Dougall and went on to become the progenitor of the famous Clan Stuart of Appin. In 1463 Sir John Stewart was murdered outside the church, just as he was about to marry his MacLaren wife. He was murderd by Alan MacCoul, an ally of the Clan MacDougall. However his murder was avenged in 1468 when the Clan Stuart and Clan MacLaren together defeated the Clan MacDougall at the Battle of Stalc which took place opposite Castle Stalker. In 1469 The Clan MacLaren assisted Dugel Stewart of Appin, son of John Stewart when he attempted by force to obtain possession of his father's lands. 130 MacLarens were killed when the battle took place at the foot of the mountain called Bendoran. In 1488 the Clan MacLaren fought at the Battle of Sauchieburn in support of King James III of Scotland. In 1497 some of the Clan MacLaren stole cattle from the Braes of Lochaber from the Clan MacDonald of Keppoch. The MacDonalds followed them and overtook them at a place called Glenurchy where a battle took place. The MacDonalds won and recovered their cattle. The MacLarens then looked for assistance from Dugel Stuart of Appin. Another battle then took place where the MacLarens were now joined by the Stuarts against the MacDonalds. During the battle Dugel, the chief of Clan Stuart and the chief of Clan MacDonald of Keppoch were both killed. On the day of a fair where the Clan MacLaren were busy buying, selling and enjoying themselves word came that the Clan Buchanan were marching up towards them through Strathyre. There was no time to lose and the Clan MacLaren rushed to arms. The MacLarens had not all come in by the time the Buchanans arrived, however they were not daunted and attacked the Buchanans. At first the Buchanans were faring better and drove the MacLarens back. The Chief of MacLarens saw one of his sons cut down and being suddenly seized with battle madness turned and shouted the MacLaren battle cry 'Creag An Tuirc' and whirling his Claymore rushed furiously at the enemy. His clansmen followed him and the Buchanans were cut down like corn. Only two escaped by swimming the River Balvaig but even they were followed. One was cut down at Gartnafuaran and the second was cut down at a place since known by the circumstance as Sron Laine. By the end of the 15th century many MacLarens had emigrated to serve in the military of France and Italy and by the time of the 16th century they were described as a broken clan. 16th century & Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan MacLaren fought for King James IV of Scotland at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 against the English. The Clan MacLaren also fought for Mary, Queen of Scots at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. In 1558 a deadly feud took place between the Clan MacLaren and the Clan MacGregor when the MacGregors slaughtered no less than 18 MacLaren men along with their entire families, and took possession of their farms. This incident was not investigated until 1604 when the MacGregors were on trial for slaughtering many men of the Clan Colquhoun. However the MacGregors were cleared of doing anything against the Clan MacLaren. 17th century & Continental Thirty Years War In the 17th century although the Clan MacLaren had reduced in numbers a branch of the clan distinguished itself in Sweden by the time of the Continental Thirty Years' War. The modern writer Carl G. Laurin is one of many who carry the name in Scandinavia. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings In the 18th century the Clan MacLaren supported the Jacobite House of Stuart and fought at the Battle of Sherrifmuir in 1715. The clan also fought in the 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Uprisings at the Battle of Prestonpans and the Battle of Falkirk (1746). They also fought at the Battle of Culloden in the Appin regiment under Lord George Murray. After the battle clan chief Donald MacLaren remained a fugitive until the amnesty of 1757. Chief The current chief of Clan MacLaren is Donald MacLaren of MacLaren and Achleskine. Donald who is a member of the British Foreign Service succeeded his father as Chief of the Clan on his father's death. Clan Seat The Clan Seat is in the Trossachs at Balquhidder. There is the 'Creag an Tuirc', the Clan's meeting place. Clan meetings are End of July every year at the Lochearnhead Highland Games. There is a Clan MacLaren on the island of Tiree also.

MacLea

The Clan MacLea is a Highland Scottish clan, which was traditionally located in the district of Lorn in Argyll, Scotland, and is seated on the Isle of Lismore. There is a tradition of some MacLeas Anglicising their names to Livingstone, thus the Clan Livingstone Society's website also refers to clan as the Highland Livingstones. The current chief of Clan MacLea was recognised by Lord Lyon as the 'Coarb of Saint Moluag' and the 'Hereditable Keeper of the Great Staff of Saint Moluag.' Origins Origin of the names MacLea and Livingstone It is possible that there are several origins for the surnames MacLea, MacLay and similar and there are also several theories of their etymology. It is thought possible that the name is an Anglicisation of Mac an Léigh (Scottish Gaelic), meaning son of the physician. The leading theory today, however, is that the name is derived from the patronymic Mac Dhunnshleibhe, meaning son of Donn Sléibhe (son of + the brown haired, or chieftan + of the mountain). In 1910 Niall Campbell, 10th Duke of Argyll maintained that the surname MacLea evolved from the name Maconlea, which was originally Mac Dhunnshleibhe. By the eighteenth century the standard form of the name had become MacLea or other forms with similar spellings (MacLeay, McClay, etc.). The surname Livingstone/Livingston is a habitual name derived from Levingston (Middle English), which is located in West Lothian, Scotland. Levingston was named after Leving who appears in the early twelfth century in the charters of David I of Scotland. This Leving was the progenitor of the powerful aristocratic Livingston family. There are multiple theories of the origin of Leving (Anglo-Saxon, Fleming, Frank, Norman, and even Hungarian). In the mid seventeenth century James Livingston of Skirling, who was of a branch of these Lowland Livingstons, was granted a nineteen year lease of the Bishoprics of Argyll and the Isles. Sometime before 1648, James Livingston seems to have stayed at Achanduin Castle on Lismore, and it is thought that around this time that the surname Livingstone would have been adopted by MacLeas on the island. Descent from Dunshleibe The Duke of Argyll wrote that it was possible that the eponymic progenitor of all the MacDunsleves, (MacLeas, highland Livingstones. etc.), of Lismore may be Dunshleibe son of Aedh Alain. Aed Alain was the son of the Irish prince Anrothan, who traditionally was to have married a Princess of Dál Riata, inheriting her lands of Cowal and Knapdale. Anrothan, in turn was son of Aodh O'Neill, King of the North of Ireland (r.1030-1033). From this descent the MacDunsleves were ultimately descended from Niall of the Nine Hostages, High King of Ireland, who reigned in the fifth century. Dunshleibe is also thought to have been the common ancestor of the several clans in western Argyll including the Lamonts, the MacEwens of Otter, the Maclachlans, the MacNeils of Barra, and the MacSweens. Dunshleibe Ua Eochadha An alternative theory is that the Coarbs of Saint Moluag were closely related to the rigdamnai or Royal Family of Ulster and that the use of the name Mac Duinnshleibhe was a proud reminder and declaration of that fact. see According to Byrne the Ulaid rigdamnai alone used the name Mac Duinnshleibhe " So for instance when after 1137 the Dál Fiatach kingship was confined to the descendants of Donn Sleibe Mac Eochada (slain in 1091), the rigdamnai set themselves apart from the rest of the family by using the name Mac Duinnshleibhe (Donleavy).' Francis John Byrne, Irish Kings and High-Kings page 128. It seems as though Ruaidhri Mac Duinnsleibhe was the last king of Ulidia dying at the end of the twelfth century . Rory, son of Dunsleve, is number 54 on O'Hart's roll of the kings of Ulidia and described as 'the last king of Ulidia, and its fifty-fourth king since the advent of St. Patrick to Ireland.' In Irish Pedigrees - The Stem of the Dunlevy family, Princes of Ulidia, O'Hart says "Tuirmach Teamrach, the 81st Monarch of Ireland had a son named Fiach Fearmara, who was ancestor of the Kings of Argyle and Dalriada, in Scotland: this Fiach was also the ancestor of MacDunshleibe and O'Dunsleibhe, anglicised Dunlevy, Dunlief, Dunlop, Levingstone and Livingstone. ... According to Dr O'Donovan descendants of this family (Cu-Uladh the son the last MacDunshleibe King of Ulidia), soon after the English invasion of Ireland, passed into Scotland, where they changed their name." Livingston and MacLea DNA project In 2003 a DNA project was established to compare the Y-DNA of males bearing the different variations of the surname Livinston. The project also aims to find a blood link between the so called Highland Livingstones and the Lowland Livinstons, and to investigate the various origins of names associated with MacLea / Livingston. At present the strongest conclusion to be drawn so far is that, despite containing very many male lines, the clan seems to have no male line with the DNA signature associated with Ui Neill families in Ireland. Apparently many Irish families with 'Mac Dunshleibhe' surnames do have such a DNA signature. Mac Dunshleibhe DNA. Coarb of Saint Moluag The Isle of Lismore and the hills of Kingairloch beyond. See also: Saint Moluag Saint Moluag was a Scottish missionary, and a contemporary of Saint Columba, who evangelized the Picts of Scotland in the sixth century. According to the Irish Annals, in 562 Saint Moluag beat Saint Columba in a race to the large Isle of Lismore. The nineteenth century historian William F. Skene claimed the Isle of Lismore was the sacred island of the Western Picts and the burial place of their kings whose capital was at Beregonium, across the water at Benderloch. The Coarb, or successor, of the saint was the hereditary keeper of his pastoral staff. The Great Staff of Saint Moluag, or Bachuil Mor is thought to be the sith century saints crozier or staff. The Bachuil Mor is a plain wooden staff that is 10 feet, 2 inches long. There is evidence that the Bachuil Mor was at one time covered with plates of gilt copper of which some remain. On December 21, 1950 on the petition of Livingstone of Bachuil, the Lord Lyon King of Arms ruled that Livingstone was the Coarb of Saint Moluag. Livingstone's ancestor Iain McMolmore Vic Kevir appears in a charter of 1544 as 'with keeping of the great staff of the blessed Moloc, as freely as the father, grandfather and great-grandfather and other predecessors of the said Iain.' History Despite claiming ancient heritage the clan wasn't formally recognised until 2003. The first clan chief of Clan MacLea to be recognised by the Lord Lyon was William Jervis Alastair Livingstone of Bachuil, in 2003. The chief represented the clan as a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. William Jervis Alastair Livingstone of Bachuil died in February 2008. Battles Battle of Bealach na Broige. The Battle of Bealach na Broige was fought between various north-western highland clans from the lands of Ross, against the Earl of Ross and his followers. Though the date of the battle is obscure what is known is that the rising consisted of the 'Clan-juer' (Clan Iver), 'Clantalvigh' (Clan-t-aluigh, ie. Clan Aulay), and 'Clan-leajwe' (Clan-leaive, ie. Clan Leay). The Munroes and Dingwalls pursued and overtook the rising clans at Bealach na Broige, where a bitter battle unsued, fed by old feuds and animosities. In the end the MacIvers, MacAulays and MacLeays where almost utterly extinguished and the Munroes and Dingwalls won a hollow victory, having lost a great number of men including their chiefs. Achnacree. 1557. The McLeays of Achnacree were almost wiped out, losing 80 men supporting the MacDougalls of Lorn against the Campbells of Inverawe in a clan battle. McLea Manuscript, Highland Papers, Vol. IV, 1296 to 1752, third Series, Scottish History Society, pp 94 to 103. Dunaverty. 1647. Many of the clan MacLea seem to have been killed when they took the side of the MacDougalls against the Campbells of Inverawe, a conflict exemplified by the Dunaverty Massacre. Placed prominently at the top of the second column of a list of those massacred at Dunaverty, 1647, supporting the MacDougalls were these McLeas: Iain Mc Iain Vc ein dui alias Mc onlea, Dunsla M'ein Vc onlea and Iain M'onlea, his brother, (Highland Papers, II, p. 257). 1745 Several MacLeas (later referred to as Livingstones) fought in the Appin Regiment. Donald Livingstone, Bun-a-mhuilinn, Morvern, was of the Livingstones of Achnacree, Benderloch and was 18 when he fought at Culloden saving the Appin Standard see Clan profile Modern Livingstone tartan. Although the Livingstones or MacLeas are associated with the Buchanans, MacDougalls and the Stewarts of Appin, the tartan sett does not resemble that of any of these clans. The tartan most closely resembles the MacDonell of Keppoch tartan. Livingston Dress tartan. Livingstone or MacLay tartan. This tartan is based upon the Maclaine of Lochbuie tartan which dates before 1810. Crest badge, clan badge and clan chief Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto. Chief's crest: A demi-man representing the figure of Saint Moluag Proper, his head ensigned of a circle of glory Or, having about his shoulders a cloak Vert, holding in his dexter hand the great Staff of Saint Moluag Proper and in his sinister hand a cross crosslet fitchée Azure, and in an Escrol over the same this Motto CNOC AINGEIL. Chief's motto (slogan): CNOC AINGEIL (translation from Scottish Gaelic: 'Hill of fire'). Note: this motto or slogan is derived from a Pictish burial mound behind the chief's house at Bachuil. Chief's motto (alternate, not used in crest badge): NI MI E MA'S URRAIN DHOMH (translation from Scottish Gaelic: 'I shall do it if I can'). Note: This motto is said to be a play on words of the unrelated Livingston's heraldic motto: Si Je Puis ('If I can'). Clan badge: The Flower of the Grass of Parnassus. Clan chief: William Jervis Alastair Livingstone of Bachuil, Chief of the Highland Clan MacLea, Coarb of Saint Moluag, Hereditable Keeper of the Great Staff of St Moluag, Baron of the Bachuil 'by the Grace of God' Alasdair Mconlea na Maconlea agus Bachuil, Baran a' Bhachuill. Recognised and arms matriculated by Lord Lyon King of Arms in 2003. Tartan There are several tartans associated with the names Livingston, Livingstone, MacLay and MacLea. The Clan MacLea website lists three tartans deemed appropriate for clan members. Livingstone Sett, or Livingstone. This tartan is very similar to the MacDonald of Keppoch tartan. Livingstone Dress, also known as Livingston Dress. Livingstone / MacLay. This tartan is very similar to the MacLaine of Lochbuie tartan. The Maclaine of Lochbuie tartan dates before 1810 and was first published in 1886. Clan MacLea or Livingstone Motto Cnoc Aingeil (Scottish Gaelic Hill of Fire) Origins District of Lorn in Argyll, Scotland Gaelic name(s) Mac Dhunnshleibhe, Mac an Léigh Branches Lismore (Chiefly line), Achnacloich, Achnacree, Ach na Skioch, Lindsaig, Lochnell, Strathconnon, Gorm of Perthshire Sept(s) none Arms Tartan(s) Clan badge Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia palustris) Clan chieftain Niall Livingstone of Bachuil, Baron of the Bachuil Clan seat(s) Bachuil, Isle of Lismore

Maclean

Name Dates and Notes Designation Sir Charles Hector Fitzroy Maclean of Duart and Morvern, KT, KBE, GCVO, 27th Clan Chief. Created Lord Maclean (Life Peer) in 1970. b. 1916 - d. 1990. Lord Chamberlain of Her Majesty's Household; Lord Lieutenant of Argyll; Chief Scout of the British Commonwealth. 11th Baronet Morvern Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean of Duart and Morvern, 26th Clan Chief b. 1835 - d. 1936; survivor of the Charge of the Light Brigade. 10th Baronet Morvern Sir Charles Fitzroy Maclean, 25th Clan Chief b. 1847 - d. 1883 9th Baronet Morvern Sir Fitzroy Jeffries Grafton Maclean, 24th Clan Chief b. 1818 - d. 1847 8th Baronet Morvern Sir Hector Maclean, 23rd Clan Chief b. 1783 - d. 1818 7th Baronet Morvern Sir Allan Maclean of Brolas, 22nd Clan Chief b. 1750 - d. 1783 6th Baronet Morvern Sir Hector Maclean, 21st Clan Chief b. 1716 - d. 1750 5th Baronet Morvern Sir John Maclean, 20th Clan Chief b. 1674 - d. 1716. Fought at the Battle of Killiecrankie. 4th Baronet Morvern 1st Lord Maclean in the Jacobite Peerage Sir Allan Maclean, 19th Clan Chief b. 1651 - d. 1674. 3rd Baronet Morvern Sir Hector Maclean, 18th Clan Chief b. 1649 - d. 1651. Killed at the Battle of Inverkeithing. 2nd Baronet Morvern Sir Lachlan Maclean of Morvaren, 17th Clan Chief b. 1626 - d. 1649. Fought as a royalist under Montrose at the Battles of Inverlochy, Auldearn and Kilsyth. 1st Baronet Morvern (creation of 1631) Hector Mor Maclean of Dowart, 16th Clan Chief b.? - d. 1626 (Hector the Great) Hector Og Maclean, 15th Clan Chief b.? - d. 1623 (Young Hector) Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean, 14th Clan Chief b. 1558 - d. 1598. Killed at the Battle of Islay. Eachuinn Og Maclean, 13th Clan Chief (Hector the Younger) Eachuinn Mor Maclean, 12th Clan Chief (Hector the Great) Lachlan Cattanach Maclean, 11th Clan Chief b. ? - d. 1523. Murdered. ('Lachlan the Hairy') Lachlan Maclean, 10th Clan Chief Eachuinn Odhar Maclean, 9th Clan Chief d. 1513. Killed at the Battle of Flodden Field. (Hector the Sallow) Lachlan Og Maclean, 8th Chief (Lachlan the Younger) Lachlan Bronneach Maclean, 7th Clan Chief (Lachlan the Fat-bellied) Eachuinn Ruadh nan cath Maclean, 6th Clan Chief b.ca. 1368 - d.1411. Killed at the Battle of Harlaw in a duel with Alexander Irvine. (Red Hector of the Battles) Lachlan Lubanach Maclean of Duart, 5th Clan Chief (Lachlan the Cunning) Iain Dubh Macgilliemore Maclean of Morvern, 4th Clan Chief (Black John, the son of Gillechaluim) Maolcaluim macGiliosa Maclean, 3rd Clan Chief Malise mac Gilleain, AKA: Gillemor Macilean , 2nd Clan Chief (Malise, the son of Gillean) Gilleain na Tuaighe, 1st Clan Chief (' Gillean of the Battleaxe)

MacLellan

History Origins of the Name The name MacLellan has evolved from the Gaelic MacGille Fhaolain - 'son of a servant of Saint Fillan'. The name is Gaelic in origin, deriving from 'Mac Gille Fhaolain' 'son of the servant of St Filan'. St Filan was a missionary of the old Celtic church, and there is a village in Perthshire named after him. The name Filan itself is derived from the Celtic 'faelchu', meaning 'wolf'. The Maclellans were numerous in Galloway and gave their name to Balmaclellan in Stewartry. Chief Duncan MacLellan appears in a charter of Alexander II in 1217 which is now lost. The name MacLellan identified with Galloway as early as 1273. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence Maclellan of Bombie was among the close followers of Sir William Wallace when he left Kirkcudbright for France after the defeat at the Battle of Falkirk (1298). 15th Century & Clan Conflicts In the early fifteenth century it is said there were no fewer than fourteen knights of the name Maclellan in Galloway. Sir Patrick Maclellan of Bombie forfeited his estates for marauding through the lands of the Earl of Douglas, the Lord of Galloway. King James II of Scotland restored the lands when Sir Patrick's son, Sir William, murdered Black Morrow, a marooned Moor living near Kirkcudbright. Sir William carried the head of the brigand to the king on the point of his sword. This is the origins of the clan crest of this family. In 1452, William Douglas, 8th Earl of Douglas, captured Sir Patrick Maclellan, the tutor of Bombie and Sheriff of Galloway, and held him in Threave Castle for refusing to join a conspiracy against the king. Sir Patrick's uncle, who held high royal office, obtained letters ordering the release of Douglas's prisoner. When Douglas was presented with the royal warrant he promptly had Sir Patrick murdered while he entertained his uncle at dinner. Maclellan's death was another example of Douglas's contempt for royal authority which the king was later to repay by executing the earl at Stirling. Although there is little doubt that the celebrated Scots cannon, 'Mons Meg', which was made at Mons in Belgium, according to local tradition, that it was the Maclellans who brought the great gun to batter down Threave Castle as part of their revenge on the Douglases. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars During the Anglo-Scottish Wars Sir William Maclellan of Bombie was knighted by King James IV of Scotland but followed his king on the ill-fated invasion of England which ended at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. His son, Thomas, was killed at the door of St Giles' Cathedral in Edinburgh by Gordon of Lochinvar in 1526. 17th Century & Civil War His great-grandson, Sir Robert, was a courtier both to James VI and Charles I, and in 1633 was raised to the peerage as Lord Kirkcudbright. The third Lord was such a zealous royalist that during the Scottish Civil War he incurred enormous debts in the king's cause, and completely ruined the estates. The title passed from cousin to brother to cousin, with very few direct male heirs. The Maclellans were from the earliest times staunch Royalists, and zealously supported the successive kings of Scotland in their contests with their turbulent and too powerful nobles. Sir Robert MacLellan, a direct descendant of the Laird of Bombie whom the Earl of Douglas murdered, was one of the Gentlemen of the Bed-chamber, and was raised to the peerage by Charles I., in 1633, by the title of Lord Kirkcudbright. The newly created peer fought gallantly on the royal side in the Great Civil War. JOHN, the third lord, was very eccentric and hotheaded, and in his impetuous zeal on behalf of the royal cause, he compelled his vassals in a body to take up arms in behalf of the King, and incurred such enormous expense in raising and arming them as completely ruined his estates, which were seized and sold by his creditors. As nothing was left to support the dignity, the title was not claimed for nearly sixty years after the death of this luckless Royalist, and even then it was assumed only for the purpose of voting in a keen contest, for the position of representative peer, between the Earls of Eglintoun and Aberdeen. 18th to 19th Centuries The Edinburgh citizen who inherited, but did not assume, the titles of his family, had three sons. The eldest predeceased him; the third entered the Royal Navy, and was killed in 1782, in an engagement with the French, while in command of the Superb, the flagship of Sir Edward Hughes. The second son, JOHN, seventh Lord Kirkcudbright, on petition to the King, had his claim to the title allowed by the House of Lords in 1773. He entered the army and attained the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He died in 1801, leaving two sons. The elder, SHOLTO HENRY, became eighth Lord Kirkcudbright, and died without issue. The younger, CAMDEN GREY, ninth lord, had an only child-a daughter-and on his death, in 1832, the title became dormant. MacLellans Today While MacLellans are found all over the world, there are particular concentrations in a few districts of Scotland. A small group have began what is now Clan MacLellan, gathering members from around the world. The 'Scottish Diaspora' dispersed MacLellans throughout the world; the largest numbers settled in Ulster, then Nova Scotia and the United States. Some made their way to Australia. Castle MacLellan's Castle, found in Kirkcudbright in south-west Scotland was the seat of the chief of Clan MacLellan. The castle's beginnings lie in the Reformation of 1560 which led to the abandonment of the Convent of Greyfriars which had stood on the site now occupied by the castle since 1449. Other concentrations of MacLellans are found in the Western Isles (especially in Eriskay and South Uist) and around Mallaig and Arisaig. The MacLellans to whom the castle belonged were protestants, whereas the MacLellans from the northern and western fringes of Scotland were catholics.

MacLennan

Clan MacLennan, also known as Siol Ghillinnein, is a Highland Scottish clan which historically populated lands in the north-west of Scotland. The surname MacLennan in Scottish Gaelic is Mac Gille Fhinnein meaning the son of the follower of St Finnan. History Origins of the clan According to tradition the clans MacLennan and Logan are related. In the fifteenth century a feud between the clans Logan and Fraser ended in a battle at North Kessock, in which the Clan Logan chief, Gilligorm, was killed. Gilligorm's pregnant widow was captured by the Frasers and soon gave birth to a child. The Frasers intentionally broke the child's back, who was named Crotair MacGilligorm because of his deformity. Crotair MacGilligorm was educated by the monks at Beauly Priory and later founded churches at Kilmor, Sleat and Kilchrinin, Glenelg. His son, called Gille Fhinnein, is the supposed progenitor of the Clan MacLennan. In the 1970s, research by the clan chief showed that the his ancestry could be traced back to the ancient royal Celtic families of Ireland and Scotland through Aengus Macgillafinan, Lord of Locherne around 1230. St. Adamans recorded they were occupying Glenshiel at an early date and were in residence at Eilean Donnan Castle before 1263. They spread to Strathearn in Perthshire, Kirkcudbright, Dumbarton and Galloway. In Kintail, they lived with their kin, the MacRuairis, who were granted ten davochs of Kintail by King David II of Scotland in 1342. After successful raids on Tain and Chanonry in 1372 the clan suffered reprisal attacks by the Clan Fraser and Clan MacRae of Aird at Drumderfit, Black Isle. 15th century & clan conflicts The Maclennans settled around Kintail, and they were related to the Clan Logan, who also held lands in Easter Ross. (The Logans were to become most prominent in the Lowlands, where they became Barons of Restalrig, near the Port of Leith). The Clan MacLennan like the Clan MacRae were staunch supporters of the Clan MacKenzie of Kintail whose chief held power in the area of Kintail. Neither were septs of the MacKenzies but they both appear to have held the position of honourable and valued allies. However, other historians have suggested that the original name of the clan was Logan, and that it was not until the fifteenth century that the name Maclennan was adopted. Bealach nam Broig. 1452. The Clan McLennan and their allies were overwhelmed in the Great Battle of Bealach nam Broig in 1452. 'A desperate skirmish, which took place some time before this, at Bealach nam Broig, 'betwixt the heights of Fearann Donuil and Lochbraon,' was brought about by some of Kintail's vassals, instigated by Donald Garbh Maciver attempting to seize the Earl of Ross, but the plot having being discovered, Maciver was seized by the Earl of Ross, Lord of the Isles' followers, and imprisoned in Dingwall. He was soon releawsed, however, by his undaunted countrymen from Kenlochewe, followers of MacKenzie of Kintial, consisting of Macivers, Maclennans, Macaulays, and Macleays, who, by way of reprisal, pursued and seized the Earl's son at Balnagown, and carried him along with them. His father, Earl John, at once apprised the Lord Lovat, who was then His Majesty's Lieutenant in the North, of the illegal seizure of his son, and he at once dispatched northward two hundred men, who, joined by Ross's vassals, the Munros of Fowlis, and the Dingwalls of Kildun, pursued and overtook the western tribes at Bealach nam Broig, where they were resting themselves. A desperate and bloody conflict ensued, aggravated and exasperated by a keen and bitter recollection of ancient feud and animosities. The Kenlochewe men (Macivers, Maclennans, Macaulays, and Macleays) seem to have been completely extirpated and defeated. The race of Dingwall was actually extinguished, one hundred and forty of their men having been slain, and the Munro family of Fowlis although rescuing the hostage, lost eleven members of their house alone, with many of the leading men of their clan. 17th century & civil war During the Civil War the MacLennans followed the MacKenzies who were on the Covenanter side. The MacKenzie chief was now the self proclaimed Lord Seaforth. They fought against James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose who was the commander of the Royalist forces in Scotland at the Battle of Auldearn in 1645. The Clan MacLennan were led by their chief Ruaridh, a red-bearded giant standing well over six feet tall. James Graham the Marquess of Montrose was heavily outnumberd but his strategic genius more than compensated for it. He massed his banners, hoping to deceive the enemy as to the location of his main force. The ruse succeeded, forcing the Covenanters to mass their forces for a full assault. Graham the Marquess of Montrose outflanked Lord MacKenzie of Seaforth, turning the tide of battle in his favour. The Maclennans were sent an order to withdraw, but it was never delivered. Ruaridh and his men fought to the last, defending Seaforth's standard. They were finally cut down by the Clan Gordon cavalry. Logan or MacLennan tartan, as recorded by J. Logan in The Scottish Gaël (1831). 18th century & Jacobite uprisings The Clan MacLennan played little part in the Jacobite Uprisings but eleven MacLennans are recorded as being taken prisoner at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Clan profile Clan Crest: A demi-piper all Proper, garbed in a proper tartan of the Clan MacLennan. Clan Badge: Furze. Clan Motto: Dum spiro spero (Latin): While I breathe, I hope. Clan Slogan: Druim-nan-deur (Scottish Gaelic): The Ridge of Tears. Clan Tartan: Logan / MacLennan. (Both Clan Logan and Clan MacLennan share the same tartan). Clan Chief: Ruairidh Donald George MacLennan. Clan septs and spelling variations Gilfiman Gillfiman Gilfillian Lennan Lennon Leonard Leonerd Loban Lobban Logan Lyndon MacAlenon MacAlinden MacAlonan MacClennen MacClendon MacLenden MacLendon MacLennan MacLennon MacLyndon McClendon McLandon McLendon McLennan McLennon MackLenddon MackClenden MackLendin MackLendon Meclendon

MacLeod of Lewis

Clan Macleod of The Lewes, also known as Clan MacLeod of Lewis, or Sìol Torcaill, is a Highland Scottish clan, which at its height held extensive lands in the Western Isles and west coast of Scotland. From the 14th century up until the beginning of the 17th century there were two branches of Macleods: the MacLeods of Dunvegan and Harris; and the Macleods of Lewis. In Gaelic the Macleods of Lewis were known as Sìol Torcaill ('Seed of Torquil'), and the MacLeods of Dunvegan and Harris were known as Sìol Tormoid ('Seed of Tormod'). The traditional progenitor of the Macleods was Leod, whom tradition made a son of Olaf the Black, King of Mann and the Isles. Tradition gave Leod two sons, Tormod - progenitor of the Macleods of Harris and Dunvegan (Sìol Tormoid); and Torquil - progenitor of the Macleods of Lewis (Sìol Torcaill). In the 16th and early seventeenth centuries the chiefly line of the Clan Macleod of The Lewes was extinguished due to family infighting. This feuding directly led to the fall of the clan, and loss of its lands to the Clan Mackenzie. The modern line of chiefs of Clan Macleod of The Lewes are represented by the leading family of a cadet branch of the clan - the Macleods of Raasay. Today the both the Clan Macleod of The Lewes and Clan Macleod are represented by 'Associated Clan MacLeod Societies', and the chiefs of the two clans. The association is made up of nine national societies across the world including: Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa, and the United States of America. Traditional origins Flag of the Isle of Man. The modern coat of arms of the chiefs of Clan Macleod (Macleod of Macleod) use the three legs of Mann. 'The Macleods imagined themselves descended from King Olaf of Man'. Olaf the Black Today the official clan tradition is that the Macleods descend from Leod, born around 1200, who was the son of Olaf the Black, King of Man and the Isles. Traditionally, from Leod's son Tormod the Macleods of Harris and Dunvegan claim descent, and through Leod's other son Torquil Macleods of Lewis claim descent. The earliest evidence of this traditional descent from Olaf the Black may only date as far back as the 17th century, from the era of Iain Mor MacLeod (chief of Clan Macleod 1626-1649) who was styled 'John McOlaus of Dunvegane' in a document dated 1630. Also, his son Iain Breac (chief of Clan Macleod 1664-1693) is thought to have been the first Macleod to incorporate the coat of arms of the Kings of Mann into his own coat of arms, because the 'Macleods imagined themselves descended from King Olaf of Man'. Leod, the traditional eponymous ancestor of the clan, does not appear in contemporary records, or even the Chronicles of Mann which lists the four sons of Olaf. After the last king of this dynasty, Magnus Olafsson, died in 1265, and after the last known male representative of the family fled from the Isle of Mann to Wales in 1275, the claims of the Isle of Mann was taken up on behalf of the daughters of the family. This, according to Andrew MacLeod, implies that the legitimate male line from Olaf the Black was by then extinct. 'In short, there is no historical reason to believe that Leod was the son of Olaf the Black'. Clan lands and the Nicolsons/MacNicols Recently several historians have shown a connection between the early clan and the Hebridean Nicolsons/MacNicols. W.D.H. Sellar and William Matheson pointed out that in lands held by the clan (Lewis, in Wester Ross, and Waternish on the Isle of Skye), there were traditions of the Nicolsons/MacNicols preceding them. Of Lewis itself, tradition had it that the Macleods gained the island through a marriage with a Nicolson heiress. Both Sellar and Matheson agreed that the traditional connection and the gaining of lands through the Nicolsons explains the Macleods of Lewis' identity 'as a clan separate from the MacLeods of Harris and Dunvegan'. Also, even though the heraldry of the Macleod of The Lewes is very different from that of the Macleod of Macleod, there may be a connection with the Hebridean Nicolsons/MacNicols. In their coat of arms, the Macleods of The Lewes have 'a black burning mountain on a gold field'. According to Sellar, when the Macleods married the Nicolson heiress of tradition, her arms would have likely passed to the Macleods as well. The Hebridean Nicolsons/MacNicols were supposed to have held their lands in the Western Isles from the Norse rulers for their services as coast-watchers, hence the burning mountain on the arms of Macleod of The Lewes. History The ruinous Ardvreck Castle, on Loch Assynt in Sutherland. The castle, built by the Macleods, dates from the 16th century. Early history (14th & 15th centuries) The earliest reference to the Macleods of Lewis is found in a royal charter granted in the reign of David II King of Scots (reigned 1329-1371), when Torcall Macleod was granted the four penny land of Assynt, possibly in c.1343. In this charter Torcall had no designation, showing that he held no property until then. By 1344 the Macleods of Lewis held the Isle of Lewis as vassals of the Macdonalds of Islay. In time the Macleods of Lewis grew in power, rivalling the Macleods of Harris - with lands stretching from the islands of Lewis, Raasay, the district of Waternish on Skye, and on the mainland Assynt, Coigach and Gairloch. In 1406 a party of Macleods of Lewis were defeated at the battle of Tuiteam Tarbhach against a party of Mackays. The cause of the battle, according of tradition, was the ill treatment of Sidheag, widow of Angus Mackay of Strathnaver, by her brother-in-law Hucheon, Tutor of Mackay. Sidheag was also the sister of The Macleod of The Lewes, and consequently a contingent of Macleods of Lewis led by the chiefs brother, Gille-caluim Beag, encountered a party of Mackays in Sutherland. During the battle that followed the Macleods were routed and Gille-caluim Beag was slain. Clan history (16th century) In 1528 the chief of the clan, John Macleod of The Lewes, supported his half-brother, Donald Gruamach MacDonald of Sleat, who had seized the lands of Trotternish from the Macleods of Harris and Dunvegan. Domhnall Dubh was proclaimed Lord of the Isles by many families who had once served under Clan Donald: the Macleods of Lewis, the Camerons of Locheil, the MacLeans of Duart, the MacLeans of Lochbuie and the MacQuarries of Ulva, the MacNeills of Barra and the MacDonalds of Largie. The only families which remained loyal to the Crown were the Macleods of Harris and Dunvegan, and the MacIains of Ardnamurchan. Upon the collapse of the rebellion, and Domhnall Dubh's death in 1545, Ruairi was pardoned for his treasonable part in the rebellion. Though it is clear he and his clan continued to act independently of the Scottish Government. In 1554 Letters of Fire and Sword were issued for the extermination of Ruairi Macleod of The Lewes, John Moydertach of Clan Ranald and Donald Gormson MacDonald of Sleat after they all refused to attend Parliament at Inverness. Fall of the clan Castle Broichin on the Isle of Rassay, by William Daniell in 1819. Brochel Castle was built in the late 15th century or early 16th century, traditionally by MacGilleChaluim, first Macleod chief of Raasay. The fall of the clan, the extinction of the original line of chiefs, and loss of the Isle of Lewis, began with Ruairi and his marriage to a daughter of John Mackenzie of Kintail. This marriage had produced a son named Torquil Connanach (named after his residence among the Mackenzies in Strathconnan). Ruairi later disowned Torquil Connanach on account of the alleged adultery between his wife and the Morrison brieve of Lewis. Ruairi's wife later abandoned him and eloped with a cousin of his, John MacGillechallum of Raasay, after which Ruairi divorced her. In 1541 Ruairi married Barbara Stewart, daughter of Andrew Lord Avondale, and by her had a son named Torquil Oighre ('Heir' to distinguish him from the disowned Torquil). In about 1566 the legitimate son Torquil Oighre drowned along with sixty of his supporters while sailing from Lewis to Skye across the Minch. Immediately the disinherited Torquil Connanach took up arms, supported by the Mackenzies. He captured his supposed father Ruairi, and for the next four years kept him as prisoner under dreadful conditions within the castle of Stornoway. Ruairi was only released from captivity by agreeing to recognise Torquil Connanach as his lawful heir. In 1572 Ruairi was then brought before the Privy Council where he was forced to resign to the Crown his lands of Lewis, Assynt, Coigach and Waternish. These lands were then granted to Torquil Connanach as his lawful heir, and he only received them back in life-rent. When Ruairi had returned back to Lewis he revoked all he had agreed to on the grounds of coercion on June 2, 1572. Later in 1576, Regent Morton was successful in reconciling Ruairi and Torquil Connanach, where Tocall was again made lawful heir and also received charter to the lands of Coigach. Some time later Ruairi took for his third wife a daughter of Hector Og Maclean of Duart, and had by her two sons, Torquil Dubh and Tormod. Ruairi also had several natural sons, Tormod Uigach and Murdoch. Ruairi then made Torquil Dubh was heir, and again Torquil Connanach took up arms supported by the Mackenzies. Ruairi was aided by several of his illegitimate sons, including Donald, Ruairi Og and Niall, though two others, Tormod Uigach (from Uig, Lewis) and Murdoch aided Torquil Connanach. In the encounter that followed Ruairi was again captured, and many of his men were killed. Upon Torquil Connanach's victory all charters and title deeds of Lewis were handed over to the Mackenzies. Ruairi was held captive in the castle of Stornoway, commanded by Torquil Connanach's son John, though was freed when Ruairi Og attacked the castle and killed John. Upon his release Ruairi ruled Lewis in peace for the rest of his life. Upon the death of Ruairi Macleod of The Lewes, the chiefship of the clan passed to Torquil Dubh. In 1596 Torquil Dubh, with a force of seven or eight hundred men, devastated Torquil Connanach's lands of Coigach and the Mackenzie lands of Lochbroom. In consequence, Torquil Dubh was summoned to appear before the Privy Council and was declared a rebel when he failed to appear. Torquil Dubh was finally betrayed by the Brieve of Lewis, chief of the Morrisons of Ness. Once captured, the brieve sent Torquil Dubh to Coigach where he and his companions were beheaded by Torquil Connanach, on the orders of Kenneth Mackenzie of Kintail in July 1597. Following this, Lewis was commanded by Torquil Dubh's three young sons and his illegitimate brother Niall. The Macleods of Lewis were also aided by the Macleods of Harris and the Macleans. The loss of Lewis Map of Lewis. Though Torquil Dubh had several sons, Donald Gorm Mor of Sleat considered himself an heir of the deceased chief of Lewis and invaded the island pursuing his claim. It wasn't until after causing much destruction that the MacDonald of Sleat chief was driven off the island by the Lewismen. Because the Mackenzies now had the title deeds of Lewis, the island was forfeited by the Act of Estates in 1597, which gave the Scottish Government an excuse to attempt the colonisation the island. During this era on Lewis the Macleods took part in the succession of feuds of their neighbouring clans such as the Morrisons and their enemies the MacAulays of Lewis. End of a line of chiefs After the conquest of Lewis by the Mackenzies, Niall Macleod and his nephews Malcolm, William and Ruairi (the sons of Ruairi Og), and about thirty others took refuge on Bearasay in the mouth of Loch Roag on the west coast of Lewis. For almost three years the small group of Macleods held out against the Mackenzies before being driven off. Niall then surrendered himself to Ruairi Mor Macleod of Harris and Dunvegan, who then delivered both Niall and Niall's son Donald to the Privy Council in Edinburgh (Ruairi Mor was later knighted for his service to the Crown). Niall was brought to trial, convicted and executed in April 1613, dying 'very Christianlie'. Niall's son Donald was banished from Scotland, and ended up dying in Holland without any known issue. Two of Ruairi Og's sons - Ruairi and William - were captured and hanged by Kintail. The one remaining son, Malcolm, was captured at the same time, though escaped and harassed the Mackenzies for years afterwards. Malcolm played a prominate part in Sir James Macdonald's rebellion in 1615, and later went to Flanders, in 1616 he was again on Lewis where he killed 'two gentlemen of the Mackenzies'. Later he went to Spain, returnining in 1620 with Sir James Macdonald. Commissions of Fire and Sword were granted to Lord Kintail and the Mackenzies against 'Malcolm MacRuari Macleod' in 1622 and 1626. Nothing more is known of him. Tormod, the last legitimate son of Old Ruairi, was released from prison in Edinburgh in 1615, and left for Holland where he died with no known issue. Nothing is known of the fate of Torquil Dubh's sons Ruairi and Torquil. With the end of the line of the Macleods of Lewis, the title Lord Macleod was the second title of the Mackenzie, Earls of Cromartie. Also the chiefship of the Macleods of Lewis has passed to the Macleods of Rassay, who hold it to this day. The modern clan Scottish clan map. Torquil Roderick Macleod, 17th of Raasay, was a grandson of Loudoun Hector Macleod, and a farmer who lived in Tasmania. He had an interest in the history of the clan and matriculated arms at the Court of the Lord Lyon as Macleod of Raasay. Later in 1988 he was officially recognised as 'Torquil Roderick Macleod of the Lewes and Chief and Head of the baronial House of Macleod of the Lewes' by Lord Lyon King of Arms. In 2001 the chief of the clan died and was succeeded by his eldest son Torquil Donald Macleod of the Lewes, and his younger son Roderick John Macleod, 18th of Raasay. The present chief of Clan Macleod of The Lewes lives in Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Australia. Today the both the Clan Macleod of The Lewes and Clan Macleod are represented by 'Associated Clan MacLeod Societies' (ACM), with the chiefs Hugh Magnus Macleod of Macleod, Chief of Clan Macleod, and Torquil Donald Macleod of The Lewes, Chief of Clan Macleod of The Lewes. The association is made up of nine national societies across the world including: Australia, Canada, England, France, Germany, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa, and the United States of America. The ACM last held Parliament in 2006 on the Isle of Lewis. An upcoming clan gathering, the 'North American Gathering of Clan MacLeod 2008″, on July 2-6, 2008, located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. MacLeod DNA A DNA project concerning surnames MacLeod, McLeod (and variants) was conducted in around 2004, with the intent to determine if there was genetical evidence of a common ancestor of all MacLeods and if so, where the founder(s) may have originated from. The project consisted of about 400 male participants who submitted a sample of their Y-DNA. The project found that about 32 percent of the total sample shared the same haplotype, therefore it was determined that this percentage shared a common ancestor estimated at about 1,000 years ago. The conclusion of the study was that today 32 percent of MacLeods descend through the male line from a common ancestor. The study was unable to prove the founder of the MacLeods was of Norse origin, and concluded that the MacLeods may have originated from either Scotland or the Isle of Mann. Clan profile Today commonly known as the 'MacLeod of Lewis' tartan, ir was first published as 'Clann-Lewid' in the Vestiarium Scoticum of 1842. The 'MacLeod of Assynt' tartan. The Macleods of Assynt are a branch of Clan Macleod of The Lewes. The tartan is very similar to the MacLeod of Harris tartan. The 'MacLeod of Raasay' tartan. It is very similar to the tartan found in the Vestiarium Scoticum, and therefore dates from later than 1829. The 'Macleod of Harris tartan' was originally a Mackenzie tartan, adopted by Major-General John (Mackenzie), Lord Macleod on raising the 73rd McLeod Highlanders in 1777. Origin of the name The surnames MacLeod, McLeod (and variants) are Anglicisations of the Gaelic patronymic name Mac Leòid meaning 'son of Leod'. This Gaelic name is a form of the Old Norse personal name Ljótr which means 'ugly'. Crest badge and clan chief Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Chief's crest: A golden sun in splendour. Chief's motto: Note: there are two versions of the chief's heraldic motto, I birn quil I se. Luceo non uro. (translation from Latin: 'I burn but am not consumed', or 'I shine, not burn'). Note: the mottoes allude to the coat of arms of Macleod of The Lewes which contains a burning beacon or fiery mountain, which may have originally been the arms of the MacNicol coast-watchers. Clan chief: Torquil Donald MacLeod of the Lewes, Chief of Macleod of The Lewes. Branches of Clan Macleod of The Lewes The Macleods of Assynt. In the early 15th century the lands of Assynt were given in vassalage by Roderick Macleod of The Lewes to his younger son, Tormod. This Tormod became ancestor of the Macleods of Assynt. Following the Battle of Carbisdale on April 27, 1650 where the Royalists led by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose were defeated by the Covenanters. Upon fleeing for his life the Marquess of Montrose was given shelter by the wife of Neil Macleod of Assynt at Ardvreck Castle and then betrayed him to the Marquess of Argyll. Neil was the last Macleod chieftain to hold lands in Ayssnt. In 1672 he was denounced as a rebel and commission of fire and sword was obtained against him and his lands were conquered by the Seaforth Mackenzies. The Macleods of Raasay. The Macleods of Raasay descend from Malcolm Garbh Macleod, second son of Malcolm, eighth chief of Clan Macleod of The Lewes. In the reign of James V. The present chieftain of the Macleods of Raasay is Roderick John Macleod, 18th of Raasay, who lives in Tasmania, Australia. The present chieftain is the brother of the chief of Clan Macleod of The Lewes. Septs of Clan Macleod of The Lewes Clan septs refer to clans or families who were under the protection of a more powerful clan or family. Scottish clans were largely collections of different families, whether actually related or not, who held allegiance to a common chief. A modern example of this can be seen in the parish of Dunvegan in 1746, where of 500 men named only 110 are actually MacLeods. All of those named were tenants of the MacLeod chief and would have acted as part of the clan. The following names have been attributed as septs of Clan Macleod of The Lewes. Allum. (Callam, Callum, Challum, Gillecallum, MacAllum, MacAlman MacCallum, MacCalman, MacGillechallum, Malcolm). Note: also attributed as a sept of Clan MacCallum and Clan Malcolm. Lewis. Note: also attributed as a sept of Clan Stewart. MacAskill. (Kasky, MacAsgill, MacCaskie, MacCaskill, MacKaskill, MaKasky, Taskill). MacAulay. (Aulay, Calley, Caulay, Coll, MacAllay, MacAlley, MacAuley, MacCaulay, MacCauley, MacCorley). See MacAulays of Lewis. Note: according to James Ayars, Genealogy coordinator of the Associated Clan MacLeod Society, 'MacAuley is both a sept of Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald, and a clan in its own right', see Clan MacAulay. MacCabe. (MacKabe) Note: George F. Black's Surnames of Scotland describes McCabe as a branch of the MacLeods of Arran who immigrated to Ireland in the 14th century. MacCorkill. (MacCorkindale, MacCorkle, MacCorquodale MacKerkyll, MacKorkyll, MacOrkill, McCorkie, McKurkull). Note: also attributed as a sept of Clan Gunn. MacCorkindale. (Corquodale and MacCorcadail, MacCorkill, MacCorkle, MacCorquodale, MacThorcadail). Note: Black also lists Corquodale though there is no evidence of any relationship between MacCorkindale and its derivatives and MacLeod. MacGillechallum. Note: According to Black's Surnames of Scotland Mac-ille-Challum is the patronymic of the MacLeods of Raasay. Malcolmson. Nicol. (deNicole, MacNichol, MacNickle, McNychol, Necolson, Nichol(s), Nicholl, Nicholson, Nickle, Nicoll, Nicollsoun, Nicolson, Nuccol, Nuckall, Nucolsone). Note: Nicol is also associated with Clan Macfie, and there is also a Clan Nicolson and Clan MacNeacail. Norie. (Noray, Nore, Norn, Norrey, Norreys, Norrie, Norris, Norye). Tolmie. Note: Black wrote that the Tolmies of the Hebrides are called Clann Talvaich. Note: the source for all sept names is the Associated Clan MacLeod Societies website.

MacLeod

Clan MacLeod is a Highland Scottish clan. The Gaelic form is Clann Mhic Leòid. Clann means children, while mhic is the genitive of mac, the Gaelic for son, and Leòid is the genitive of Leòd. The whole phrase therefore means The children of the son of Leod. The Clan MacLeod is made up of two branches, Siol Thormoid (the MacLeods of Harris and Skye) and Siol Thorcuil (the MacLeods of Lewis). History Origins of the clan The surname MacLeod (pronounced mc-loud) (Scottish Gaelic: MacLeòid) means son of Leod. The name Leod is an Anglicization of the Scottish Gaelic name Leòd, which is thought to have been derived from the Old Norse name Ljótr, meaning ugly. The Clan MacLeod of Lewis claims its descent from Leod, whom according to MacLeod tradition was a younger son of Olaf the Black, King of Mann (r.1229-1237). However, articles have been published in the Clan MacLeod magazine which suggest an alternate genealogy for Leod, one in which he was not son of Olaf, but a 3rd cousin (some removed) from Magnus the last King of Mann. In these alternate genealogies, using the genealogy of Christina MacLeod, great granddaughter of Leod, who married Hector Reaganach (McLean/McLaine) these articles suggest that the relationship to the Kings of Mann was through a female line, that of Helga of the beautiful hair. The dating of Christina's genealogy and the ability to line it up with known historical facts lend a great deal of authenticity to the claims of the authors. MacLeod tradition is that Leod who had possession of Harris and part of Skye, married a daughter of the Norse seneschal of Skye, MacArailt or Harold's son. who held Dunvegan and much of Skye. Leod's two sons, Tormod and Torquil, founded the two main branches of the Clan MacLeod, Siol Tormod and Siol Torquil. Torquil's descendants held the lands of the Isle of Lewis until the early seventeenth century when the MacKenzies successfully overthrew the Lewismen, partly with the aid of the Morrisons, and the MacLeods of Harris (Siol Tormod). Younger branches of Siol Torquil held the mainland lands of Assynt and Cadboll longer, and the Isle of Raasay until 1846. Siol Tormod held Harris and Glenelg on the mainland, and also the lands of Dunvegan on the Isle of Skye. Leod, according to tradition, died around 1280 and was buried on the holy island of Iona, where six successive chiefs of the clan found a last resting-place after him. A DNA project studying the Y-DNA of males bearing surnames associated with Clan MacLeod found that the vast majority of the men tested had a Haplogroup of R1b, which is the most common Haplogroup in the British Isles and considered to be 'Celtic'. A total of 32 percent of all men tested, who were also in this R1b Haplogroup, also shared the same Haplotype and showed this group shared a common ancestor. According to the study, this 32 percent of MacLeods tested had a common ancestor within 1000 years (some will have a common ancestor earlier but all who match with another of the surname with 23/25, 33/37, 62/67 markers share the same more distanct ancestor), thus this Haplotype is considered to show the founding lineage of the Clan MacLeod. While the study could not prove a 'Viking' origin of the clan, the study claimed the DNA of this group showed that the clan was founded by a man who could have originated in Scotland or the Isle of Man It should be noted however, that the R1b haplogroup is found at a percentage of 30 in Norway and that the studies of the haplogroup R1b are very fluid. Wars of Scottish Independence During the Wars of Scottish Independence Norman, who became the 2nd chief of the MacLeods of Skye, assumed power around the year 1280. He fought with King Robert the Bruce when the English were defeated at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. In 1380 the Clan MacLeod along with Clan MacLean and Clan MacKinnon were defeated in battle by MacDonald, Lord of the Isles, who vindicated his right as Lord of the Isles. The MacLeods then submitted and became firm supporters of the Lord of the Isles and Clan Donald, only to become enemies again in the late 15th century. 15th century & clan conflicts Battle of Tuiteam Tarbhach, 1406, was fought between the Clan MacKay and the Clan MacLeod of Lewis. This battle was fought at Tuiteam-tarbhach in the south west part of Sutherland where it meets Ross-shire. Angus MacKay of Strathnaver married the sister of MacLeod of Lewis. MacLeod of Lewis found that his sister had been mis-treated and on his way home he decides to spoil Strathnaver and Brae-Chat in Sutherland. As a result the battle was fought in which the chief of the MacLeods of Lewis was killed. Battle of Harlaw, 1411, the MacLeods fought as Highlanders in support of Domhnall of Islay, Lord of the Isles, temporarily preventing the Duke of Albany gaining power in Ross. Battle of Bloody Bay, 1480, the Clan MacLeod fought in support of John of Islay, Earl of Ross. William Dubh MacLeod, chief of Clan MacLeod was killed (or taken prisoner) supporting John of MacDonald Islay, Earl of Ross and chief of Clan Donald against his bastard son Angus Og Macdonald. By 1495 the chief of Clan MacDonald's title as Lord of the Isles had been revoked. Soon afterwards the Clan MacLeod successfully took Dunscaith Castle from the MacDonalds led by their chief Alistair Crotach MacLeod. They went on to besiege Knock Castle before withdrawing and in 1498 the MacLeods captured Duntulm Castle from the MacDonalds. 16th & 17th century clan conflicts Ardvreck Castle built by the MacLeods in 1590 In 1560 the MacLeods along with the Clan MacLean and Clan MacKay became part of the Gallowglass. A mixture of Gaels and Norsemen who became a ferocious mercenary army who successfully fought for Shane O'Neill in Ireland. In 1566 the Clan MacLeod of Assint and Clan MacKay together raided and burned Dornoch. Battle of the Spoiling Dyke, 1578, was fought between the MacDonalds of Uist and the Clan MacLeod. Battles of Allt Camhna and Leckmelm, 1586, involving the Clan MacLeod, Clan MacKay, Clan Gunn, Clan Sinclair and Clan Sutherland. In 1588 William MacLeod of Dunvegan, the 13th chief, bound himself and his heirs in a bond of manrent to 'assist, maintain, and defend, and concur with Lachlan Mackintosh of Dunachton, Captain and Chief of the Clan Chattan, and his heirs.' Battle of Siol Tormoit, 1601, Fought between the Clan MacDonald of Sleat and the Clan MacLeod. Sir Donald MacLeod, 1st Baronet of Sleat Dunvegan Castle, Isle of Skye. Dunvegan has been home to the same MacLeod family for over 700 years. In 1608 after a century of feuding which included battles between the Clan MacDonald the Clan MacKenzie and Clan MacLean all of the relevant MacDonald Chiefs were called to a meeting with Lord Ochiltree who was the King's representative. Here they discussed the future Royal intentions for governing the Isles. The Chiefs did not agree with the King and were all thrown into prison. Donald the Chief of the Clan MacDonald of Sleat was incarcerated in the Blackness Castle. His release was granted when he at last submitted to the King. Donald died in 1616 and then Sir Donald MacLeod, his nephew succeeded as the chief and became the first Baronet of Sleat. 17th century & Civil War During the Civil War, after the Battle of Carbisdale in 1650 the defeated James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose surrendered himself to Neil MacLeod of Assynt at Ardvreck Castle. At the time, Neil was absent and it is said that his wife, Christine, tricked Montrose into the castle dungeon and sent for troops of the Covenanter Government. Montrose was taken to Edinburgh, where he was executed on 21 May 1650. By 1651 the Scottish Covenantor government had become disallusioned with the English parliament and supported the Royalists instead. As many as 800 MacLeods fought as Royalists at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. 18th century & Jacobite uprisings During the 1745 to 1746 Jacobite Uprising the main part of Clan MacLeod supported the British government however a small number of them supported the Jacobites. The chief MacLeod of MacLeod led 500 men of the Clan MacLeod in support of the British government at the second Battle of Inverurie (1745) on the 23rd December 1745. However approximately 120 men of the Clan MacLeod fought for the Jacobites and the House of Stuart at the Battle of Culloden in 1746 where they were attached to the Clan Maclachlan and Clan MacLean regiment. Clan chiefs The Chiefs of Clan MacLeod. Leod Leòd (c.1200-1280) Norman Tormod (1260-1320) Malcolm Calum cas Reamhar MhicLeoid (1296-1370) John Iain Ciar (1320-1392) William Cleireach (1365-1402) John Iain Borb (1392-1448) William Dubh 'Long Sword' (1415-1500) Alexander Alasdair Crotach (1450-1547) William (1512-1552), succeeded in 1541 Mary (1543-1602) Donald (1514-1556), succeeded in 1556 Norman Tormod (1516-1585), succeeded in 1559 William (1560-1590) John (1580-1595) Sir Roderick Ruairidh Mor (1562-1624) John Iain Mor (1600-1649), succeeded in 1626 Roderick 'The Witty' Ruairidh Mor (1636-1664) John Iain Breac (1637-1693) Roderick Ruairidh og (1674-1699) Norman (1685-1706) John (1704-1706) Norman 'The Red Man' (1706-1772) Norman 'The General' (1754-1801) John Norman (1783-1835) Norman (1812-1895) Norman Magnus (1839-1929) Sir Reginald, KCB (1847-1935) Dame Flora Louise Cecilia, DBE (1878-1976) John (1935-2007) Hugh Magnus (b. 1973) The heir presumptive is Elena Mary Wadezhda (b. 1977), daughter of the 29th Chief. Clan castles Dunvegan Castle has always been the seat of the Chief of the Clan MacLeod, where the clan also holds the legendary Fairy Flag. Ardvreck Castle is among several other castles which have been owned by the MacLeods. Dunscaith Castle castle was fought over fiercely between the MacLeods and Clan MacDonald with both clans taking possession on several occasions. Fairy Flag of Dunvegan A relic of the Clan MacLeod is the Fairy Flag of Dunvegan, held at Dunvegan Castle. The legend surrounding the flag is that it was given to a MacLeod chief by his wife, a Fairy princess. The flag is said to have the power to save the clan three times, and has been used twice already, once to win a battle and once to stop an epidemic which threatened the starvation of the clan. A modern legend is that during World War II, MacLeods carried a picture, or pieces of the Fairy flag with them in the Battle of Britain, and not one of the pilots were lost. Also, there is a legend that the chief offered to stand atop the Cliffs of Dover, and wave the flag in the event of the Germans invading England. Crests and tartans MacLeod tartan, which appears in the early collections of Logan (1831) and Smibert (1850). MacLeod tartan, as first published in 1842, in the Vestiarium Scoticum. Clan crest MacLeod of MacLeod: Hold fast. MacLeod of Lewis: I birn quil I se. (Latin: Luceo non Uro). (I burn but I am not consumed). Tartan The earliest appearance of a MacLeod tartan was in the Vestiarium Scoticum, published in 1842. The Vestiarium Scoticum composed and illustrated by the dubious 'Sobieski Stuarts' is the source for many of today's Clan tartans. Today the work of the 'Sobieski Stuarts' have been proven to be a forgery. One critic of the Vestiarium Scoticum even likened the MacLeod tartan's design to that of a horse blanket. The green tartan was the battle tartan while the yellow was the dress tartan. Clan septs Septs are clans or families who were under the protection of a more powerful clan or family. Scottish clans were largely collections of different families who held allegiance to a common chief. Septs of Clan MacLeod of Harris and Skye Beaton (Betha, Bethea, Bethune, Beton). Harold (Harald, Haraldson, Harrold, Herrald, MacHarold, MacRaild). MacAndie (Andie, MacHandie, MacKande, MacKandy, Makcandy). MacCaig (MacCoig, MacCowig, MacCrivag, MacCuaig, MacKaig, MacQuigg). MacClure (MacAlear, MacClewer, MacLeur, MacLewer, MacLur, MacLure, McClure). MacCrimmon (Cremmon, Crimmon, Grimmond, MacCrummen, MacGrimman, MacGrymmen, MacRimmon). (see MacCrimmon (piping family) MacWilliam (McCullie, MacKilliam, MacKullie, MacWilliams, MacWillie, MacWylie, Williamson). Norman (Normand, Norval, Norwell, Tormud). Septs of Clan MacLeod of Lewis Allum {Callam, Callum, Challum, Gillecallum, MacAllum, MacAlman, MacCallum, MacCalman, MacGillechallum, Malcolm, Malcolmson}. Lewis (MacLewis). MacAskill (Askey, Caskey, Caskie, Kasky, MacAsgill, MacCaskie, MacCaskill, MacKaskill, Mackaskill, MaKasky, Taskill). MacAulay (Aulay, Calley, Caulay, Coll, MacAllay, MacAlley, MacAuley, MacCaulay, MacCauley, MacCorley). MacCabe. MacCorkill (Corquodale, MacCorcadail, Maccorke, MacCorkill, MacCorkindale, MacCorkle, MacCorkle, MacCorquodale, MacKerkyll, MacKorkyll, MacOrkill, MacThorcadail, McCorkie, McKurkull). Nicol (deNicole, MacNichol, MacNickle, McNychol, Necolson, Nichol(s), Nicholl, Nicholson, Nickle, Nicoll, Nicollsoun, Nicolson, Nuccol, Nuckall, Nucolsone). Norie (Noray, Nore, Norn, Norrey, Norreys, Norrie, Norris, Norye). Tolmie.

MacMillan

Origins of the clan The Clan MacMillan has its roots in an ancient royal house and from the orders of the Celtic church. The progenitor of the clan was Gille Chriosd, one of the six sons of Cormac, the Bishop of Dunkeld. As a Columban priest, his head would have been shaved over the front of his head, rather than in the more usual fashion. This distinctive tonsure is described in Gaelic as 'Mhaoillan'. The name MacMillan is therefore 'son of one who bore this tonsure'. 14th century An early branch of the Clan MacMillan was to be found at Loch Arkaig in Lochaber. However, tradition states that the family moved from this area on the orders of King Malcolm IV of Scotland and moved to the crown lands of Loch Tay in Perthshire. It was at these lands that Robert the Bruce was sheltered by the Clan MacMillan chief after he stabbed John Comyn the 'red Comyn', chief of Clan Comyn. The Clan MacMillan again proved its loyalty to Bruce by fighting for him against the English at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 during the Wars of Scottish Independence. Chief Malcolm Mor Macmillan received the lands of Knapdale from the Lord of the Isles in 1360. The charter is said to have been inscribed on a rock on the beach at the Point of Knap. It was reputed to have said:
'Coir MhicMhaolain air a Chnap
Fhad's a bhuaileas tonn ri crag' Which is translated from Scots Gaelic (gaidhlig) as:
'MacMillan's right to Knap
As long as this rock withstands the sea' (This was later destroyed by Campbell of Calder in 1615). As vassals of the Lord of the Isles, the Macmillans were caught up in the aftermath of the forfeiture of the Lordship and lost control of Knap forever. They did however manage to keep the adjoining lands of Tireleacham. Even so they were still harassed by the Campbells who had supplanted them. The Clan MacKintosh and Clan Cameron had long been at feud. The MacMillans supported the Clan Cameron and it is said that there were MacMillans among the 30 warriors representing the Clan Cameron who fought against 30 warriors from the Clan Mackintosh at a set battle known as the Battle of The North Inch in 1396. It is said that four MacKintoshes survived the battle but were all mortally wounded and one of Cameron's survived by swimming across a river to escape. 15th century The Clan MacMillan are also said to have been involved with the The Palm Sunday Massacre of 1430 between the Clan MacKintosh and the Clan Cameron. Alexander MacMillan is remembered in Knapdale for the tower he built at Castle Sween which he held for MacDonald the Lord of the Isles in the 1470s. 16th century Following the demise of the Macdonald's Lordship of the Isles at the beginning of the sixteenth century, the MacMillan's lordship of Knapdale was given by the crown to the Clan Campbell, whose tenants the MacMillans thereafter became; and it was probably at this time that a son of the last MacMhaolain Mor a Chnap who remained loyal to the Lord of the Isles fled Kilchamaig in South Knap to re-establish a branch of the family in Lochaber, who became the Macmillans of Murlagan. The chief of the Clan Cameron who were the clan that had defeated the Chattan Confederation as the Lairds of Lochaber let Murlagan and the neighbouring farms on Loch Arkaigside to the MacMillans for sword-service, and Clann 'ic 'illemhaoil Abrach ('the Lochaber M'millans') were among Lochiel's most important and loyal followers from the time of the last risings in favour of the forfeited Lords of the Isles in the middle of the sixteenth century 17th century Macmillan of Knap was considered chief of the clan and when the line became extinct in 1665, the title passed to the Dunmore branch, and from them to the Lagalgarve branch in which it is still vested. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings The Clan MacMillan are not noted as being a Jacobite clan however tradition states that there were two MacMillans who carried the Chief of Clan Cameron of Lochiel from where he fell at the Battle of Culloden. However the Clan MacBain also claim to have carried Lochiel of the battlefield at Culloden. Prince Charles Edward Stewart made his last stand from the Clan MacMillan home in Arkaig. Clan castles & memorials The Castle Sween includes a tower which stands as a memorial to the MacMillans. The other MacMillan memorial is a cross which stands in the churchyard at Kilmory. This cross is recognised as one of the finest surviving examples of Celtic art in Scotland, and shows a chief of the MacMillans hunting deer. Clan Septs Septs of the Clan MacMillan include: Baxter, Gibbon, Gibson, M'Ghille-Domhnuich, McMill, MacMill, McMull, MacMull, Bell, Beall, Lany, Lennie, Leny, M'Ghille-Duinn M'Noccater, M'Nuccator, Bleu, Blew, MacBaxter, Baker, M'Ghille-Guirman, M'Vaxter, Blue, M'Bell, M'Ghille-ghuirm M'Veil, Brown, Broun, M'Callum, M'Hannanich, Mellan, Millan, Callum, M'Calman, M'Igeyll, M'Igheil, Mellanson, Melançon, Calman M'Can, M'Cannie, M'Ildonich, Millan, Can, Cane, M'Channanich, M'Ilduin, Millanson, Cannan, Channan, M'Colman, M'Colmin, M'Iveil, M'Iyell, Milliken, Millikin, Coleman, M'Geil, M'Geyll, M'Kan, M'Kane, Milligan, Mulligan, Colman, Colmin, M'Gibbon, M'Gibson, M'Kean, M'Kenn, Mullan, Mullen, Connon, M'Gill, M'Maoldonich, Walker. Clan Profile Gaelic Name: MacGhilleMhaolain. Motto: Miseris succurrere disco (I learn to succour the unfortunate). Plant Badge: Holly. Lands: Lochaber, Argyll and Galloway,Western Isles - Barra/South Uist Origin of Name: Gaelic, MacMhaolain (Son of the bald or tonsured one).

Macnab

History Clan Macnab is often said to have been a branch of the Clan Macdonald. However a bond of manrent exists to say that the Clan Macnab was an ally of the Clan Mackinnon and the Clan Gregor. The current village of Killin, on the shores of Loch Tay, is the traditional homeland of the Clan Macnab. Origins of the clan The founder of the Clan Macnab is said to have belonged to the clerical profession. In Gaelic, Mac an Aba means 'the son of abbot'. He is said to have been Abbot of Glendochart. The title Mac an Aba eventually became one of four variations used today: 'MacNabb', 'McNabb', 'Macnab' or 'McNab'. 14th century & Robert the Bruce The Macnabs were a considerable clan before the reign of Alexander III of Scotland. When King Robert the Bruce commenced his struggle for the crown of Scotland the Clan Macnab along with the Clan MacDougall fought against Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Dalree. After this when the cause of Robert the Bruce had prevailed his victorious troops ravaged the lands of Macnab. All of Macnab's family writs were destroyed. Of the Macnab's possessions only the Barony of Bowain or Bovain remained with them when Gilbert Macnab received a charter from King David II of Scotland. Gilbert Macnab died during the reign of King Robert II of Scotland. Gilbert's son, Finlay Macnab was the sixth chief and he died in the reign of King James I of Scotland. He is said to have been a famous bard and according to tradition he composed a famous gaelic poem which the Clan Macpherson attributed to Oaain. 15th century Finlay's son was Patrick Macnab who in turn named his son Finlay after his grandfather. Upon Patrick's resignation as chief, his son Finlay received a charter of lands in Ardchyle and Wester Duinish in the county of Perth. This charter was received under the great seal during the reign of King James III of Scotland dated January 1 1486. 16th century & Anglo Scottish wars Chief Finlay Macnab also received a charter during the reign of King James IV of Scotland dated January 9th 1502. His son designated the fifth 'Laird' witnessed a charter from the King to Duncan Campbell in 1511. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Macnab chief's eldest son is believed to have possibly been killed at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. The 8th chief himself, Finlay, who died in 1525 at Eilan Ran and is buried at Killin, granted lands of Ewer and Leiragan to his wife, Mariat Campbell, for her lifetime. In turn his son also called Finlay Macnab the sixth 'laird' mortgaged a great portion of his lands to Campbell of Glenorchy, ancestor of the Marquis of Breadalbane, as appears by a charter to 'Colin Campbell of Glenorchy, his heirs and assignees whatever, according to the deed granted to him by Finlay Macnab of Bovain, 24th November 1552, of all and sundry the lands of Bovain and Ardchyle, &c, confirmed by a charter under the great seal from Mary, dated 27th June 1553″. Glenorchy's right of superiority the Macnabs always refused to acknowledge. 17th century & clan conflicts The 7th laird was also called Finlay Macnab who lived during the reign of King James IV of Scotland. This chief entered a bond of friendship with his cousin Lauchlin MacKinnion of Strathairdle from Clan Mackinnon on the 12th July 1606. This chief carried on the deadly feud with the Clan Neish or MacNeish. The Clan Neish were also sometimes known as the M'llduys who possessed lands in the upper part of Strathearn and inhabited the lower part of Loch Earn which they called Neish Island. Battle of Glenboultachen Many battles were fought between the Macnabs and Neishes with various success. The last battle between them was fought at Glenboultachan where the Macnabs were victorious. The Neishes were killed almost to a man. However some Neishes survived and continued to live on which they called Neish Island. The Neishes continued to plunder the neighbourhood and feuds continued. One Christmas the chief of Macnabs sent his servant to Crieff for provisions however on his return he was attacked and robbed of all provisions. He survived and returned empty handed to the Macnab chief. The chief had twelve sons who were all men of great strength but one above all was exceedingly athletic and the strongest of them all. He was called in gaelic 'Iain mion Mac an Aba' or 'Smooth John Macnab'. The brothers set out carrying on their shoulders a fishing boat. They arrived at Loch Earn where they launched the boat and passed over to Neish Island. Smooth John Macnab kicked open the door of the Neishes house, the Macnabs killed all of the Neishes who were taken by surprise. However two Neishes, a man and a boy survived by hiding under a bed. Carrying off the heads of the Neishes, and any plunder they could secure, the youths presented themselves to their father, while the piper struck up the Pibroch of Victory. 17th century & Civil War During the Civil War the Clan Macnab supported the Royalist cause of King Charles I. The Macnabs are known to have fought in support of James Graham chief of the Clan Graham and the 1st Marquess of Montrose. The Macnab chief with his clan are known to have fought bravely at the Battle of Kilsyth where they were victorious. They fought together alongside their allies of the Clan Robertson and Clan Ogilvy. As a result the Macnab chief was put in command of the Royalist garrison at Kincardine Castle. The castle was then besieged by a Covenanting force commanded by General David Leslie of the Clan Leslie. Macnab found that it would not be possible to maintain defense and during the night, sword in hand at the head of 300 men they cut their way through the besieging force. All made it through apart from the Macnab chief himself and one other man who were captured and sent to Edinburgh as prisoners of war. The chief was sentenced to death but he escaped and rejoined King Charles and continued to fight. Smooth John Macnab who was now much older, was finally killed when he led a number of Macnabs at the Battle of Worcester in 1651. The clan's lands were again ravaged this time by Covenanters and the clan history and papers were again lost. The chief of the Macnabs married a daughter of Campbell of Glenlyon, and with one daughter had a son, Alexander Macnab, ninth laird, who was only four years old when his father was killed on Worcester battle field. His mother and friends applied to General Monk for some relief from the family estates for herself and children. That general made a favourable report on the application, but it had no effect. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings During the Jacobite uprisings part of the Clan Macnab supported the British Government. The Macnab chief John Macnab held a commission in the British Black Watch Regiment and was taken prisoner at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745 where he remained until after the Battle of Culloden in 1746. However his son Archibald Macnab was a Captain in the Loudon's Highlanders regiment who supported the British government. He died a lieutenant-general in 1791. Another branch of Macnabs supported the Jacobites and the House of Stuart. They were led by Allister Macnab of Inshewan and Archibald Macnab of Acharne. Clan Macnab today By reason of the burdens accumulated on the estate by the twelfth Chief, the greater part of the possessions of the family passed into the hands of the House of Breadalbane. Then the last Chief who had his home at Kinnell betook himself to Canada. At a later date he returned and sold the last of his possessions in this country, the Dreadnought Hotel in Callander. When he died he bequeathed all his heirlooms to Sir Allan Napier Macnab, Bart., Prime Minister of Canada, whom he considered the next Chief. But Sir Allan's son was killed by a gun accident when shooting in the Dominion, and since then the chiefship has been claimed by more than one person. Sir Allan Macnab's second daughter, Sophia Mary, married William Keppel, 7th Earl of Albemarle who are the ancestors of Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall. After the death of the Old Chieftains line, the Chieftainship of Clan Macnab passed to the Macnabs of Arthurstone. The chief memorial of the old Macnab family in Glendochart today is their romantic burying-place among the trees on the rocky islet of Inch Buidhe in the Dochart, a little way above Killin. There, with the Dochart in its rocky bed singing its great old song for ever around their dust, rest in peace the once fierce beating hearts of these old descendants of the Abbot of Glendochart and the royal race of Alpin. Septs of Clan Macnab Septs of Clan Macnab include: Abbot Abbotson Dewar Gilfillan Macandeoir

MacNaghten

Origins of the clan The earliest reference to the Clan Macnaghten is in connection with great Pictish rulers of Moray. The name 'Nechten' which means 'pure' or 'clear' was popular in the Pictish royal line. The originator of the clan is believed to have been 'Nechtan Mor' who lived in the 10th Century. 13th century Castle in Loch Awe By the time of the Renaissance, Clan Macnaghten had developed four distinct branches, or 'septs,' each recognized by the Crown with its own coat of arms. The senior line, MacNauchtan of Argyll, is assumed to descend from Sir Gilchrist MacNauchtan, who was granted land in Argyll in the early 1200s by Alexander III, King of Scotland. Parchments from 1247 and 1267 bearing the seal of Sir Gilchrist MacNauchtan are among the oldest existing charters in Scotland. 14th century and Robert the Bruce During the 14th Century the MacNaghtens were opposed to Robert the Bruce and his claim to the throne of Scotland, however he did eventually become King Robert I of Scotland. As a result the MacNaghten's forfeited many of their lands. The Clan Macnaghten also fought against Robert the Bruce at the Battle of Dalree in 1306. The fortunes of the clan were restored however when King David II of Scotland granted them lands in Lewis. 16th century and Anglo Scottish Wars In the sixteenth century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan Macnaghten led by Chief Alistair MacNaughten, who was knighted by King James IV of Scotland fought at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513. However the Chief was killed during the course of the battle. 17h century & Civil War In the 17th century during the Civil War Chief John MacNaghten and his clan were Royalist supporters. The MacNaghtens had a strong force and joined King James VII's general the Viscount Dundee and is said to have taken a leading part when the Clan Macnaghten were victorious at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689. Clan profile Clan Motto: I hoip in God. Clan Slogan: 'Fraoch Eilean' (The Heathery Isle). Clan Crest: A castle embattled, Gules. Clan Badge: Trailing Azalea. Clan chief: Sir Malcolm Macnaghten, 12th Baronet. Origin of the name Gaelic name: Mac Neachdainn for 'Son of Nechtan'). Gaelic Names: MacNeachdainn (Surname) & Clann 'icNeachdainn (Collective). Clan seat Dundarave (or 'Dunderawe'), Antrim, Ireland. Branches MacNaghten of Dundarave MacNaghten of MacNaghten Septs of Clan Macnaghten Ayson (Mac)Coll (Mac)Cracken (Mac)Harry(ie) (Mac)Hendry (Mac)Henrie (Mac)Kendrick (Mac)Knight (Mac)Nair(y) (Mac)Nayer (Mac)Neid (Mac)Natt (Mac)Nett (Mac)Nitt (Mac)Niven (Mac)Portland (Mac)Quake(r) (Mac)Rac(k) (Mac)Racken (Mac)Nutt (Mac)Vicar(s) (Mac)Vicker(s) Mannis(e) Porter Weir

MacNeacail or MacNicol

Clan MacNeacail or Clan MacNicol is Scottish clan long associated with the Isle of Skye, and were also a sept of the Clan MacLeod. In the 1980s Sir David Nicolson, 4th Baron Carnock was recognized by Lord Lyon King of Arms as Chief of Clan Nicolson. Not content with this Ian Nicolson, an Australian, petitioned Lord Lyon to be chief of the Nicolsons of Scorrybreac, and in 1988 was regonized as Ian Norman Carmichael MacNeacail of MacNeacail and Scorrybreac, Chief of the Highland Clan MacNeacail. History 'Mac Nicol'. A Victorian era romanticised depiction of a member of the clan by R. R. McIan, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845. Origins MacNeacail (Scottish Gaelic), is anglicized as MacNicol, Nicholson/Nicolson and literally means 'Son of Nicol.' Nicol, a diminutive of Nicholas (Greek: Νικόλαος 'Victory People'), was first brought to the British Isles by the Normans, and was a very common medieval name. The supposed progenitor of the Clan MacNicol is first recorded as Mackrycul. The MacNicols are thought to have originally inhabited the lands on the west coast of Ross, Scotland. By the early fourteenth century they had lost their lands, between Loch Maree and Loch Torridon, through the marriage of a MacNicol heiress to a member of the MacLeods of Lewis. It is thought that it was about this time that the MacNicols removed to the Isle of Lewis, following the MacLeods. Later on, as the MacLeods moved south to the Isle of Skye, the MacNicols were among them and settled mainly in the northern central side of the island, surrounding the area of Scorrybreac near Portree. It is otherwise stated, in several sources to be found in various clan histories, that the MacLeods gained the land of the MacNicols by means of slaughtering the clans male heirs and abducting the females, forcing them into a marriage that by today's standards would be illegal. Isle of Lewis There was a tradition that the MacNicols were situated in Lewis in ancient times. The Indweller of Lewis wrote around 1678 and 1688 of such tradition. He stated that the first and most ancient inhabitants of Lewis were three men of three different races; Mores, Iskair MacAulay, and Macnaicle. Also, it was through marriage to Macnaicle's daughter that the Macleods became dominant in Lewis. On Lewis the ravine separating Dùn Othail from the mainland is called 'Leum Mhac Nicol' (translation from Scottish Gaelic: Nicholson's Leap). Legend was that a MacNicol for a certain crime was sentenced by the chief of Lewis to be castrated. In revenge he ran off with the chief's only child to the ravine and leaped across the chasm. MacNicol threatened to throw the child into the sea unless the chief himself agreed to be mutilated as well. Attempts at rescuing the child failed and the chief finally agreed to the mans terms. Just as the chief consented MacNicol leaped over the cliff and into the sea with the child crying out in Gaelic. 'I shall have no heir, and he shall have no heir.' Isle of Skye A tradition from Skye is that a chief of the MacNicol clan, MacNicol Mor, was engaged in a heated discussion with Macleod of Raasay. As the two argued in English a servant, who could speak only gaelic, imagined that the two leaders were quarrelling. The servant, thinking his master in danger, then drew his sword and slew MacNicol Mor. To prevent a feud between the two septs, the clan elders and chiefs, of the two septs, then held council to determine the manner in which to appease the MacNicols. The decision agreed upon was that the 'meanest' of Clan Nicol would behead Macleod of Raasay. Lomach, a lowly maker of pannier baskets, was chosen and accordingly cut off the head of the Laird of Raasay. During the sixteenth century MacNicoll of Portree was part of the sixteen member of 'The Council Of The Isles' of the Lordship of the Isles, in Finlaggan in Islay. Clan profile MacNicol/Nicolson tartan. The historian James Logan, who travelled the Scottish Highlands collecting tartan in the early nineteenth century admitted he could not find an authentic MacNicol/Nicolson tartan. Gaelic Names: MacNeacail (Surname) & Clann 'icNeacail (Collective). Crest badge: Note: the crest badge is made up of the chief's heraldic crest and motto, Chief's Crest: A hawk's head erased, gules. Chief's Motto: Scorrybreac. Clan Badge: Trailing azalea. Clan Chief: John MacNeacail of MacNeacail and Scorrybreac. The chief resides in Ballina, NSW, Australia. Tartan The MacNicol/Nicolson tartan that appears in the 1845 work The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, by James Logan and illustrated by R. R. MacIan, represents a woman wearing a tartan shawl. Logan even admitted they had never encountered a tartan for the MacNicols/Nicolsons, and that 'it is probable they adopted that of their superiors' - the MacLeods. Associated names The following is a list of names considered by the modern clan to be associated with Clan MacNeacail. Clan membership not only includes variations of the surname Nicolson or MacNicol, but also anyone who accepts the current chief of the clan to be their chief. MacNicol McNichol McNickle McNicol Niccols Nichol Nicholas Nicholass Nicholds Nicholes Nicholl Nicholls Nichols Nicholson Nickal Nickalls Nickel Nickell Nickells Nickels Nickerson Nicklas Nicklass Nickle Nickless Nickol Nickolai Nickolay Nickolds Nickolls

MacNeil

Clan MacNeil, also known in Scotland as Clan Niall, is a highland Scottish clan, particularly associated with the Outer Hebridean island of Barra. The early history of Clan Macneil is obscure, however despite this the clan claims to descend from the legendary Niall of the nine hostages. The clan itself takes its name from a Niall who lived in the 13th or early 14th century, and who belonged the same dynastic family of Cowall and Knapdale as the ancestors of the Lamonts, MacEwens of Otter, Maclachlans, and the MacSweens. While the clan is centred in Barra in the Outer Hebrides, there is a branch of the clan in Argyll that some historians have speculated was more senior in line, or possibly even unrelated. However, according to Scots law the current chief of Clan Macneil is the chief of all MacNeil(l)s. History Origins MacNeils of Barra The MacNeils of Barra claim to be descendants of Anrothan, an 11th century Irish prince who emigrated to Scotland. Through Anrothan the MacNeils of Barra claim to descend from the legendary Niall of the Nine Hostages. This MacNeil claim however relies solely on oral tradition, and incredibly on the authority of two crofters on Barra at the turn of the 20th century. Anrothan is claimed as ancestor of several clans in the Argyll vicinity: Clan Lamont, Clan Maclachlan, Clan MacEwen of Otter, and also the Irish Sweeneys (MacSween). If the MacNeils are indeed connected to Anrothan, then they appear to have been a junior branch of the family and were certainly overshadowed in thr 13th century by the MacSweens, Lamonts and descendants of Gilchrist. An opposing theory, proposed by Nicholas Maclean Bristol, is that there is reason to believe that they descend from Neill Maclean who appears Exchequer Rolls at a time when Tarbert Castle was being rebuilt by Robert the Bruce. The earliest contemporary record of the Macneils of Barra is only in 1427, when Gilleonan Macneil received a charter of Barra and Boisdale. McNeills of Argyll (in Taynish, Gigha and Colonsay) Castle Sween located on the eastern shore of Loch Sween. The MacNeills of Taynish were keepers of the castle in the 15th and 16th centuries. The origin of the McNeills of Taynish, Gigha and Colonsay is also obscure. During the Middle Ages the McNeills held the island of Gigha on the coast of Knapdale, as well as Taynish on the mainland. The McNeills were hereditary keepers of Castle Sween under the lords of the isles during the 15th and 16th centuries. The McNeill of Gigha, Torkill McNeill, was known as the 'chief and principal of the clan and surname of Macnelis' in 1530. However, with the power of the Campbells growing and spreading out into the Inner Hebrides, the influence of the McNeills of Gigha decreased. At about this time the MacNeils on more remote island of Barra far, removed of Campbell power, began to grow in prominence and for a long time since have been regarded as Chief of the Clan and Name. Descending from this branch were the McNeills of Colonsay who obtained Colonsay in 1700 and owned it until 1904 when it was sold by John Carstairs McNeill. According to Moncreiffe, there is reason to believe that historically this branch were superior to the current chiefs of the Clan Macneil. There is even a school of thought that there is no relation at all between this branch of MacNeills to that of Barra. However, according to a 1962 decree by the Lord Lyon, the chiefs of MacNeil of Barra are chiefs of the whole name of MacNeil by Scots law. Early history According to Moncreiffe, probably sometime in the 14th century MacNeills gained several islands in the Outer Hebrides - Barra including Mingulay, and Boisdale in South Uist. Barra and South Uist were part of the vast possessions of the MacRauri kindred. By as late as 1373 these islands were held by Ranald, ancestor of the Macdonalds of Clanranald, through his mother who was a MacRauri heiress. The coat of arms of the MacNeils of Barra display the Black Galley which likely descended to the MacNeils through a female descendant of the MacRauris. The personal name Rauri, which is a common given name to the MacNeils of Barra, likely passed to the MacNeils this way. In 1409 the first record of the name Rauri among the MacNeils appears. According to Moncrieffe, his son Gilleonan MacRauri was remembered in Barra tradition as descending from 'thiry-three Ruaris' who had held the island before him. In 1427 Gilleonan received a charter for Barra and Boisdale from the Lord of the Isles. This charter implies that Gilleonan's right to these lands was through his mother (daughter of Fearchar Maclean) and according to Moncrieffe this implies that her mother was a MacRauri heiress (descended from Rauri, son of Ranald, King of the Isles 1164-1207). In 1495 Macneil of Barra received a Crown charter for Barra and other lands. In 1579 the Bishop of Isles complained of being harassed by Gilleonan Macneil of Barra. In 1688 Black Rauri Macneil of Barra (Ruaridh Dhu) received a Crown charter from James VII. During the Glorious Revolution Black Rauri supported the Jacobite king, and led his clansmen in the Battle of Killiecrankie. Later in the Jacobite Rising of 1715 he again raised his clan in support of the Stuarts. Following the defeat of the Jacobites in 1746, Rauri's son Roderick was imprisoned in London until 1747. Modern Clan Macneil Kisimul Castle on Barra. Restoration of the castle began in 1938 and was completed in 1970. The 18th and 19th century saw severe hardship to Clan Macneil clansfolk. During this era there was mass emigration from Barra to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. During the chiefship of Colonel Roderick (c.1755-1822) Barra suffered its first mass emigrations, ironically the chief described himself as a melieuratier (an 'improver'). One mass exodus of Barra folk was led by Gilleonan, elder son of the chief. This consisted of 370 Catholic Barra folk (about 75 families in total) who emigrated in August to Pictou, Nova Scotia. In 1838 after going broke, Colonel Roderick's son and heir, Lieutenant General Roderick Macneil of Barra, sold Barra to Colonel Gordon of Cluny. When Roderick died in 1863 the chiefship passed to a cousin (descendant of Gilleonan) who had emigrated during the mass emigrations to Canada in 1802. Robert Lister Macneil, was born in 1889. An American citizen and a trained architect, he succeeded the chiefship of Clan Macneil in 1915. In 1937 he was able to purchase Barra and the ruinous Kisimul Castle largely using the money from his second wife. Immediately he began work restoring the castle, aided in part by funds from a British Government grant. By his death in 1970 he had completed the restoration of the castle - ancient seat of the chiefs of the clan. In 2001 the castle was leased to Historic Scotland for one thousand years at the rent of £1 per year and a bottle of Talisker whisky. In October 2004 the chief handed over 3,600 hectares, comprising of almost all of his estate on Barra to Scottish Ministers. The current chief of Clan MacNeil is Ian Roderick Macneil of Barra, The Macneil of Barra, Chief of Clan Niall and 26th of Barra, also Baron of Barra. The chief is a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. The current chief, while an United States citizen, lives in Edinburgh, Scotland. Clan symbols A crest badge suitable for wear by a member of Clan MacNeil. Macneil of Barra tartan. Has been the standard Macneil tartan for over a century. Macneil of Colonsay tartan. One of the two offical clan tartans of Clan Macneil. Crest badges and clan badge Modern clan members, who wish to show their to a particular clan and chief can wear a crest badge. Scottish crest badges usually contain the heraldic crest and heraldic motto of the chief of the clan. While clan members are may wear the badge, the crest and motto within it are the heraldic property of the chief alone. A crest badge suitable for a clan member of Clan MacNeil contains the crest: on a chapeau Gules furred ermine, a rock Proper. The motto upon the badge is: BUAIDH NO BAS (translation from Scottish Gaelic: 'To conquer or die' or 'Victory or death'). Though not a clan in its own right, MacNeil(l)s who consider themselves of the Colonsay 'branch' have used the following crest badge distinguish themselves from the Barra 'branch'. This crest badge contains the crest: an armoured dexter arm with dagger; and the motto: VINCERE AUT MORI (translation from Latin: 'Conquer or die'). Another symbol used by clan members is a clan badge, or sometimes called a plant badge. The original clan badges were merely plants worn in bonnets or hung from a pole or spear. Today, the clan badge attributed to Clan MacNeil is dryas. Trefoil has also been attributed to the clan, however this clan badge may actually be attributed to the McNeills of Gigha, a branch of Clan MacNeil. Trefoil has also been attributed to the Lamonts, another clan in Argyl. The Lamonts and MacNeils/McNeills both claim descent from the same O'Neill who settled in Scotland in the Middle Ages. Tartan There have been several tartans associated with the name MacNeil / MacNeill. However, in 1997 the chief of Clan Macneil directed members of the clan that there were only two tartans that he recognised as 'clan tartans'. These were: Macneil of Barra and Macneil of Colonsay. In 1997 the Macneil of Barra tartan has been the standard Macneil of Barra tartan for over a century. Chiefs of Clan MacNeil MacNeil tartan, as published in the Vestiarium Scoticum in 1842. The tartan is not recognised as a 'clan tartan' by the current chief. Crest badge appropriate for a clan member of Clan MacNeill of Gigha and Colonsay. The chiefs of Clan MacNeil, are reckoned from Niall Noigíallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages), from whom all the MacNeil chiefs claim descent. The clan claims Niall Noigíallach as its first chief, while the current chief is reckoned as the 46th chief. # Name Note Year of death 1 Niall Noigíallach (Niall of the Nine Hostages) High King of Ireland also a member of the Connachta dynasty and ancestor of the Uí Néill dynastic family 405 2 Eógan mac Néill King of Aileach and Prince of Ulster, also the ancestor of the Cenél nEógain dynasty and their septs (O'Neill, O'Docherty, O'Boyle, MacNeill, etc.) 465 3 Muiredach mac Eógain King of Aileach and Prince of Ulster 480 4 Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland in 487, King of Aileach 5 Domnall mac Muirchertaig High King of Ireland in 559, King of Aileach 561 6 Áed Uaridnach High King of Ireland 599, King of Aileach 607 7 Máel Fithrich mac Áedo) King of Aileach, Prince of Ulster 626-630 8 Máel Dúin mac Máele Fithrich King of Aileach, Prince of Ulster 706 9 Fergal mac Máele Dúin High King of Ireland 709, King of Aileach 718 10 Niall Frossach High King of Ireland 759, King of Aileach 773 11 Áed Oirdnide mac Néill High King of Ireland 793, King of Aileach 818 12 Niall Caille mac Áeda High King of Ireland 832, King of Aileach and Ulster 845 13 Aed Finliath High King of Ireland 861, King of Aileach and Ulster 878 14 Niall Glúndub High King of Ireland 878, King of Aileach and Ulster 916 15 Muirceartach na Cochall Croiceann (Muirchertach mac Néill) High King of Ireland 937, King of Aileach and Ulster 943 16 Domnall ua Néill High King of Ireland 954, King of Aileach and Ulster 978 17 Muirceartach na Midhe Prince of Ulster and Tyrone 975 18 Flathartach an Trostain King of Aileach and Ulster and Prince of Tyrone 19 Aodh Athlamh King of Aileach and Ulster and Prince of Tyrone 20 Aodh Aonrachan King of Aileach, Prince of Aileach and Argyll, resigned kingship to brother Domhnall in 1033 21 Niall of the Castle Prince of Argyll and the Norse Council of the Isles. Began construction of Kisimul Castle 22 Aodh Prince of the Norse Council of the Isles 23 Donald Prince of the Norse Council of the Isles 24 Muirceartach Prince of the Norse Council of the Isles 25 Niall Prince of the Norse Council of the Isles 26 Niall Og 27 Muirceartach 28 Roderick 29 Gilleonan 30 Roderick 31 Gilleonan 32 Gilleonan 33 Gilleonan 34 Roderick Og 35 Roderick the Turbulent 36 Niall Og 37 Gilleonan 38 Roderick Dhu Baron of Barra 39 Roderick 'Dove of the West' Baron of Barra 1763 40 Roderick 'The Gentle' Baron of Barra 1822 41 Roderick 'The General' Baron of Barra, lost the Barony and Estate of Barra in 1838 1863 42 Donald McGougan 1880 43 Iain 1893 44 Roderick Ambrose 1914 45 Robert Lister Baron of Barra 46 Ian Roderick

MacPherson

Origins of the Name The name Macpherson ' or MacPherson or McPherson, according to different spellings ' comes from the Gaelic Mac a' Phearsain and means 'Son of the Parson'. The Parson in question was Muriach, a 12th century parson, or lay preacher, of Kingussie in Badenoch. Historically, the term 'parson' (in the Gaelic pearsain or pears-eaglais literally 'person of the church') had a different meaning. Before the Reformation in Highland Scotland, the religious leader of a parish was the priest and the parson was the steward of church property, responsible for the collection of tithes. Origins of the Clan The history of Clan Macpherson has been called 'The Posterity of the Three Brethren' as the three grandsons of Muriach are the antecedents of the three main clan families, Cluny, Pitmain and Invereshie. For many centuries, the Macphersons have been a leading clan in the Clan Chattan Confederation along with Clan MacKintosh, Clan Shaw and others. Although the Macphersons have a strong claim to the Chattan lineage, they have been unsuccessful in wresting control of the Clan Chattan from the MacKintosh. Today, the clans cooperate closely in the Clan Chattan Association, where John MacKintosh, chief of Clan MacKintosh, is president and Sir William Macpherson, chief of Clan Macpherson, is vice president of the association along with allied clan chiefs. 14th Century Clan Conflicts In the 14th century that Macphersons were partly responsible for the defeat of Clan Comyn, the enemies of Robert I of Scotland, at Badenoch. Battle of Invernahoven 1370 or 1387. The Clan Cameron numbering approximately 400 men were returning home with the treasures they had acquired after a raid at Badenoch. They were overtaken at Invernahavon by a body of Chattan Confederation led by Lachlan, Laird of Clan MacKintosh. The Chattan Confederation forces consisted of the Mackintoshes, Davidsons and Macphersons. As a result of a disagreement as to whether the Davidsons or Macphersons would occupy the right wing which was the post of honour, the Macphersons withdrew in disgust from the army. The combined numbers of the Clan Chattan confederation had outnumbered the Camerons but with the loss of the Macphersons the Camerons now had a greater number. The battle resulted in a defeat for the Clan Chattan confederation (Mackintosh and Davidson). It is said that an ally of Cameron known as Charles MacGilony led the clan into battle and is believed to have changed the outcome of the day with his uncanny ability as an archer. At this point, possibly the next morning the Macphersons changed their minds and decided to rejoin the Chatton confederation attacking the Camerons with such vigor that they changed the victory into defeat, and put the Camerons 'to flight' towards Drumouchter, skirting the end of Loch Ericht, and then westwards in the direction of the River Treig. The Mackintoshes later claimed that the Macphersons were coaxed into the battle by a man from clan Mackintosh who turned up at Macphersons camp pretending to be from Clan Cameron and calling the Macphersons cowards. The Macphersons then attacked the Camerons' camp making a dreadful slaughter of them, even killing the Camerons' uncanny archer Charles MacGilony at a place now called Charles's Valley, or in Gailic Coire Thearlaich. 18th Century Jacobite Uprisings At the beginning of the 1745 Jacobite Rising, the Clan Macpherson chief commanded a company of his clan in the services of the British government. However a party of Camerons, commanded by Dr. Cameron, was sent to the house of Macpherson of Cluny, the chief of the Macphersons. They were there to apprehend him, and succeeded. The Macphersons then joined the Jacobites. The chief of the clan, Ewan of Cluny, raised a force of 400 men to aid Charles Edward Stuart. The Macphersons played an active role at the beginning of the rebellion and even fought at the Clifton Moor Skirmish in 1745. However Charles was urged to wait for Cluny, who was engaged in operation in Atholl, before the Battle of Culloden. He did not and the men of Macpherson took no part in the famous defeat at Culloden. The regiment was disbanded and Ewan went into hiding. A reward of 1000 pounds was placed on his head, but he was never captured in the nine years he spent in hiding. In 1755 he fled to France. During his time in hiding, his wife, Janet, gave birth to their son. The child was born in a corn kiln, earning him the nickname 'Duncan of the Kiln'. During his time hiding in and around the clan seat at Laggan, Macpherson had many hiding places made for him. One of these was Cluny's Cage, which featured in 'Kidnapped' by Robert Louis Stevenson, a heather hut on the slopes of Ben Alder. In another story Cluny was staying at Dalchully House in a bolt hole in the East wing when he was caught outside by Colonel Munro, the very man charged with searching for him. Since the two men had never met, Cluny calmly held the Colonel's horse whilst the soldier went inside the house. It is claimed that he was given a penny for his trouble. Another of the famous hiding places is Cluny's Cave high on the crags of Craig Dubh between Newtonmore and Laggan. This cave is no longer accessible without expert assistance. Every year in August, clan Macpherson holds a family gathering, during which a ceremonial run to the top of Craig Dubh and back takes place. Clan Castles Cluny Castle was the seat of the Chief of Clan Macpherson until the 1930s. Ballindalloch Castle has been owned by the Macpherson-Grants since the middle of the 16th century. Clan Profile Gaelic Name: The Gaelic name for Macpherson is 'Clann Mhuirich' - Children of Murdoch. Crest: Plant Badge: White Heather Motto: Touch not the catt bot a glove. 'Bot' means without. The 'glove' of a wildcat is the pad. If the cat is 'ungloved', its claws are unsheathed. The motto serves as a warning that one should beware when the wildcat's claws are 'without a glove'. It is a reference to the historically violent nature of the clan and serves as a metaphorical warning to other that they should think twice before interfering with Macpherson business. Clan Tartans There are 17 tartans ascribed to Clan Macpherson. The most common are the red, hunting and dress tartans. Clan Cousins & Associated Families Allison Archibald Cattanach Carson Chlerich Clark Clarke Clarkson Clerk Clooney Clunie Cluney Cluny Currie Currier Curry Ellis Ellison Ferson Gillespie Gillies Gillis Gilley Goudey Goudie Gow Gowan Keith Leary Lees MacCarson MacChlery MacClair MacCleary MacCleish MacClerich MacClooney MacCloonie MacCluney MacClunie MacCluny MacCurrach MacCurrie MacCurry MacGillies MacGouen MacGoun MacGow MacGowen MacKeith MacLear MacLeary MacLees MacLeish MacLerie MacLierich MacLise MacLory MacMurdo MacMurdoch MacMurdock MacMurich MacVail MacVurich MacVurrich Murdaugh Murdo Murdoch Murdock Murdoson Murtagh Pearson Person Smith Wright Clan Macpherson Today Approximate numbers in various countries: Unknown Prominent members: The 27th and current Chief of the Clan is Sir William Macpherson of Cluny Macpherson, retired High court judge, and author of the Macpherson report into the racially motivated killing of Stephen Lawrence. Model Elle Macpherson is a member of the clan despite being a Macpherson only by adoption, since she was born a Gow, one of the associated families. Jack White of the White Stripes and the Raconteurs has sported the MacPherson kilt and said in an interview that he is from the clan MacPherson. Jack White's original last name is Gillis. Ancestral lands: The ancestral lands of the Clan are in Badenoch, in the Scottish Highlands. They centre on the area around Cluny Castle, which was the seat of the clan chief until 1932. The current chief resides at Newton Castle, Blairgowrie which was purchased by his family in 1789. Clan association: Clan Macpherson has a very active clan association, with 2500 members in many countries of the world. It publishes an annual newsletter, Creag Dhubh, operates the Clan Macpherson House and Museum at Newtonmore in the heart of clan territory, and organises the annual clan gathering at Kingussie and Newtonmore. Members participate in activities worldwide, including Highland Games in Scotland, Australia, Canada and the United States. The chairman of the Clan Macpherson Association is William MacPherson of Seattle, Washington-USA.

MacQuarrie

Clan MacQuarrie is a Highland Scottish clan, associated with the islands of Ulva, Staffa and the Isle of Mull, which are all located in the Scottish Inner Hebrides. The last chief of Clan MacQuarrie died in 1818 and since the clan does not have a current Chief recognized by Lord Lyon it can be viewed as an Armigerous clan. The family papers of the clan were lost to a fire in 1688, and consequently much of early clan tradition that exists is considered suspect. According to the nineteenth century historian William F. Skene, Clan MacQuarrie is one of the seven clans of Siol Alpin, as the manuscript of 1450 gives the clan's descent from Guaire or Godrey, brother of Fingon (supposed ancestor of Clan MacKinnon) and Anrias (supposed ancestor of Clan Gregor). The clans of Siol Alpin claim a descent from Alpín, the father of Cináed mac Ailpín of whom popular tradition describes as the first King of Scots. History A proposed descent of the seven clans of Siol Alpin. Clan MacQuarrie is first found in possession of the island of Ulva in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, and as a result was dependent on the Lords of the Isles. The first record of Clan MacQuarrie is of the chief John Macquarrie of Ulva, who died in 1473. John's son, Dunslaff, was the chief of the clan during the forfeiture of the Lord of the Isles, after which the MacQuarries gained some independence, though a minor clan surrounded by more powerful ones. Following the fall of the Lordshop of the Isles the clan followed Maclean of Dowart, and with the Macleans, the MacQuarries supported Domhnall Dubh's quest for the Lordship of the Isles at the beginning of the sixteenth century. In 1504 MacGorry of Ullowaa, along with other chiefs, was summoned to answer for aiding in Donald Dubh's failed rebellion. The following chief, Dunslaff's son John, was one of the chiefs denounced in 1504, for treasonous correspondence with the King of England. The clan suffered greviously at the Battle of Inverkeithing on July 20, 1651, as they supported the Scots forces in aid of Charles II of England against an English Parliamentarian army led by John Lambert. In the battle the Scots were decisively defeated by the well disciplined New Model Army of the English, and amongst the slain was Allan Macquarrie of Ulva, chief of Clan MacQuarrie, and most of his followers. The last chief of Clan MacQuarrie, was Lachlan Macquarrie of Ulva. MacQuarrie was head of the clan when Samuel Johnson and James Boswell visited Ulva in 1773. Debts to creditors forced the last chief to sell off his lands and in 1778, at the age of 63, he joined the British Army. The chief then served in the American Revolutionary War, and died at the age of 103 in 1818, with the title Lord Lynedoch. Clan profile The MacQuarrie tartan. Today this is the most common MacQuarrie tartan, and it is very similar to the 'MacDonald of the Isles' tartan. Crest badge: Out of an antique crown, An arm in armour embowed, grasping a dagger, all proper. Motto: Turris fortis mihi Deus, (translation from Latin: God is to me a tower of strength). Slogan: An t'arm breac dearg, (translation from Scottish Gaelic: The red tartaned army). Clan badge: pine. Origin of Name: MacQuarrie is an Anglicisation of the Gaelic Mac Guaire, a patronymic version of the Gaelic name meaning 'proud' or 'noble'.

MacQueen

Origin The surname MacQueen is an Anglicization of Mac Shuibhne (Gaelic), meaning son of Shuibhne. Suibhne was a Gaelic byname meaning 'pleasant'. Suibhne could also be used as a Gaelic equivalent of the Old Norse byname Sveinn, meaning 'boy' or 'servant'. History A group of MacQueens were thought to have provided an escort for a marriage between an heiress of Clan Ranald and a chief of Clan MacKintosh. After the marriage many of the MacQueens settled in the Findhorn Valley, and were known as Clan Revan. By the sixteenth century this group had possession of lands in Corrybrough. On the 4th April 1609, Donald Macqueen of Corrybrough signed the bond of manrent, with the chiefs of the other tribes composing the Clan Chattan, whereby they bound themselves to support Angus Mackintosh of that ilk as their captain and leader. There were numerous MacQueens on Skye and Lewis, another branch of MacQueens held lands at Castle Sween in Argyll. Starting in about the eighteenth century the clan's fortune begain to fail and many MacQueens were forced emigrated to overseas, ultimately even the chief was thought to have emigrated to New Zealand. Their crest is that of a wolf rampant and their motto is 'constant and faithful'. Clan Profile Gaelic Name: MacShuibne Moto: Constant and Faithful. Badge: Boxwood. Lands: Skye, Lewis, Argyll and Lanarkshire At this moment in time, the MacQueen clan is known as an 'armigerous' clan. There is no record of a clan chief in the Lord Lyon records, there is however, a possibilty of a future clan chief, this of course is subject to Her Majesty's Lord Lyon. The likely clan cheif is Andrew William MacQueen of that Ilk, who resides in the City of Dundee. Tartan The MacQueen tartan was first recorded, in 1842, in the book Vestiarium Scoticum authored by the dubious 'Sobieski Stuarts', under Clan Revan, named after Revan Macmulmor MacAngus MacQueen. The MacQueen tartan is a reverse of the MacKeane tartan, possibly because of the two similar sounding names, even though both names have a different history. The 'Sobieski Stuarts', who claimed to be descendants of Bonnie Prince Charlie, maintained Vestiarium Scoticum was a reproduction of a sixteenth century manuscript, though they never provided their sources. The claims of the 'Sobieski Stuarts' were attacked and have been proved to be a forgery. Septs Septs of Clan MacQueen include: MacCunn MacSwan MacSwain MacSwen

Macrae

Origins Loch Duich and Eilean Donan castle, seat of the Clan MacRae The name MacRae or Macrae began by being given to individual men in various places who were thought to be endowed with an unusual gift of sanctity and grace. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries it was used as the personal name of lords, poets and mostly, ecclesiastics. The earliest traditions point towards an Irish origin of the Clan. During the Scottish-Norwegian War the Clan MacRae fought for King Alexander III of Scotland at the Battle of Largs in 1263 against the Norse Viking army of King Haakon IV of Norway. The Norwegians were defeated and driven out of Scotland. 14th century The first known home of a MacRath in Scotland was at Clunes in the Beauly District on the lands of Bissett, Lord Lovat, sometime during the last half of the 13th century. According to tradition, his name was Maurice and he had four sons. The Bissetts lost control of Lovat sometime between 1305 and 1333, when with no male heirs, their daughter Mary married a Fraser and he became Lord Lovat. Mary and at least two succeeding generations of Fraser children were fostered (raised) in a MacRath home, and they developed such warm feelings for their foster family that the Frasers inscribed over the door at Beaufort Castle in Beauly the following: "Fhad 'sa bhitheas Frisealach a stigh, na bitheadh MacRath a muigh" (As long as a Fraser lives within, let not a MacRath remain without.) Eilean Donan castle and some surroundings At some point for reasons unclear, the sons of Maurice left Clunes. One son, Ian, went to Kintail on the West coast of the Highlands where he was connected with the Mackenzies, who were just getting a foothold in the west having recently acquired Eilean Donan Castle. Ian established a family which became one of the chief families of Kintail for approximately 200 years. The second MacRae to go to Kintail was invited by Murdoch, fourth chief of the Mackenzies. Other MacRaes likely migrated west to Kintail in succeeding years. However the founder of Clan MacRae was Fionnla Dubh Mac Gillechriosd (Black Finlay, the son of Christopher.) His courage and wise counsel in a time of crisis led Alexander, the Mackenzie Chief, to greatly increase his power and that of the Kintail MacRaes. The MacRaes were expert marksmen who served as archers and warriors for the Mackenzie forces first in Kintail and also in Gairloch. They were the official bodyguards of the Mackenzies who were themselves the official bodyguards of the King. They became famous as the Mackenzies' "shirt of mail." There was a bond of trust and affection between the MacRaes, Mackenzies and MacLeans perhaps initially because the three clans were of common ancestry. During the ascent of the Mackenzies in the west, this bond between the MacRaes and the Mackenzies was cemented by the loyalty and distinguished service of the MacRaes who were instrumental in the Mackenzies' acquisition of land and title. Mackenzie Chiefs became Barons, then eventually Lords and Earls of Seaforth. In return, Mackenzie chiefs repeatedly appointed MacRaes to be Constables of Eilean Donan Castle. MacRaes also served as counselors to the chiefs, tutors of the chiefs' sons, Chamberlains of Kintail and ministers of the local churches. There were also poets, physicians and musicians among the MacRaes. But the times and circumstances dictated that they would be most known for their prowess in combat. Two often quoted sayings were: "Little wat ye wha's comin' A' the wild MacRas are comin" and "Of a' the Heilan'Clans, MacNab is most ferocious, except the MacIntyres, the MacRas and the Mackintoshes." 17th century & Civil War The Rev. Farquhar MacRae, born in 1580, Constable of Eilandonan, was both an energetic churchman and a great Latin scholar. On his first visit to the island of Lewis he is said to have baptised all the inhabitants under forty years of age, no clergyman having resided on the island during that period. His second son, John MacRae, who became minister of Dingwall in 1640 and died in 1704, During the Civil War the Clan MacRae supported the Royalist cause and fought on the side of James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose where they were victorious at the Battle of Auldearn in May 1645. Rev. Farquhar MacRae's grandson, Duncan Macrae of Inverinate was the compiler of the famous Fernaig manuscript 1688-93. However due to his marriage to one of the daughters of John Macleod of the island of Raasay, he was deprived of his inheritance. 18th century & Jacobite Uprisings The Jacobite Rebellion of 1715 was a disastrous event for the MacRaes. The crucial battle was the Battle of Sheriffmuir, near Stirling. The MacRaes formed the left flank and were left unprotected when the Jacobite cavalry was moved by error across to the right. The Highland foot (Macraes) were charged by the Government cavalry, fell back and rallied again and again, up to twelve times. Of the 232 Jacobite casualties suffered in the battle, 60 were killed and 58 of those were MacRaes. Among those killed was Duncan MacRae. In 1720 a force of men from the Clan Ross, led by chief William Ross 6th of the Pitcalnie line and his brother Robert went on a rent collecting expedition into the lands of the MacKenzies. They were confronted by a force of 300 men from the Clan MacKenzie and Clan MacRae, led by a Colonel Donald Murchison. The Rosses were outnumbered and after a short battle some discussion took place between the two sides and the Rosses withdrew realising that further resistance was useless. The next day chief William Ross died of his wounds. His nephew William, son of Robert Ross was also wounded but survived. Although the Clan Macrae was not out in the '45, many of the Macraes took part in the rising and in fact their reputation as warriors continued over the generations and earned them the title 'the wild MacRaes'. Although the Clan MacRae and Clan MacKenzie are known to have largely supported the Jacobites under their clan chiefs, later some took the side of the British government as part of the Independent Companies under Captain Colin MacKenzie. It is recorded that the MacKenzie Company was at Shiramore in Badenoch in June 1746 and it included over sixty MacRaes. Duncan MacRae Great War Highlands Monument Clan MacRae As a young man he was known for both his superior strength and his tender heart. During the battle he killed at least seven men with his claymore before he was shot down by an English trooper. His claymore was exhibited for many years in the Tower of London as "The great Highlander's sword." Another MacRae killed at Sheriffmuir was John of Conchra. Distinguished in battle and esteemed in the Highlands, he was one of the "Four Johns of Scotland." Four years later in the battle of Glenshiel, Eilean Donan Castle was blown up from the inside by Government forces following the surrender of the castle by garrisoned Spanish defenders. It remained in ruins for 200 years. The Jacobite wars ended with a catastrophic defeat at the Battle of Culloden on Culloden Moor in 1746. Afterwards, the people living on the lands of the Earl of Seaforth who had been the richest in the Highlands became impoverished as harsh reprisals were enforced against them. In the process, the clan system was crushed. Highlanders emigrated to places such as Canada, America, Australia and New Zealand. Clan MacRae became the "Scattered children of Kintail." Among those who remained in Scotland was Lt.-Col. John MacRae- Gilstrap, a direct descendant of the founder of Clan MacRae, Fionnia Dubh Mac Gillechriosd. He purchased the castle ruins and rebuilt it from 1912-1932. Its beauty plus its spectacular setting has made it the most photographed castle in Great Britain and it draws many visitors every year. Clan castle and seat Clachan Duich Highland Church in ruins and burial ground of Clan MacRae The seat of the Clan MacRae is currently Eilean Donan Castle, located on Loch Duich. The castle was formerly the stronghold of the MacKenzie Chiefs. Clan profile Origin of the name The surname Macrae (and its variations) is an Anglicisation of the patronymic from the Gaelic personal name Macraith. This personal name meant 'son of grace'. Clan symbolism Sgurr Fhuaran seen from Sgurr na Ciste Dhuibhe. Today, members of Scottish clans have several different ways of showing their allegiance to their clan. Crest badges, clan badges, and clan tartans are all means of identifying clans and their members. Crest badges are worn by clan members usually on a bonnet or upon the chest. A crest badge usually contains the clan chief's heraldic motto and heraldic crest, however Clan Macrae does not have a clan chief. The crest badge suitable to be worn by a member of Clan Macrae conatins the crest: A cubit arm grasping a sword all Proper. The motto which circles the crest is: FORTITUDINE, which is Latin and means 'with fortitude'. Clan badges (sometimes called plant badges) are often attributed to clans. These are actually plants, of which sprigs of are worn upon a bonnet or upon the chest, like a badge. The clan badge of Clan Macrae is club moss. Club moss is sometimes referred to as staghorn grass, and may refer to the Mackenzie chiefly arms, or at least the Macrae's close association with the Mackenzies. Slogans are sometimes attributed to clans, and/or are used in Scottish heraldry by clan chiefs as a second motto. Slogans represent war cry of the clan. Sometimes they refer to a prominent rallying point in the clan's traditional lands. The slogan attributed to Clan Macrae is Sgurr Uaran. It refers to Sgurr Fhuaran, a mountain in the Kintail area, near Loch Duich. This mountain is one of the 'Five Sisters of Kintail'.

MacTavish

History Origins of the Clan The Gaelic name for the Clan was MacTamhais (pronounced MacTavis or MacTavish - the 'mh' in Gaelic pronounced as the 'v' in the word very). In old charters, the name had many variant spellings. Some spellings found within old charters, post-Culloden parish registers, and in The Commons Argyll appear as MacAvis, MacCamis, McCawis,McKavis, McKnavis, M'Ash, MacAnish, mcTais, MacTavifh and mcThavish, to give but a few. It seems that from near the end of the 1600's, the spellings, MacTavish and/or Thom(p)son or Thomas were the most common. Variations in surname spelling within one document are often seen for the same person. Dating back to the early 12th century (circa 1100-1110), 'Clan MacTavish' (Clan Tavish) begin with the birth of Taus Coir to the daughter of Suibhne Ruadh (Sween the Red of Castle Sween) and Colin Mael Maith (Clan MacDuine). The line that Taus was born into was an illustrious one, with the family of Suibhne descending from the Kings of Ireland and Scotland; and Colin Mael Maith being of Clan MacDuine and a close friend and follower of Alexander I of Scotland. From Taus Coir, descended the families of MacTavish of Dun-ArdRigh (meaning fort or castle of the High King) in Knapdale. A Timothy Pont 1634 map marks the castellated building of Dunardry. Anyone traveling by the Crinan Canal and passing through Dunardry Lock is within a short distance of the site on which this castellated building stood. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars In the 16th century during the Anglo-Scottish Wars the Clan MacTavish fought at the Battle of Flodden Field, 9th September 1513, the Scots Army faced the English, and many of Scotland's Nobles and Chiefs lost their lives with King James IV. Chief Ewin MacCawes (MacTavish) was on of those. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings In 1715 the Jacobite cause saw its first failed attempt to place the Stuarts back on the throne of Scotland and England. During this time Chief Archibald MacTavish was sympathetic to the Jacobite cause but took no action to support either the Government or the Joacobites. Due to the fact that Dugald, the Younger, was imprisoned at in September of 1745 and that the Chief (Archibald) was quite elderly, during the 1745 Jacobite Rising, some of the MacTavishes fought within the ranks of their neighbor, MacIntosh. On 16 April 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, the Jacobite army was defeated by a much larger force of the British government army (5000 fighting for Prince Charles and 9000 fighting for the government). On that day, the Jacobite army of Prince Charles lost the battle, and the fate of the Jacobite cause was sealed. The Highland Clearances Unfortunately, after Culloden, some Jacobite Highland Chiefs treated their own clansmen very badly transporting their Clan members off their land and, indeed, from their country. This was the period known as the Highland Clearances. The MacTavish Chiefly line, still seated in Dunardarie with their clansmen, were not involved in the 'clearing' of their own kin, and no MacTavishes were put off the lands. After Culloden, a few of the MacTavish started to use the Thom(p)son spelling. The Chiefly line of MacTavish, however, retained the name MacTavish and remained seated at Dunardry. Parish registers and family groups of gravestones in Argyll express the transition of the name from MacTavish to Thomson or Thompson. Post Clan Activity Dugald's son and Heir, Lachlan MacTavish succeeded his father in 1775. By 1785, Lachlan was forced to sell Dunardry at public auction on the 31st December, as he fell into financial difficulites, partly due to the building of the Crinan Canal, which split the MacTavish lands in half. By this time, the Act of Proscription 1746 had taken away all the powers of the Chiefs except that of Landlord. The Canal had lasting effects for Scotland, and against the MacTavishes, who fell on harder times because the canal affected their ability to collect rents, as it separated their tenants from their farms and cattle. Lachlan, his wife and son, Dugald, who was three years old, moved to Edinburgh where Lachlan was installed as Governor of Taxes for the Crown, living at St. James' Court. In 1797 Dunardry was purchased by Simon McTavish of Montreal, from Stratherrick, Invernesshire. Simon McTavish was born of the Garthbeg branch of the family and at this time was probably the richest man in North America. The Stratherrick McTavishes are considered a sept of Clan Fraser. 20th Century Back in the 18th century Lachlan's son, Dugald, under age in 1796, did not register the MacTavish arms; and as a grown man, with his duties as the Sheriff Substitute of Kintyre he obviously did not feel inclined to do so,. as he was, already, legally known as MacTavish of Dunardry. He died without having re-registered the Arms. Unfortunately, this carried on with his son William who had moved to the 'wilds' of Canada. William also declined to register the Arms. It is nominally suggested by Lord Lyon that at least every other generation re-register the Chiefly Arms, to avoid dormany of the Clan. As a result of William not matriculating for the arms, the Chiefly line was 'lost' until 1949, when the Lord Lyon, Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, contacted the MacTavish family in Canada, advising them that they were the long, lost Chiefly line, inviting them to petition for the Arms and Chiefship of the Clan. The Clan Today Clan MacTavish experienced a dormancy of 200 years when Lachlan MacTavish was the last Chief to register at that time. The dormancy ended in 1997 when Edward Stewart Dugald MacTavish of Dunardry matriculated. His son, Steven Edward Dugald MacTavish of Dunardry is the current Chief of Clan MacTavish. William's great grandson, Edward Stewart Dugald MacTavish of Dunardry, was matriculated by the Court of the Lord Lyon 23 July 1997 and granted the Arms and Title of Chief of the Clan MacTavish of Dunardry, and was the 26th Chief of the Clan in an unbroken line. He died on 19 June 2005 at his home in Vancouver, BC. He is succeeded by his son and heir, the 27th Chief, Steven Edward Dugald MacTavish of Dunardry, a member of the Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs. Clan Seat The Clan was seated at Dunardry, with those lands emcompassing the Dalriadic Kingdom of Dunadd. Scottish clans / Dal Riata Clan MacTavish Septs Cash, MacCash, MacCavish, MacLehose, MacSteaphain, MacTavish, MacThom, MacThomas, Stephen(son), Steven(son), Tais, Taws, Tawseon, Thom, Thomas, Thomason, Thompson, Thomson, Tod(d) and all variant spellings. (Source: 'Surnames of Scotland' by Professor George Black, 1866-1948, 12th Printing, 1999. 'The Clans, Septs and Regiments of the Scottish Highlands' by Frank Adams, 7th Edition revised by Sir Thomas Innes of Learney, Lord Lyon King of Arms).

MacThomas

Clan MacThomas is a Highland Scottish clan, associated with the Chattan Confederation. The clan traces its descent from a fifteenth century Thomaidh, who was the great-grandson of the 8th chief of the Clan Chattan MacKintoshes. The seat of the Clan MacThomas was at Finegand (Scottish Gaelic: Feith nan Ceann, meaning 'burn of the heads') in Glenshee. History Origins of the Clan From ancient times, the MacThomas families were originally a sept of the Chattan Confederation. However by the 15th century the Chattan Confederation had become too large to be effectively managed as a single clan. Consequently, Tomaidh Mor (Great Tommy), a greatgrandson of the 8th Chief of the Chattan Confederation, William MacKintosh, left the familial lands at Badenoch, which Chattan had recently wrested from Clan Comyn in the 15th century, with his kinsmen and followers, crossing the Grampians to settle in Glenshee. They flourished there, becoming an independent clan named 'MacTomaidh' after Great Tommy, though maintaining very close ties with the other clans stemming from Chattan. 16th Century In 1571 a charter confirmed John McComy-Muir the lands of Finegand, Glenshee where the 4th chief Robert McComie was murdered. The MacThomas were named as one of the 'broken' clans in the 16th late century. 17th Century, Clan Conflicts & Civil War The Clan MacThoms spent much of their time breeding cattle and fighting off those who tried to rustle them. One of these incidents in 1606 is remembered as the Battle of Cairnwell. A force of around 200 men from the Clan MacGregor and some Catarans made off with around 2,700 of the MacThomas's cattle. The MacThomas' eventually caught up with their enemies and defeated them but not before they had butchered most of the MacThomas's cattle out of pure spite. This caused much financial damage to the MacThomases with some of the clansmen being completely ruined. During the Civil War there were MacThomases on both sides. As a Reformed Presbyterian the 6th chief of Clan MacThomas acted as a Covenanter government agent. As the 7th chief, Iain Mor found abusive tax collectors who exploited the weak particularly repugnant. On one occasion when Iain Mor ran off collectors who were abusing a widow, the Earl of Atholl enlisted an Italian champion swordsman to assist his money gathering duties. The Earl did not count on the martial abilities of the MacThomas, and the unfortunate Italian met his end with the bite of Highland steel. When questionable parties took advantage of Covenanter legislation to seize land from their historic clan adversaries Iain Mor fought on the side of the Royalists under James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose at Dundee in 1644 where he dispatched the Covenanter cavalry commander Sir William Forbes in single combat. Iain Mor's tombstone bears a religious inscription that indicates a return to his Covenanter roots later in life. The Clan MacThomas were often involved in feuds with other clans, especially the Clan Farquharson. Of the six sons born from the clan MacThomas chief, both John and Robert, the eldest and fourth eldest respectively were killed in a skirmish at Drumgley on January 28th 1673. The feud was as a result of the MacThomases allowing their cattle to pasture on the Faquharson's land. After the skirmish the MacThomases were fined, there was a crippling lawsuit made against them. After the chiefs death which followed the remaining sons were forced to sell their lands. Clan profile 'Ancient' version of the MacThomas Tartan Motto and current chief Clan Motto: Deo juvante invidiam superabo (Latin) (With God's help, I will overcome envy). Clan Chief: Andrew MacThomas of Finegand, 19th Chief of Clan MacThomas. Associated names Associated names of Clan MacThomas, recognized by the Clan MacThomas Society: Combie. MacOmie. MacOmish. McColm. McComas. McComb(e). McCombie. McComie. McComish. Tam. Thom. Thoms. Thomas. Thomson. Note: Prefixes Mac and Mc are interchangeable. List of clan chiefs Chief Name Dates Notes 1st Thomas (Tomaidh Mor) 15th Century seated at the Thom, east bank of the Shee Water 2nd Unknown ? presumed to be Ane (Iain), father of Aye 3rd Aye (Adam) MacAne MacThomas ? Led a MacThomas party to aid Clan Chattan on 2 May, 1543 4th Robert McComie of the Thom ?-1600 murdered by cateran (cattle rustlers) in 1600 5th John McComie of Finegand 1600-1606 Robert's brother; moved seat to Finegand 6th Alexander McComie of Finegand 1606-1637 John's grandson; lands passed to Clan Farquharson in 1616 through marriage of Robert's daughter; a long feud and numerous battles restored the clan lands under John (below) 7th John McComie (Iain Mor) 1637-1674 Alexander's son; known as 'McComie Mor', greatly expanded territory and prestige of the clan; acquired lands and Barony of Forter in Glenisla (1651); rose to support Montrose in 1644 8th James McComie 1674-1676 3rd son of Iain Mor 9th Thomas McComie 1676-? 5th son of Iain Mor 10th Angus Thomas ? aka 'Mr. Angus' educated at St. Andrew University, Fife; 6th son of Iain Mor, anglicized surname, (dejure Chief) 11th Robert Thomas ?-1740 Large estate at Cullarnie, later moved to Belhelvie; son of Angus, (dejure) 12th David Thomas of Belhelvie 1740-1751 eldest son of Robert 13th Henry Thomas of Belhelvie 1751-1797 second son of Robert 14th William Thoms 1797-1843 eldest son of Henry, became a merchant in St. Andrews, further Anglicized surname, died with no children 15th Patrick Hunter MacThomas Thoms 1843-1870 son of George Thoms (a son of Henry and half-brother of William) 16th George Hunter MacThomas 1870-1903 son of Patrick; Sheriff of Caithness, Orkney and Shetland (bequethed his vast fortune and lands to St. Magnus Cathedral in Kirkwall 17th Unclaimed 1903-1967 with no estate, the title went unclaimed by any possible heirs 18th Patrick MacThomas of Finegand 1967-1970 great-grandnephew of Patrick, first chief known to be officially recognized by the Lyon Court since Thomas McComie in 1676 19th Andrew MacThomas of Finegand (MacThomaidh Mhor) 1970-date Current Chief, Retired Banker

Maitland

Origins of the Clan The name Maitland is of Norman origin and was originally spelt Mautalent, Matulant or Matalan, it translates as 'evil genius'. The Mautalents come from the village of Les Moitiers d'Allonne near Carteret in Normandy. The name is found to occur frequently in Northumberland during the 12th and 13th centuries. The first time it is found in Scotland was Thomas de Matulant who was of Anglo-Norman origin. He was the ancestor to this noble family in Lauderdale. Thomas flourished in the reign of William the Lion and died in 1288. During the reign of King Alexander III of Scotland, Thomas's grandson, Sir Richard Matulant was one of the most powerful Lowland magnates, owning the lands of Thirlestane, Blythe, Tollus and Hedderwick. Wars of Scottish Independence Sir Richard Matulant's son joined King Robert the Bruce on his ascension to the crown. He supported the Bruce at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, however he died in 1315. Sir Richard Maitland whose distinguished exploits during the Wars of Independence earned him a place in Gavin Douglas's The Palis of Honour. Two of his sons died when the Clan Maitland fought at the Battle of Durham also known as the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346. However his son John who was also the nephew of Sir Robert Keith, Great Marischal of Scotland and obtained a charter of lands of Thirlestane and Tollus. 15th Century Sir Robert Maitland was in charge of Dunbar Castle but surrendered it to the Earl of Mar on his return to Scotland. His son Robert Maitland was one of the hostages for King James I of Scotland on the liberation of England in 1424. 16th Century & Anglo-Scottish Wars Robert's descendant, William Maitland of Lethington was killed when he led the Maitland contingent at the Battle of Flodden Field during the Anglo-Scottish Wars of the 16th century. William's heir Sir Richard Maitland, was a man of extraordinary talent who was appointed a judge of the Court of Session and Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was also a distinguished poet and historian, and died in 1586 at the age of 90. William Maitland of Lethington was a conspicuous and distinguished politician of Queen Mary's reign. He accompanied her north into the Scottish Highlands against the formidable and powerful Earl of Huntly chief of Clan Gordon. William led his troops at the Battle of Corrichie in 1562 where the Earl of Huntly was killed. He even composed a prayer, which has been preserved, supplicating divine support and protection for the Royal forces in the day of battle. William continued in service to Queen Mary until her surrender to the insurgent nobles at the Battle of Carberry Hill, but after that incident he openly joined them and took part in all their councils and proceedings. He was also present at the Battle of Langside, which finally ruined Mary's cause in Scotland. Sir John Maitland was created the 1st Lord of Thirlestane and married the heiress of Lord Fleming. He was Lord High Chamberlain of Scotland in the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots and his son was created the first Earl of Lauderdale. His sister, Anne married Robert, Lord Seton son of the 1st Earl of Winton. Through frequent marriages with the families of Fleming and Clan Seton the Clan Maitland became loyal adherents to Mary Queen of Scots even when her fortunes were at their lowest. 17th Century & Civil War The secretary's only son, James, died without issue, and the estates passed to his brother, Sir John, first Baron Maitland. His only son was created first Earl of Lauderdale in 1616. He was President of the Council and a Lord of Session. Chief John Maitland the 2nd Earl of was a staunch Royalist supporter of King Charles II and was made Secretary of State, Lord High Commissioner and Governor of Edinburgh Castle. In 1674 he was also made 1st Duke of Lauderdale. In 1674 the 1st Earl of Guilford built Thirlestane Castle in Lauder. The earldom passed to his son, John, in 1645, when the fortunes of the family reached their zenith. He attended the Westminster Assembly of Presbyterian divines as a Scots commissioner in 1643. In 1647 he promoted the king's cause, and the Scots Parliament agreed to send an army into England on behalf of Charles in return for certain undertakings from him concerning the Church. Lauderdale was sent to Holland to persuade the Prince of Wales to join with the Scots. He fought alongside Charles at the Battle of Worcester in 1651, where he was captured, and he spent nine years in the Tower of London. After the Restoration, Lauderdale rose to become the most powerful man in Scotland, ruling virtually as viceroy. In 1672 he was created Duke of Lauderdale, but this title died with him. The duke employed Sir William Bruce to convert his castle at Thirlstane into a renaissance palace. The family earldom passed to his brother, Charles. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings 1715 Uprising Charles Maitland the sixth Earl was appointed General of the Mint, and at the general election he was chosen one of the sixteen representative peers. He supported the British Government and was against Jacobitism. He served as a volunteer, under the Duke of Argyll, and fought with great gallantry at the Battle of Sheriffmuir against the Jacobites in 1715. 1745 - 1746 Uprising Although the Jacobite leader Prince Charles Edward Stuart stayed at Thirlstane Castle and his army camped in the parklands after the victory at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745, the Maitland family were not noted Jacobites, and they escaped the forfeiture which ruined so many other families after the Forty-five. The estate and Castle of Lethington was acquired by Lord Blantyre in 1702, a gift from La Belle Stuart, Frances Stewart, Duchess of Richmond and Lennox. He renamed it as per her instructions, 'Lennox's Love to Blantyre', which was shortened over the years to Lennoxlove. Clan Maitland Today Today the Earls of Lauderdale are Hereditary Saltire Banner Bearers of Scotland. Clan Chief The current Chief of Clan Maitland is Patrick Maitland, 17th Earl of Lauderdale. Clan Castles Thirlestane Castle is the seat of the Chief of Clan Maitland. Tibber's Castle was bought by the Maitlands of Auchen in 1489. Lennoxlove House, previously Lethington was owned by the Maitlands until 1682. Clan Septs Spelling variations, names associated with the clan and septs of the Clan Maitland include: Lauderdale, Maitland, Maltland, Mateland, Matelande, Matheland, Matilland, Matillande, Matlain, Matland, Mauteland, Mautelande, Mautelent, Mautlent, Metellan, Metlan, Mettlin.

Makgill

Origins The name Makgill is said to derive from 'Mac a Ghoill', meaning 'son of the lowlander' or 'son of the stranger'. The name became established in Galloway prior to the thirteenth century. Maurice Macgeil witnessed a charter of Maldouen, Earl of Lennox, to the church of St Thomas the Martyr of Arbroath in 1231. 15th & 16th centuries Sir James Makgill, who was a prominent Edinburgh merchant and a descendent of the old Galloway family, became Provost of Edinburgh during the reign of King James V of Scotland. He quickly embraced the reformed religion. He had two sons, of whom the elder, Sir James Makgill, purchased the estate of Nether Rankeillour in Fife. He studied law at Edinburgh, where he was soon recognised as an able scholar. In June 1554 he became a member of the College of Justice, and in August of that year a Lord of Session. He took the judicial title, 'Lord Rankeillor'. He was a friend and supporter of the reformer, John Knox. Mary, Queen of Scots returned from widowhood in France to reclaim her throne of Scotland in 1561, and Rankeillor became one of her Privy Councillors. He was one of the nobles who were jealous of the influence exercised by the queen's Italian secretary, David Rizzio. On 9 March 1566, a group of noblemen led by Patrick, Lord Ruthven, burst into the apartments of the queen, who was six months pregnant, dragged Rizzio from her side, and stabbed him to death. Makgill was heavily implicated in the murder, so when Mary took revenge for the outrage he was deprived of his judicial rank and forced to flee from Edinburgh. He was later pardoned, but ordered to remain north of the Tay. Later, through the influence of Regent Moray, he was restored to his offices in December 1567. He was one of the commissioners who attended the regent on his journey to York to present accusations against the exiled Queen Mary, and was later sent by the Earl of Moray to London. He was ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1571 and 1572. During his absence his house in Edinburgh was attacked by supporters of the queen, and his wife was killed. He himself died in 1579. His younger brother, who had acquired the lands of Cranston-Riddell, was also appointed to the Court of Session in 1582. He had held the post of Lord Advocate, which he did not relinquish until 1589. He took the judicial title, 'Lord Cranston-Riddell'. He was succeeded in March 1594 by his son, David, who followed him onto the Bench. 17th & 18th centuries David Makgill was succeeded by yet another David, the third Laird of Cranston-Riddell, who died without male issue in May 1619. His brother, Sir James Makgill, was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1627 and appointed a Lord of Session in 1629. By letters patent dated 19 April 1651, he was elevated to the peerage with the titles of 'Viscount Oxfuird' and 'Lord Makgill of Cousland'. He died in May 1663. He was succeeded by his son, Robert, the second Viscount who had a son and heir, Thomas, by his second wife, Lady Henrietta, only daughter of the Earl of Linlithgow. Thomas died in 1701, five years before his father, leaving no issue. The viscountcy was claimed by the son of the second Viscount's eldest daughter, Christian, but this was challenged in 1734 by James Makgill of Nether-Rankeillor, sixth in descent from Lord Rankeillor. The House of Lords refused to uphold his claim, but equally denied that of Christian's son, William Maitland, and the title became dormant. Christian's younger sister, Henrietta, later assumed the title of Viscountess of Oxfuird, without establishing her legal right thereto, but in any event she died in 1758 without issue. Clan Makgill today The estates of Nether-Rankeillor passed through an heiress to the The Honourable Frederick Maitland, sixth son of the Earl of Lauderdale. The family thereafter assumed the name Maitland Makgill, and when David Maitland Makgill of Rankeillor became heir of line to the Crichton viscountcy of Frendraught, they then styled themselves Maitland Makgill Crichton. It was a member of this family who established his right to the chiefship of the Crichtons and, abandoning his additional surnames as required by Lyon Court decree, was recognised in 1980 as Crichton of that Ilk. In 1986 Crichton's kinsman, George Hubbard Makgill, was recognised as the thirteenth Viscount of Oxfuird and chief of the Makgills.

Malcolm

Clan Malcolm is a Highland Scottish clan. The Clan Malcolm is sometimes also called MacCallum. The Clan MacCallum was originally a separate clan until the 18th century when the chief of Clan MacCallum adopted the name Malcolm and the two clans were drawn together. History Origins of the Clan The name Malcolm derives from the gaelic 'Maol', meaning 'shaven-head', and was used generally as a term for a monk. Thus 'Maol Chalum' can be translated as 'monk' or 'disciple of Columba'. The connection between the names Malcolm and MacCallum is shrouded in mystery although they are sometimes shown as alternative names for the same clan. However, no definite link has been shown between the two - the name of Colm was common in many areas of Celtic settlement; the name Malcolm appears as a distinct surname in parts of Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire in the fourteenth century; while the MacCallum family were known to possess lands in Lorne in Argyllshire. Some sources state that traditionally the clan are reported to be an offshoot of the MacGhille Challums or Clan MacLeod of Raasay. However this can not be substantiated. 15th century The Clan Malcolm took protection of the Clan Campbell of Lochow, and in 1414 Sir Duncan Campbell of Lochow granted to Reginald MacCallum of Corbarron certain lands, together with the office of Hereditary Constable of the Castle Lochaffy and Castle Craignish. However this branch appears to have become extinct during the latter half of the 17th century. 18th and 19th centuries In the eighteenth century however, the two names were drawn together when the chief of the Clan MacCallum, Dugald MacCallum of Poltalloch, adopted the name Malcolm. It was not clear why he took this step, but it appears that he certainly considered the two names to be interchangeable. The two clans have many ancestral links. Dugald MacCallum of Poltalloch inherited the Malcolm estate in 1779, and was the first to adopt the name of Malcolm permanently. Of the Malcolm chieftainship line: Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm was Commander in Chief of Saint Helena, and won the regard of Napoleon. Sir Pulteney Malcolm also commanded HMS Royal Oak as Captain of the ship. John Wingfield Malcolm of Poltalloch was created Lord Malcolm in 1896, and died in 1902, when the peerage became extinct, though his brother inherited his estate, and the feudal title of 'Malcolm of Poltalloch', descended with the chieftainship of the Clan. The Chief Malcolm family had an impressive reputation for military and naval success throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In addition to this, more than one of the chiefs of the clan has entered into the world of politics, the last of these being Sir Iain Malcolm, who was a Member of Parliament until 1919. Clan Chief The current chief of Clan Malcolm is Robin N. L. Malcolm of Poltalloch. Clan castle The family seat of the chief of Clan Malcolm is at Duntrune Castle, where the Clan MacCallum family have resided for centuries. The Clan Malcolm family resided at Lochlore Castle since 1656. The Malcolm family came into possession of the barony of Inchgall in 1656 and set about changing the names of several long established features to that of Lochore Castle. Clan profile Gaelic Name: Mac Mhaol Chaluim. Motto: In ardua petit (He aims at difficult things). Plant Badge: Mountain ash. Lands: Argyll, Fife, Loch Ore and Dumfriesshire. Origin of Name: Gaelic, MacColuimb (Devotee of St. Columba).

Mar

Clan Mar is a Scottish clan from the Grampian Highlands, sometimes referred to as the Tribe of Mar. The chiefs of the clan held the position of Mormaer of Mar from the 1130s to the early 15th century as the original Earls of Mar. The position was later taken over by chiefs of the Clan Erskine in the 15th century who held the title as Earl of Mar and became chiefs of Clan Mar. History Origins of the Clan One of the seven ancient kingdoms (or tribes) of Scotland, the rulers of this kingdom were known as 'Mormaer' which was an ancient Pictish equivalent of an Earl. The Earldom of Mar lies in Aberdeenshire between the rivers Dee and Don. It is because Mar was one of the ancient tribes of Scotland, that it is referred to a the 'Tribe of Mar.' Donald Mormaer of Mar fought alongside the Irish King Brian Boru against the Norse, Viking invaders in 1014. Rothri (Ruadrí), a later Mormaer is named in the charter erecting the Abbey of Scone in 1114. Uilleam, Earl of Mar or William the 5th Earl of Mar as chief of the Clan Mar he was also a regent of Scotland and Great Chamberlain of the Realm in 1264. He was a witness to the marriage of Princess Margaret and King Eric II of Norway, 1280-99, whose daughter 'The Maid of Norway' died in 1290 on her voyage to claim the throne of Scotland, throwing the country into a great period of unrest. 14th Century & Wars of Scottish Independence In the 14th century during the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Mar led by chief Domhnall I, Earl of Mar supported King Robert the Bruce of Scotland in fighting the English. He died in 1302. His son, Gartnait, Earl of Mar took over as chief but died just three years later in 1305. Gartnait's son, Domhnall II, Earl of Mar took over as chief of the clan. He was taken prisoner by the English and only released after the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. He led the Clan Mar at the Battle of Dupplin Moor against the English where he was killed in 1332.Thomas, 10th Earl of Mar died without heir and the Earldom passed to his sister, Margaret, Countess of Mar and then to her dughter Isabel Douglas, Countess of Mar. Isabel later married the Wolf of Badenonch Alexander Stuart. A rather shady character who had almost certainly been involved in the death of her first husband and who's 'wooing' technique involved a prolonged siege! Isabel died with no children so title passed back to a descendant of Domhnall I, Earl of Mar, the 7th Earl of Mar. 15th to 16th Centuries In the mid 15th century the Earldom of Mar passed to the chief of Clan Erskine, Robert Erskine, 1st Lord Erskine de jure 12th Earl of Mar. King James II of Scotland intervened in later successions and claimed the Earldom for the crown through Alexander Stewart and so the Earldom passed into Stewart family. This unlawful succession was finally interrupted by Mary, Queen of Scots, who saw that the rightful heir John Erskine, 17th Earl of Mar was restored. 17th Century & Civil War Chief John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar was governor of Edinburgh Castle and supported King Charles I more by default than through any great allegiance and had his estates forfeited until the restoration of Charles II for his son John Erskine, 19th Earl of Mar. John, Lord Erskine and Earl of Mar, took up arms in the Royalist cause. The earl entertained James Graham the 1st Marquess of Montrose in 1645 in his castle at Alloa. He led the Clan Mar and Clan Erskine at the Battle of Kilsyth where they were victorious in August 1645. 18th Century & Jacobite Uprisings Chief John Erskine, 22nd Earl of Mar supported the House of Stuart and the Jacobite cause during the uprisings. His son John 23rd Earl and Duke of Mar had his honours forfeited for supporting the Jacobite cause. These honours were restored in 1824 by Act of parliament. Clan Chief The current chief of Clan Mar is Margaret of Mar, 30th Countess of Mar who descends from the Earls of Mar, first Creation. It should be noted that the Clan Erskine now has a separate chief; James Erskine, 14th Earl of Mar who descends from the Earls of Mar, seventh Creation (1565) (as deemed by the House of Lords in 1875) Clan Septs Septs of the Clan Mar include: Marr, Marrs, Mair, Mairs, Morren, Strachan, Tough.

Marjoribanks

Origins of the Clan Princess Marjorie, the only daughter of King Robert the Bruce, married Walter Stewart, High Steward of Scotland, in 1316. She was thus the mother of the first of the royal Stewarts, and received as part of her marriage settlement lands in Renfrewshire which became known as Terre de Marjorie, later Marjoribanks. The name is pronounced 'Marshbanks', and Nisbet asserts that the family who acquired the lands of the princess and took her name were originally kin to the Johnston Lords of Annandale. He finds evidence for this in the family's coat of arms, which incorporates a gold cushion and a star. The Clan Johnstone's coat of arms bears three gold cushions, and in heraldry a star often alludes to a spurrowel, which is part of Lord Annandale's crest. 16th Century The Marjoribanks came to prominence in the early sixteenth century, when the Court of Session, the Supreme Court of Scotland, was reinstituted in its modern form by King James V of Scotland in 1532. Thomas Marjoribanks of that Ilk was one of ten advocates appointed as procurators, or pleaders, before the Lords of Session. Four centuries before the introduction of legal aid the Scottish Courts recognised the need for the poor to be represented by able lawyers, and in March 1535, Thomas was appointed advocate 'for the puir' with a salary of £10 Scots per annum. He willingly accepted the post, but waived his right to the salary. His public-spirited nature was rewarded when he became Lord Provost of Edinburgh in 1540, representing the city in the Parliament of that year, and again in 1546. He had acquired land at Ratho near Edinburgh by a charter of 1539 which enabled him, ten years later, to assume the title, 'Lord Ratho', on his appointment as a judge. He became the Lord Clerk Register and acquired more land at Spotts and in Annandale. 17th to 18th Century After Lord Ratho died, the chiefship devolved on his grandson, and John's son, Thomas, who sold Ratho in 1614. The family acquired lands at Balbardie around 1624. Christian Marjoribanks, believed to have been Ratho's granddaughter, married George Heriot, goldsmith and financier to King James VI of Scotland, founder of the famous Edinburgh school which still bears his name. Heriot was so wealthy that he reputedly kept his purse filled with gold, and to the citizens of Edinburgh he was known as 'Jinglin' Geordie'. Andrew Marjoribanks of Balbardie and of that Ilk was another distinguished lawyer who was appointed Writer to the King in 1716. He acted as agent for Lord Torphichen and was commissary of Edinburgh, an important post in the administration of estates of the deceased. His grandson, Alexander, brought the family full circle when he acquired the Barony of Bathgate, which had also formed part of Princess Marjorie's dowry. He was convenor of Linlithgowshire for over thirty years, and in 1824 voluntarily surrendered his baronial rights to allow Bathgate to become a burgh, with Alexander as its first Provost. Alexander was ultimately succeeded by his seventh son, the Reverend Thomas Marjoribanks, Minister of Lochmadden and later of Stenton in East Lothian. In 1861 he sold the estates of Balbardie and Bathgate to the trustees of Stewart's Hospital. His eldest son, Alexander, succeeded in 1869, but although he married twice, he died childless and was succeeded by his brother, the Reverend George, who was also minister of Stenton. Two more ministers of religion were to hold the chiefship until it passed to William Marjoribanks of that Ilk, father of the present chief. Will Marjoribanks was an ecologist and worked on major conservation projects for the government of Sudan in Khartoum.

Matheson

Origins of the clan The name Matheson has been attributed to the Gaelic words Mic Mhathghamhuin which means Son of the Bear or Son of the Heroes. Traditionally the Clan Matheson descends from a twelfth century man called Gilleoin, who is thought to have been from the ancient royal house of Lorne. According to tradition the Clan Matheson were among the followers of the King in his wars with the Picts, whom he finally overthrew at the great Battle of Cambuskenneth near Stirling in 838. The Clan Matheson settled around the area of Lochalsh, Lochcarron and Kintail and gave their allegiance to the Clan MacDonald and the Lord of the Isles. Scottish Norwegian War Kenneth MacMathan, constable of Eilean Donan is recorded in both the Norse account of the expedition of Haakon IV of Norway against Scotland in 1263, and in the Chamberlain Rolls of that year, which culminated in the defeat of King Haakon at the Battle of Largs. 15th century & Clan Conflicts At the beginning of the 15th century the Clan Matheson chief was said to be strong enough to defy the powerful Earl of Sutherland the chief of Clan Sutherland and upon the latter descending upon Lochalsh, intent upon punishing so presumptuous a person, he was actually defeated and slain by the Clan Matheson. The scene of the encounter is still pointed out at a spot known from the event as the Battle Crnoc an Cattich. However conflicting accounts state that this battle was actually against the Clan MacKay in 1438 where Alistair MacRuari Matheson is said to have been killed. This again conflicts with accounts which state he was executed in 1427. The Clan Matheson fought for Donald, Lord of the Isles at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. At that time the Clan Matheson was a large and powerful clan with a force of around 2000 men. Chief Alastair Matheson, leader of 2000 men, was arrested by James I at Inverness. Upon King James I of Scotland's return from his long captivity in England there were many turbulent clan chiefs chiefs of clans who supported the Lord of the Isles in his claim to the Earldom of Ross and his struggle against the power of the Scottish kings. Summoning them to a 'Parliament' at Inverness, King James promptly arrested the most dangerous of them, executed some on the spot, and carried others to Edinburgh, where a number more were tried and condemned to the same fate. Chief Alastair MacRuari Matheson was among the latter, and was executed in 1427. Alastair left a widow with two sons, and his widow presently married again, her second husband being a son of the chief of the Clan MacLeod of Lewis. This individual took advantage of the youth of his stepsons to endeavour to establish himself in possession of their property, and at last, finding themselves probably in actual danger, the young Mathesons fled from Lochalsh. While the younger went to Caithness, John, the elder of the two, went to his mother's father, the chief of the Clan MacKintosh. He did not, however, give up the hope of recovering his property, and by having arrived at years of manhood, he obtained from his grandfather a force of men from the Clan MacKintosh for his purpose, and set out to surprise the MacLeods. It was night when the party arrived at Lochalsh, and having observed the utmost precautions of secrecy, young Matheson succeeded in his purpose. Making a sudden assault, he set the castle on fire, and as the garrison was forced to come out they were slain or captured by the Mackintoshes. Anxious to save his mother's life, Matheson took up a position at the gate, and when she appeared, she was, by his orders, safely passed through the lines of the Mackintoshes. In the midst of the tumult, however, and flashings of the torches, it was not perceived that she was walking in an unusual way. She was wearing an arisaid, or wide plaited garment with heavy folds doubled around the hips. Under this she had managed to conceal her husband, and in a few moments the latter was beyond the light of the torches and able to escape in the darkness. The Matheson chief then took possession of his property, but he was not allowed to enjoy it long in peace. MacLeod, hastening to the Lews, raised a considerable force, with which he returned and deliberately invaded the Matheson country. In the encounter which took place he was finally forced to retreat, and as he fell back upon his birlinns or galleys, his force suffered severely from the flights of arrows poured into it by a company of Matheson bowmen under a certain Ian Ciar MacMurghai Mhic-Thomais. From this incident the battle is remembered as Blar-na-saigheadear. However MacLeod was not yet completely discouraged. Once more he gathered his men on the Lews, and once more came back. But in this second attempt MacLeod was defeated and slain, and the MacLeods troubled the Mathesons no more. Not all of the Mathesons were known for their warlike pursuits; Dougal mac Ruadhri Matheson established the name in both the organisation of church and state. He was Prior of Beauly from 1498 to 1514, and also sat in parliament when Ross was erected a separate sheriffdom. 16th century By the 16th century the power of the MacDonalds, Lords of the Isles had warned and the Clan Matheson found themselves squeezed between their two neighbouring clans, the Clan MacLeod of Lewis to the west and the Clan MacKenzie on the mainland to their east. The Mathesons gave their allegiance to the MacKenzies. Chief Iain Dubh Matheson died whilst defending the Castle on Eilean Donan island against the Clan MacDonald of Sleat for the Clan MacRae and Clan MacKenzie in 1539. By the middle of the 16th century the Clan Mathesons had greatly diminished in size and influence, and John Matheson's son Dougal possessed no more than a third of the ancient Matheson property on Lochalsh. Even that property he was in danger of losing by engaging in a dangerous feud on his own account with Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry. This powerful chief had established himself on the shores of Loch Carron at hand, and he presently seized Matheson and threw him into prison, where he died. This incident brought about the final ruin of the Clan Matheson as a powerful clan. With a view to avenge his father's death, and recover his lost territory; Dougal's son, Murdoch Buidhe Matheson, relinquished all his remaining property, excepting the farms of Balmacara and Fernaig, to the chief of the Clan MacKenzie of Kintail, in return for the services of an armed force with which to attack the Clan MacDonnell of Glengarry. The lands thus handed over were never recovered from the MacDonnells. Neither Matheson's generalship or the force given to him by Clan MacKenzie seems to have been enough to the task of forcing terms upon MacDonnells of Glengarry. Murdoch Matheson's son, Ruari, the next Clan Matheson chief, had more satisfaction, when, as part of the following of the Clan MacKenzie chief, he set out to punish the MacDonnells of Glengarry. On this occasion Glengarry's stronghold of Sron, or Strome, on Loch Carron, was stormed and destroyed. By this time the Mathesons appear to have been merely the 'kindly tenants' of the Clan MacKenzie compared to the more powerful clan they once were. In course of time that kindly tenancy, or occupation on condition of rendering certain services, was changed into a regular rent payment, and Balmacara and the other Matheson properties passed from the hands of the chiefs of that name for ever. The family was afterwards represented by the Mathesons of Bennetsfield. 18th century The Mathesons of Lochalsh had been baillies to the Earl of Sutherland since the late fifteenth century, when they had settled on the north side of Loch Shin. During the early Jacobite Uprisings Donald Matheson of Shiness who was chief of the branch of Clan Matheson who resided in Sutherland fought against the Jacobites during the rising of 1715. Dugald Matheson's son (Ian Og Matheson) had extensive lands in Lochalsh. He left these to Alexander, the eldest of his three sons, who purchased more land in Lochalsh. Ian Og also had a fourth son, who was killed at the Battle of Glenshiel in 1719. However John, second of Bennetsfield, was, unlike his Lochalsh-Sutherland cousins and a Jacobite who fought at the Battle of Culloden. When the prince's army was defeated, John escaped and, according to story, fell into the hands of Hanoverian officers who were unaware of his Jacobite sympathies. He gave them some advice on the location of sound building stone, and returned safely to his home as a result. Highland clearances During the Highland Clearances many Matheson families suffered great hardship in the Kildonan clearances. It is probably from these Sutherland evictions that Sir James Matheson left Scotland, and eventually founded his commercial empire, the well-known trading house of Jardine Matheson Holdings in the Far East. 19th century Eilean Donan Castle was bombarded and destroyed in 1719 by the English fleet at the time of the Battle of Glenshiel in 1719. When Sir Alexander Matheson bought the land in 1851 the ruin must have been included. It was later sold by his eldest son Sir Kenneth Matheson, 2nd Baronet, to Major John Macrae-Gilstrap, who restored the castle to its present state. In 1822, it appears, from a MS. history of the clan quoted by James Logan, author of the letterpress of M'Ian's 'Clans of the Scottish Highlands,' the lineal representative of the ancient heads of the clan was a certain Alexander Matheson who lived in Sallachie. The Chiefship is now believed to be held by Hayling Matheson, who was resident in England. Clan profile Gaelic Name: MacMhathain. Motto: Fac et spera (Do and hope) Badge: Broom. Lands: Lochalsh, Sutherland. Origin of Name: Bear's son. Clan castles The seat of the Chief of the Clan Matheson was at Fort Matheson which is now a ruin. Later Mathesons, including Sir James Matheson resided in Lews Castle. The current chief Sir Fergus Matheson, 7th Baronet, and his wife Lady Matheson of Matheson now reside in Norfolk, England. Clan chiefs Lochalsh branch Name Dates Comments Mathghamhain flourished 1225 Kenneth died 1304 Murdoch flourished 1300s Duncan flourished 1300s Murdoch flourished 1300s Duncan flourished 1300s Murdoch flourished c 1400 Alasdair died 1427 or 1438 either executed by King James I in 1427 or killed at Battle of Cnoc nan Catach by the MacKays in 1438 Iain Dubh the elder died 1490s Alasdair MacRuaidhri died 1506 Iain Dubh the younger died 1539 Chamberlain of Eilean Donan Castle Dugald Roy flourished 1540s Murdoch Buidhe flourished 1530s-1570s Roderick (1st of Fernaig) died before 1600 Iain (2nd of Fernaig ) flourished 1600s Also known as Iain McRuari Mhic Mhathoin Iain Og flourished 1660s Bennetsfield branch Name Dates Comments Iain Mor died 1715 Alexander (1st of Bennetsfield) held Chiefship 1715 - 1754 John (2nd of Bennetsfield) 1754 - 1768 Present at the Battle of Culloden in 1746. Colin (3rd of Bennetsfield) 1763 - 1825 John (4th of Bennetsfield) 1825 - 1843 James Brook Young (5th of Bennetsfield) 1843 - 1886 Eric Grant (6th of Bennetsfield) 1886 - 1899 Heylin Fraser (7th of Bennetsfield) 1899 - 1945 Bertram Heylin (9th of Bennetsfield) 1945 - 1975 Lochalsh branch Name Dates Comments Sir Torquhil Alexander Matheson, 6th Baronet 1975 - 1993 Sir Fergus John Matheson, 7th Baronet 1993 - The current chief

Maxwell

Origins of the Clan The name is taken probably from Maccuswell, or Maxwell, near Kelso, Scotland, in the barony of Holydean. The name Maxwell originates from Maccus, a Norse chief and son of Undweyn, who gave his name to Maccuswell, a pool of the river Tweed near Kelso bridge. A grandson of Maccus, John Maxwell, became chamberlain of Scotland before dying in 1241, to be succeeded by his brother Aylmer. From Aylmer sprang many branches of the family throughout the south-west of Scotland. Wars of Scottish Independence Sir Herbert Maxwell won great fame by defending his Caerlaverock Castle against King Edward I of England in 1300. During the Wars of Scottish Independence the Clan Maxwell supported King Robert the Bruce and fought at his side at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, under the clan chief of Eustace Maxwell. Herbert, the succeeding clan chief was knighted by King James I of Scotland for his services to the crown. Another Sir Herbert Maxwell was made a lord of the Scottish parliament before 1445. 16th Century Anglo Scottish Wars & Clan Conflicts His great-grandson John, 3rd Lord Maxwell, was killed at the Battle of Flodden Field fighting against the English in 1513 during the Anglo-Scottish Wars. The fifth Lord Maxwell intrigued with King Henry VII of England, although by 1542 King James V of Scotland had appointed him warden of the marches and an Extraordinary Lord of Session. Maxwell was captured by the English at the Battle of Solway Moss in the same year. The Clan Maxwell fought on the side of Mary, Queen of Scots at the Battle of Langside in 1568. Robert's great-grandson John, 7th Lord Maxwell (1553-1593), was the son of Robert, 6th Lord Maxwell (d. 1554), who was son of the 5th Earl and his wife Beatrix, daughter of James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton. After the execution of the regent James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, in 1581 this earldom was bestowed up